Namfau language

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Native to India and Burma
Region Southeast Manipur
Ethnicity Anal people
Native speakers
23,000  (2001 census)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 anm
Linguist list
qfs Langet
Glottolog anal1239[2]

Anal, also known as Namfau after the two principal villages it is spoken in, is a Northern Kukish language, part of the Sino-Tibetan language family, spoken by a dwindling number of Anal people in India, a few in Burma, and possibly Bangladesh.[3] It had 14,000 speakers in India according to the 2001 census.[3] UNESCO lists Anal as having 23,000 speakers in total, making it a vulnerable language.[4] It has two principal dialects, Laizo and Malshom, and is closest to Lamkang. The language of wider communication is Meithei.

Anal is written in the Latin script,[5] with a literacy rate of about 74%.[3]

Langet may be a dialect, though its position within Kukish is uncertain (Shafer 1955:106).[dated info]


The following vocabulary is exemplifies words in the language.[6]

Anal gloss Anal gloss
khol 'deep hole'; 'social division' ahno 'kind of short skirt'
lunguin 'kind of long shawl' zupar 'rice beer'
piruili 'elopement' min 'bride price'
ithin 'divorce' sinnuperu 'adultery'
pakum 'hearth' mote 'first-born'
kepu 'second-born' cakhow 'brown rice'
khon 'fiftee Rupees' thunlon 'grave'
dao 'kind of iron blade' shingkho 'plate'
vopum 'basket' athiru 'kind of marble necklace'
akarfo 'kind of China neclace' sanamba 'kind of fiddle'
tilli 'kind of flageolet' tuklee 'kind of loom'


  1. ^ Anal at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Anal". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b c "Anal language". Ethnologue (15 ed.). 2005. 
  4. ^ "Anal". Multitree. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  5. ^ Bareh 2007, p. 120
  6. ^ Bareh 2007, pp. 119–128