Spurious languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from ISO 639:atf)
Jump to: navigation, search

Among the many purported languages found in the literature, some have proven to not exist. Others have very little evidence supporting their existence, and have been dismissed in later scholarship. Below is a sampling of languages that have been claimed to exist in reputable sources but have subsequently been disproved or challenged.

In some cases a purported language is tracked down and turns out to be another, known language. This is common when language varieties are named after places or ethnicities.

In the case of New Guinea, some are simply the names of language surveys that the data was published under. Examples are Mapi, Kia, Upper Digul, Upper Kaeme, listed as Indo-Pacific languages in Ruhlen 1987; these are actually rivers that gave their names to language surveys in the Awyu–Dumut and Ok area of New Guinea.[1]

Some alleged languages turn out to be hoaxes, such as the Kukurá language of Brazil or the Taensa language of Louisiana. Others are honest errors that persist in the literature despite being corrected by the original authors; an example of this is Hongote, the name given in 1892 to two Colonial word lists, one of Tlingit and one of a Salishan language, that were mistakenly listed as Patagonian. The error was corrected three times that year, but nonetheless "Hongote" was still listed as a Patagonian language a century later in Greenberg (1987).[2]

Dubious languages include:

Spurious according to Glottolog[edit]

Glottolog, maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, classifies several languages with ISO 639 codes as spurious. These include:

  • Parsi[7] and Parsi-Dari[8] – an ethnicity, not a language (but see Zoroastrian Dari)
  • Imraguen language (Mauritania) [ime][9]
  • Borna (Eborna) [bxx][10] perhaps a typo for Boma (Eboma)[11]
  • Bemba [bmy][12] (a tribal name; request to retire ISO code rejected)
  • Songa [sgo][13] (a tribal name; request to retire ISO code rejected)
  • Adabe [adb] (a dialect of Wetarese, taken for a Papuan language)[14]
  • Tupiniquim – the people spoke Old Tupi
  •  !Khuai – a word list of mislabeled /Xam mixed with other !Ui languages
  • Iapama [iap] – uncontacted, and likely one of the neighboring languages; no reason to think it's distinct
  • Maramba [myd] – a village variously said to speak Angoram or something else. There is no actual data.[15]
  • Chamari [cdg], a caste, not a language

and several supposed extinct Arawakan languages of Venezuela and Colombia:

Other ISO codes determined to be spurious, because they are not a distinct language, are polyphyletic (not a single language), or have not been shown to exist, include:

Ir [irr], Skagit [ska], Snohomish [sno], Ahirani [ahr], Pokangá [pok], Chetco [ctc], Arakwal [rkw], Anasi [bpo], Yarí* [yri], Yola [yol], Seru* [szd], Gowli [gok], Mina (India) [myi], Degaru* [dgu], Bubia [bbx], Gbati-ri [gti], Tetete* [teb], Kannada Kurumba [kfi], Vatrata* [vlr], Kofa* [kso], Old Turkish [otk], Tingui-Boto* [tgv], Imeraguen [ime], Yauma [yax], Rufiji [rui], Ngong [nnx], Dombe [dov], Subi* [xsj], Mawayana* [mzx], Kwak [kwq], Potiguára* [pog], Coxima* [kox], Chipiajes* [cbe], Cagua* [cbh], Kakauhua(*) [kbf], Yangho* [ynh], Takpa* [tkk], N'Ko(*) [nqo], Sara Dunjo [koj], Putoh [put], Bainouk-Samik [bcb], Kamba (Brazil)* [xba], Kpatili* [kym], Bikaru-Bragge* [bic], Baga Binari(*) [bcg], Baga Sobané(*) [bsv], Ontenu* [ont], Baga Kaloum(*) [bqf], Munda [unx], Aduge* [adu], Khalaj** [kjf], Buso* [bso], Uokha* [uok], Ihievbe* [ihi], Coyaima* [coy], Natagaimas* [nts], Odut* [oda], Chilean Quechua [cqu], Quetzaltepec Mixe [pxm], Kang [kyp], Thu Lao [tyl], Pu Ko* [puk], Gey(*) [guv], Kakihum* [kxe], Bonjo* [bok], Katukína* [kav], Warduji(*) [wrd], Lui(*) [lba], Lama (Myanmar)(*) [lay], Inpui Naga* [nkf], Puimei Naga* [npu], Purum(*) [pub], Monsang Naga* [nmh], Welaung* [weu], Lumba-Yakkha* [luu], Phangduwali [phw] / Lambichhong* [lmh], Lingkhim(*) [lii], Northwestern Tamang(*) [tmk], Southwestern Tamang [tsf], Kayort* [kyv], Loarki [lrk], Con [cno], Gengle [geg], Kuanhua* [xnh], Yarsun [yrs], Kabixí* [xbx], Vasekela Bushman [vaj], Maligo [mwj], Pao [ppa], Bhalay [bhx] / Gowlan* [goj], Balau* [blg], Kuku-Mangk [xmq], Buya* [byy], Aramanik [aam], Mediak [mwx], Kisankasa [kqh], Southwestern Nisu[*are any valid?] [nsv], Tawang Monpa* [twm], Adap [adp], Southern Lolopo [ysp], Eastern Lalu [yit], Ndonde Hamba* [njd], Cauca(*) [cca], Lang'e* [yne], Lopi* [lov], Laopang [lbg], Kunggara [kvs], Chuanqiandian Cluster Miao [cqd], Karipuna do Amapa* [kgm], Norwegian Bokmål [nob]

