I Capuleti e i Montecchi
The libretto by Felice Romani was a reworking of the story of Romeo and Juliet for an opera by Nicola Vaccai called Giulietta e Romeo. This was based on Italian sources rather than taken directly from William Shakespeare. (The tomb scene from Vaccai's opera has sometimes been performed with Bellini's opera.)
Bellini was persuaded to write the opera for the 1830 Carnival season at the Teatro La Fenice in Venice, with only a month and a half available for composition. He succeeded by appropriating a large amount of music previously written for his unsuccessful opera Zaira.
Behind the libretto stand many Italian, ultimately Renaissance sources supplied by Bandello, probably through Belleforest and Pierre Boaistuau, rather than Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. Romani rewrote for Bellini the Giulietta e Romeo he had written originally for Vaccai, which drew on a play Giulietta e Romeo of 1818 by Luigi Scevola, and which had also been set by E. Torriani. The theme was very popular in Italy: there were earlier librettos by Luzzi for Marescalchi (1785, Venice), Foppa for Zingarelli (1796, Milan), and Buonaiuti for P. C. Guglielmi (1810, London). The first Italian libretto explicitly based on Shakespeare’s play was by M. M. Marcello, for Marchetti’s Romeo e Giulietta (1865, Trieste).
In Venice to prepare the local première of Il pirata with Giuditta Grisi as Imogene, Bellini wrote I Capuleti in a month and a half (starting about 20 January) after the Teatro La Fenice had been let down by Giovanni Pacini. He wrote the part of Romeo for Grisi (whose presence, together with a relatively weak male company, may have conditioned the choice of subject); it rarely descends below c'. Giulietta was sung by Maria Caterina Rosalbina Caradori-Allan, Tebaldo by Lorenzo Bonfigli and Lorenzo by Ranieri Pocchini Cavalieri. Bellini had intended the part of Lorenzo for a bass, but in Act 1 of the autograph score he transposed it for tenor, and in Act 2 the part is written in the tenor clef throughout. Although these changes were possibly for Senigallia (summer 1830), Cavalieri, the singer at the première, appears to have been a tenor. (Published scores and most performances assign the role to a bass.)
Bellini thoroughly reworked ten melodies from his unsuccessful Zaira into I Capuleti e i Montecchi: he explained that "Zaira, hissed at Parma, was avenged by I Capuleti". Giulietta’s "Oh quante volte" in Act 1 uses Nelly’s romanza "Dopo l’oscuro nembo" from Adelson e Salvini (1825, Naples). Bellini prepared a version for La Scala (26 December 1830), lowering Giulietta’s part for the mezzo-soprano Amalia Schütz-Oldosi.
Early librettos divide the opera into four parts; at Bologna in 1832 Maria Malibran replaced the last part with the tomb scene from the final act of Vaccai's Giulietta e Romeo, a tradition followed by other contralto Romeos. (Vaccai's scene is included as an appendix to Ricordi's vocal score). This version was performed in 1833 in Paris and London (on 20 July) with Pasta as Romeo, but in Florence the following year Giuseppina Ronzi de Begnis restored Bellini's ending. Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient's singing as Romeo in Leipzig (1834) and Magdeburg (1835) created a profound impression on the young Wagner.
I Capuleti was revived in 1935, the centenary of Bellini’s death, at Catania and it was given its first US performance on 4 April 1937 in New Orleans. It appeared in 1954 at Palermo, with Giulietta Simionato as Romeo and Rosanna Carteri as Giulietta. In 1966 Claudio Abbado prepared a version for La Scala in which Romeo was sung by a tenor, Giacomo Aragall; the cast included Renata Scotto and Margherita Rinaldi alternating in the role of Giulietta and Luciano Pavarotti as Tebaldo. This version was also performed in Amsterdam, Rome and Philadelphia and at the 1967 Edinburgh Festival, but it is no longer used.
