Lipan language

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Lipan
Native to USA
Region New Mexico, Texas
Ethnicity Lipan Apache people
Extinct ?[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 apl
Glottolog lipa1241[2]

Lipan is an Eastern Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Lipan Apache. There have been conflicting reports whether the language has become extinct.

In 1981, there were only a few elderly speakers still alive. There are still a small number of Lipian Apache people who know and speak the language, and keep the old traditions. The language, currently isolated to these people, is being used and passed down.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Breuninger, Evelyn; Hugar, Elbys; Lathan, Ellen Ann; & Rushforth, Scott. (1982). Mescalero Apache dictionary. Mescalero, NM: Mescalero Apache Tribe.
  • Gatschet, Albert S. [1884]. Lipan words, phrases, and sentences. (Unpublished manuscript No. 81, Bureau of American Ethnology Archives, Smithsonian Institution).
  • Gatschet, Albert S. [1885]. Lipan words, clans, and stories. (Unpublished manuscript No. 114, Bureau of American Ethnology Archives, Smithsonian Institution).
  • Goddard, Pliny E. [1906]. Lipan texts. (Unpublished manuscript in Archives of Traditional Music, Indiana University, Bloomington.)
  • Hoijer, Harry. (n.d.). Lipan texts. (Available from the American Philosophical Society, Chicago.) (Unpublished field notes, includes handwritten transcription and typed versions, 4 texts, one text published as Hoijer 1975).
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1938). The southern Athapaskan languages. American Anthropologist, 40 (1), 75-87.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1942). Phonetic and phonemic change in the Athapaskan languages. Language, 18 (3), 218-220.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1945). The Apachean verb, part I: Verb structure and pronominal prefixes. International Journal of American Linguistics, 11 (4), 193-203.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1946). The Apachean verb, part II: The prefixes for mode and tense. International Journal of American Linguistics, 12 (1), 1-13.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1946). The Apachean verb, part III: The classifiers. International Journal of American Linguistics, 12 (2), 51-59.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1948). Linguistic and cultural change. Language, 24 (4), 335-345.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1956). Athapaskan kinship systems. American Anthropologist, 58 (2), 309-333.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1956). The chronology of the Athapaskan languages. International Journal of American Linguistics, 22 (4), 219-232.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1975). The history and customs of the Lipan, as told by Augustina Zuazua. Linguistics: An international review, 161, 5-37.
  • Jung, Dagmar. (2000). “Word Order in Apache Narratives.” In The Athabaskan Languages. (Eds. Fernald, Theodore and Platero, Paul). Oxford: Oxford UP. 92-100.
  • Opler, Morris E. (1936). The kinship systems of the southern Athabaskan-speaking tribes. American Anthropologist, 38, 620-633.
  • Webster, Anthony. (1999). "Lisandro Mendez’s ‘Coyote and Deer’: On narrative structures, reciprocity, and interactions.” American Indian Quarterly. 23(1): 1-24.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Unesco Altas: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?pg=00206
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Lipan Apache". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.