Spurious according to Ethnologue and ISO 639-3[edit]

Following is a list of ISO 639-3 language codes which have been retired since the standard was established in 2006, arranged by the year in which the change request was submitted; in most cases the actual retirement took effect in the beginning of the following year. Also included is a partial list of languages listed at one time in Ethnologue that were removed prior to 2006, arranged by the first edition in which they did not appear, and with their SIL codes.

The list includes codes that have been retired from ISO 639-3 or languages removed from Ethnologue because the language apparently does not exist and cannot be identified with an existing language. The list does not include instances where the "language" turns out to be a spelling variant of another language or the name of a village where an already known language is spoken; these are cases of duplicates, which are resolved in ISO 639-3 by a code merger. It does include "languages" for which there is no evidence or which cannot be found. (In some cases, however, the evidence for nonexistence is a survey among the current population of the area, which would not identify extinct languages such as Ware below.)

SIL codes are upper case; ISO codes are lower case. Once retired, ISO 639-3 codes are not reused.[27] Older SIL codes may have been re-used; not all SIL codes correspond directly to ISO codes.

Removed from Ethnologue, 12th ed., 1992[edit]

  • Itaem (PNG) [ITM]
  • Marajona (Brazil) [MPQ]
  • Nemeyam (PNG) [NMY]
  • Nereyama, Nereyó (Brazil) [NRY]
  • Numbiaí (Orelha de Pau) [NUH]
  • Oganibi (PNG) [OGA]
  • Tyeliri Senoufo [TYE] – the Tyeliri are a caste of leather workers, and do not have their own language
  • Wagumi [WGM]
  • Zanofil - name of an ethnic group that speaks Yongkom [yon][28]

Removed from Ethnologue, 13th ed., 1996[edit]

  • Bibasa (PNG) [BHE] – described as "isolate in need of survey" in the 12th ed.

Removed from Ethnologue, 14th ed., 2000[edit]

  • Alak 2 [ALQ] – a mislabeled fragment of a word list[29]
  • Dzorgai [DZI], Kortse [KBG], Pingfang [PFG], Thochu [TCJ], Lofuchai (Lophuchai) [LFU], Wagsod [WGS] – old names for Qiangic languages, some of uncertain correspondence to currently recognized names
  • Hsifan [HSI] – an ethnic name for people speaking a variety of Qiangic or Jiarongic languages
  • Scandinavian Pidgin Sign Language [SPF] – normal inter-language contact, not an established pidgin
  • Wutana (Nigeria) [WUW] – an ethnic name

Removed from Ethnologue, 15th ed., 2005[edit]

  • Jiji [JIJ][30]
  • Kalanke [CKN][31]
  • Lewada-Dewara [LWD], incl. Balamula/Mataru[32]
  • Lowland Semang [ORB][33] (though other languages w/o ISO codes, such as Wila', are also called Lowland Semang)
  • Mutús [MUF][34] (suspected to exist, e.g. by Adelaar 2005)
  • Nchinchege [NCQ][35]
  • Nkwak [NKQ][36] (same as Tanjijili?)
  • Oso (Southern Fungom) [OSO] – no evidence it is distinct from Fungom and Bum[37]
  • Rungi [RUR][38]
  • Wamsak [WBD][39]

