ISRO Orbital Vehicle
The design of ISRO OV
|Country of origin||India|
|Orbit regimes||Low Earth|
The Indian manned spacecraft temporarily named Orbital Vehicle is intended to be the basis of the indigenous Indian human spaceflight program. The capsule will be designed to carry three people, and a planned upgraded version will be equipped with rendezvous and docking capability. In its maiden manned mission, ISRO's largely autonomous 3-ton capsule will orbit the Earth at 248 miles (400 km) altitude for up to seven days with a two-person crew on board. The crew vehicle would launch on ISRO's GSLV Mk II, currently under development. The GSLV Mk II features a cryogenic upper-stage engine. However, as of April 2012 the future of the project is in doubt due to funding problems.
The development of the Orbital Vehicle began in 2006. The plan was to design a simple vessel similar to the Mercury-class spacecraft with an endurance of about a week in space. It was designed to carry two astronauts and to land in water upon re-entry. The design was finalized by March 2008, and was submitted to the Government of India for funding. The funding for the Indian Human Spaceflight program was sanctioned in February 2009. Initially, the first unmanned flight of the Orbital Vehicle was expected to be in 2013.
ISRO based the Orbital Vehicle on the design of the SRE. ISRO had launched and recovered the 550-kg Space Recovery Capsule in January 2007. The full-scale manned OV spaceship was said to be derived from this, although ISRO's published concept showed a more elongated conical shape than the SRE.
The OV is a fully autonomous three-ton capsuled spacecraft designed to carry a 3 member crew to orbit and safely return to the Earth after a mission duration of few orbits to two days.
The space capsule will have life control and environment control systems. It will be equipped with emergency mission abort and emergency escape that can be done at the first stage and second stage of the rocket. The illustration of the spacecraft showed a main engine and smaller orientation engines arranged in a light package around the base of the capsule, indicating an earth-orbit maneuvering capability was to be included. The nose of the original version of the OV was free for a docking mechanism, but primary entry was evidently through a side hatch secured by explosive bolts.
About 16 minutes after liftoff from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), Sriharikota, the rocket will inject the OV into an orbit 300–400 km from the Earth. The capsule would return for a splashdown in the Bay of Bengal.
While many technological elements to put together a manned flight are already available, ISRO would need to develop many new and novel technologies to ensure a foolproof life-support system, safety, reliability and an escape system for the crew. And in order to perfect the reentry techniques considered crucial for a manned flight, ISRO is planning to carry out three more flights of Space Recovery Capsules (SRE) and few unmanned flights of the OV spaceship.
Funding and Infrastructure
Development of a fully autonomous orbital vehicle to carry a two-member crew into a low Earth orbit has begun. ISRO sources said the flight is likely to be in 2016. The government has allocated 50 crore (US$10 million) for pre-project initiatives for 2007 through 2008. A manned mission into space would require about 12,400 crore (US$3 billion) and a period of seven years. The Planning Commission estimates that a budget of 5000 crore (US$1 billion) is required for initial work of the manned mission during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2007–12). The project report prepared by ISRO has been cleared by the space commission. In February, 2009 the Government of India has given the green signal for the Manned Space flight Program due to launch in 2016.
MC Dathan, director of Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), stated that ISRO will set up a full-fledged training facility in Bangalore for training astronauts. ISRO is also planning to build a third launch pad at Sriharkota for manned missions with extra facilities like entry into the crew capsule and an escape chute.
In spring 2009 the full-scale mock-up of crew capsule of OV was built and delivered to Satish Dhawan Space Centre for training of astronauts.
In January 2010, it was announced that the ISRO OV is scheduled to be launched with astronauts into space around 2016. However, in April 2012 it was reported that funding problems placed the future of the project in serious doubt;  and in August 2013, it was announced that all manned spaceflight efforts by India had been designated as being 'off [ISRO's] priority list'. 
- Indian human spaceflight program
- Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
- GSLV Mk III
- Space exploration
- Human spaceflight
- K.S. Jayaraman (2009-February-11), Designs for India's First Manned Spaceship Revealed, Bangalore: Space.com, retrieved 2013-June-14
- Priyadarshi, Siddhanta (2009-02-23). "Planning Commission Okays ISRO Manned Space Flight Program". Indian Express. p. 2.
- Ray, Kalyan (2009-January-04). "ISRO gears up for manned space mission". Shillong: Deccan Herald. Retrieved 2013-June-14.
- Orbital Vehicle
- ISRO eyes a manned Moon mission by 2015, awaiting Govt approval
- Towards an Indian manned flight
- Eleventh Five year Plan (2007-12) proprosals for Indian space program
- Mishra, Bibhu Ranjan (2008-October-08). "ISRO plans manned mission to moon in 2014". Sriharikota Range (SHAR): Business Standard. Retrieved 2013-June-14.
- Beary, Habib (January 27, 2010). "India announces first manned space mission". Bangalore: BBC News. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- T.S. Subramanian (2009-May-02), Model of space crew module ready, Chennai: The Hindu, retrieved 2013-June-14
- Press Trust of India (April 25, 2012). "Spaceflight stuck due to budget: CAG". New Delhi: Times of India. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- Press Trust of India. "Human space flight mission off ISRO priority list". Retrieved 18 August 2013.