I Am a Man!
Am I Not a Man?
Historically, in countries such as the U.S. and South Africa, the term "boy" was used as a pejorative racist insult towards men of color and slaves, indicating their subservient social status of being less than men. In response, Am I Not A Man And A Brother? became a catchphrase used by British and American abolitionists. In 1787, Josiah Wedgwood designed a medallion for the British anti-slavery campaign. He copied the original design from the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade as a cameo in black-and-white. It was widely reproduced and became a popular fashion statement promoting justice, humanity and freedom.
The question "Am I Not A Man?" was brought up again during the Dred Scott decision if the U.S. Supreme Court. During the Civil rights movement at the Memphis Sanitation Strike "I AM A MAN!" signs were used to answer the same question.
"I Am a Man!" has been used as a title for books, plays and in film to assert the rights of all people to be treated with dignity. "I Am a Man!" signs were used in Arabic language Ana Rajul during the Arab Spring.
- I am a Man of Constant Sorrow is a traditional American spiritual folk song.
- The Elephant Man declares, "I am not an elephant! I am not an animal! I am a human being! I ... am ... a ... man!"
- Andersen, Margaret L. (2008). Sociology With Infotrac: Understanding a Diverse Society. Thompson Learning. p. 61.
- Dabydeen, David (February 17, 2011). "The Black Figure in 18th-century Art". BBC News. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Am I Not a Man? by Mark L. Shurtleff
- Miami Herald
- Mining the Memphis Sound
- Dark Forebodings of the Arab Spring