Retired 2006[edit]

  • Miarrã [xmi] – unattested[40][41]
  • Atuence [atf] – an old town name[42]
  • Amapá Creole [amd][43]

Retired 2007[edit]

  • Amikoana [akn][44]
  • Ware [wre][45] – Ware is listed as extinct in Maho (2009). When an SIL team in Tanzania were not able to find any evidence of it being spoken, the code was retired.
  • Bahau River Kenyah [bwv], Kayan River Kenyah [knh], Mahakam Kenyah [xkm], Upper Baram Kenyah [ubm] – Any current use is likely either Mainstream Kenyah [xkl] or Uma' Lung [ulu]

Retired 2008[edit]

  • Aariya [aay]
  • Papavô [ppv]
  • Amerax [aex] (prison jargon)
  • Europanto [eur] (a jest)
  • Garreh-Ajuran [ggh] (Borana & Somali)

Retired 2010[edit]

  • Ayi (China) [ayx]
  • Dhanwar (India) [dha]
  • Mahei [mja]

Retired 2011[edit]

  • Palu [pbz]
  • Pongyong [pgy]
  • Elpaputih [elp] (could be either of two existing languages)

Retired 2012[edit]

Retired 2013[edit]

  • Gugu Mini [ggm] (a generic name)
  • Maskoy Pidgin [mhh] (never existed)
  • Emok [emo] (never existed)
  • Yugh [yuu] (duplicate of Yug [yug])
  • Lamam [lmm] (duplicate of Romam [rmx])

References[edit]

  1. ^ Upper Kaeme may correspond to Korowai.
  2. ^ Campbell & Grondona, 2012:133
  3. ^ Tapeba at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  4. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tapeba". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  5. ^ Yiddish Sign Language at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  6. ^ Spolsky, Bernard. "Yiddish Sign Language". Jewish Language Research Website. Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
  7. ^ Parsi at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  8. ^ Parsi-Dari at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  9. ^ "Glottolog". 
  10. ^ "Glottolog". 
  11. ^ Borna at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  12. ^ "Glottolog". 
  13. ^ "Glottolog". 
  14. ^ "Glottolog". 
  15. ^ Harald Hammarström (2013) Review of the Ethnologue, 16th Ed.
  16. ^ "Glottolog". 
  17. ^ "Glottolog". 
  18. ^ "Glottolog". 
  19. ^ Ponares at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  20. ^ "Glottolog". 
  21. ^ "Glottolog". 
  22. ^ "Glottolog". 
  23. ^ "Glottolog". 
  24. ^ "Glottolog". 
  25. ^ "Glottolog". 
  26. ^ "Glottolog". 
  27. ^ http://www-01.sil.org/iso639-3/changes.asp
  28. ^ http://www.peoplegroups.org/Explore/groupdetails.aspx?peid=10676. Retrieved 2014-03-14.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  29. ^ Sidwell, 2009, Classifying the Austroasiatic languages
  30. ^ "Ethnologue 14 report for language code:JIJ". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  31. ^ "Ethnologue 14 report for language code:CKN". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  32. ^ "Ethnologue 14 report for language code:LWD". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  33. ^ "Ethnologue 14 report for language code:ORB". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  34. ^ "Ethnologue 14 report for language code:MUF". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  35. ^ "Ethnologue 14 report for language code:NCQ". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  36. ^ "Ethnologue 14 report for language code:NKQ". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  37. ^ "Ethnologue 14 report for language code:OSO". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  38. ^ "Ethnologue 14 report for language code:RUR". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  39. ^ "Ethnologue 14 report for language code:WBD". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  40. ^ "ISO 639 code sets". SIL International. 2007-07-18. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  41. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Miarra". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  42. ^ "ISO 639 code sets". SIL International. 2007-08-10. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  43. ^ "ISO 639 code sets". SIL International. 2007-07-18. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  44. ^ "ISO 639 code sets". SIL International. 2008-01-14. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  45. ^ "ISO 639 code sets". SIL International. 2008-01-14. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 

External links[edit]