Arhuaco language

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Not to be confused with Ika language (Nigeria).
Arhuaco
Ika
Native to Colombia
Ethnicity Arhuacos
Native speakers
8,000  (2009)[1]
Chibchan
  • Arwako–Chimila
    • Arwako languages
      • Arhuaco
Language codes
ISO 639-3 arh
Glottolog arhu1242[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Arhuaco, commonly known as Ika, is an Indigenous American language of the Chibchan language family, spoken in South America by the Arhuaco people.[3]

It has 14,800 speakers, all in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta region of Colombia, 90% of whom are monolingual.[3] Literacy is 1 to 5% in their native language. Some speak Spanish, and 15 to 25% are literate in that auxiliary language.[3] The users have a very strong traditional culture and have vibrant use of their tongue.[3]

It is also known as: Aruaco, Bintuk, Bíntukua, Bintucua, Ica, Ijca, Ijka, Ika, and Ike.[3]

The language uses a subject–object–verb (SOV) sentence structure.[3]

Phonology[edit]

Vowels
Back vowels Central vowels Front vowels
Open vowels i ɨ "ʉ" u
Mid vowels e ə "ë" o
Close vowels a

/ə/ is raised to and merged with /ɨ/ word finally.

Consonants

This language registers 17 consonantic phonemas:

Labial Alveolar Alveolo-palatal Velar Glottal
occlusive (voiceless) p t k ʔ
occlusive (voiced) b d ɡ
nasal m n~ŋ
fricative s h
fricative β "w" z ʒ
flap ɾ

External links[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Arhuaco at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Arhuaco". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Arhuaco, by Arango and Sánchez, Ethnologue, 1998, access date 04-16-08