Huastec language

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Wastek
Huasteco
Teenek
Native to Mexico
Region San Luis Potosí, Veracruz and Tamaulipas
Ethnicity Huastec people
Native speakers
130,000  (2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 hus
Glottolog huas1242[2]

The Wasteko (Huasteco) language is a Mayan language of Mexico, spoken by the Huastecos living in rural areas of San Luis Potosí and northern Veracruz. Though relatively isolated from them, it is related to the Mayan languages spoken further south and east in Mexico and Central America. According to the 2005 population census, there are about 200,000 speakers of Huasteco in Mexico (some 120,000 in San Luis Potosí and some 80,000 in Veracruz).[3] The language is called Teenek as well as its speakers and this name has gained currency in Mexican national and international usage in recent years.

The now-extinct Chicomuceltec language was most closely related to Wasteko.

The first linguistic description of the Huasteco language accessible to Europeans was written by Andrés de Olmos, who also wrote the first grammatical descriptions of Nahuatl and Totonac.

Wasteko-language programming is carried by the CDI's radio station XEANT-AM, based in Tancanhuitz de Santos, San Luis Potosí.

Dialects[edit]

Huasteco has three dialects, which have a time depth of no more than 400 years (Norcliffe 2003:3). It is spoken in a region of east-central Mexico known as the Huaxteca-Potossina.

  1. Western (Potosino) — 48,000 speakers in the 9 San Luis Potosí towns of Ciudad Valles (Tantocou), Aquismón, Huehuetlán, Tancanhuitz, Tanlajás, San Antonio, Tampamolón, Tanquian, and Tancuayalab.
  2. Central (Veracruz) — 22,000 speakers in the 2 northern Veracruz towns of Tempoal and Tantoyuca.
  3. Eastern (Otontepec) — 12,000 speakers in the 7 northern Veracruz towns of Chontla, Tantima, Tancoco, Chinampa, Naranjos, Amatlán, and Tamiahua. Also known as Southeastern Huastec. Ana Kondic (2012) reports only about 1,700 speakers, in the municipalities of Chontla (San Francisco, Las Cruces, Arranca Estacas, and Ensinal villages), Chinampa, Amatlan, and Tamiahua.[4]

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Short vowels Front Central Back
Close i [i] u [ü]
Mid e [e̞] o [o̞]
Open a [a]
Long vowels Front Central Back
Close ii [ʲiː] uu [ɯː]
Mid ee [eː] oo [ɤː]
Open aa [aː]

Consonants[edit]

Approximate extent of Wastek-speaking area in Mexico
  Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Radical
aspirated ejective aspirated ejective aspirated ejective aspirated ejective
Nasal   m  [m]   n  [n]      
Plosive b  [b] p'  [pʼ] t   [tʰ] t'  [tʼ] k  [kʰ] k'  [kʼ]  '   [ʔ]
Affricate p  [ɸʰ] ts  [tsʰ] ts'  [tsʼ] ch  [tɕʰ] ch'  [tɕʼ]      
Fricative s  [s] z [θ] x  [ʃ]   j  [χ]
Approximant w [ʋ] l  [l]   y  [j]    
Flap   r  [ɾ]      

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Wastek at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Huastec". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ INEGI, 2005
  4. ^ http://kellogg.nd.edu/STLILLA/proceedings/Kondic_Ana.pdf

References[edit]

Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía, e Informática (INEGI) (an agency of the government of Mexico). 2005. 2005 Mexican population census, last visited 22 May, 2007

Further reading[edit]