Modern day productions have been mounted fairly frequently, with 102 performances of 27 productions given (or to be given) in 24 cities since 1 January 2011 and forward into 2015.  A San Francisco Opera production opened on 29 September 2012 featuring Nicole Cabell and Joyce DiDonato as the lovers, and both singers were part of a Lyric Opera of Kansas City production in September 2013.
|Role||Voice type||Premiere Cast, March 11, 1830
(Conductor: - )
|Tebaldo, betrothed to Giulietta||tenor||Lorenzo Bonfigli|
|Capellio, leader of the Capuleti, father of Giulietta||bass||Gaetano Antoldi|
|Lorenzo, doctor and retainer of the Capuleti||bass||Ranieri Pocchini|
|Romeo, leader of the Montecchi||mezzo-soprano||Giuditta Grisi|
|Giulietta, in love with Romeo||soprano||Maria Caradori-Allan|
In this version of the story the Capuleti and Montecchi are rival political factions (Guelph and Ghibelline respectively) rather than Shakespeare's "two households, both alike in dignity". Capellio is the father of Giulietta (Juliet) and the leader of the Capuleti. Giulietta is betrothed to Tebaldo (Tybalt), however she has already met and fallen in love with Romeo, leader of the Montecchi. This is a secret to all but Lorenzo (Lawrence), her doctor and confidant. Complicating matters, Romeo has inadvertently killed the son of Capellio (Giulietta's brother) in battle.
- Place: around the palace of Capellio (Capulet) in Verona
- Time: 13th century
Scene 1: The Palace
Capellio (bass) and Tebaldo (tenor) address their followers advising rejection of an offer of peace to be brought by an envoy from Romeo. Tebaldo will avenge the killing of Capellio's son to celebrate his marriage to Giulietta (È serbata a questo acciaro). Capellio wants the marriage to take place immediately, brushing aside the objections of Lorenzo (bass) that Giulietta is ill with a fever.
Romeo (mezzo-soprano) enters in the guise of a Montague envoy, offering peace to be guaranteed by the marriage of Romeo and Giulietta. He explains that Romeo regrets the death of Capellio's son (Se Romeo t'uccise un figlio), and offers to take his place as a second son for the old man. Capellio indicates that Tebaldo has already taken on that role and rejects all idea of peace. Romeo accepts their challenge of war (La tremenda ultrice spada).
Scene 2: Giulietta's room
Giulietta (soprano) longs for Romeo (in the romanza Oh! quante volte). Lorenzo enters. He has arranged for Romeo to come to her by a secret door. Romeo tries to persuade Giulietta to escape with him, but she resists in the name of family law and honour, declaring that she would prefer to die of a broken heart.
Scene 3: Another part of the palace
The Capuleti are celebrating the forthcoming marriage. Recognized by Lorenzo, Romeo is in disguise awaiting the support of his soldiers to prevent the wedding. In the tumult following the armed attack by the Montecchi, Giulietta sees Romeo and he again unsuccessfully urges her to run away with him. Capellio and Tebaldo discover them, believing Romeo to be the Montecchi envoy. Giulietta tries to shield him from her father, but he proudly tells them his true name. The Montagues enter to protect him and the lovers are separated by their two factions.
Scene 1: Another part of the Palace
Introduced by an arioso for cello, Giulietta awaits news of the fighting. Lorenzo tells her that Romeo lives, but she will soon be taken away to Tebaldo's castle. He persuades her to take a sleeping drug that will make it appear that she has died. He will arrange for Romeo (and himself) to be present when she awakes. Capellio comes to order her to leave with Tebaldo at dawn. She begs her father's forgiveness before she dies (Ah! non poss'io partire). Capellio is alarmed and suspects the involvement of Lorenzo. He will have him watched.
Scene 2: The grounds of the palace
Romeo is impatiently waiting for Lorenzo who fails to appear. Tebaldo enters and they have an angry duet (Stolto! a un sol mio grido). They fight but are interrupted by a funeral procession (Pace alla tua bell'anima). It is Giulietta's. The rivals are united in remorse, asking each other for death.
Scene 3: The tombs of the Capuleti
Romeo enters and his companions open Giulietta's tomb. Romeo bids her farewell (Deh! tu, bell'anima) and swallows poison. Giulietta awakes finding Romeo surprised by her simulated death and unaware of Lorenzo's plan. With great pathos, Romeo tells her that he has already acted to end his life. He dies and Giulietta, unable to live on without him, expires on his body. The Capuleti and Montecchi blame Capellio for the tragedy.
(Romeo, Giulietta, Tebaldo, Capellio, Lorenzo)
Opera House and Orchestra
RAI Orchestra and Chorus, Rome
(Recording of a performance broadcast on 23 October)
|Audio CD: Myto
New Philharmonia Orchestra and the John Alldis Choir
|Audio CD: EMI
Cat: 5 86055-2
Royal Opera House, Covent Garden Orchestra and Chorus
|Audio CD: EMI
Cat: 5 09144
Munich Radio Orchestra and Chorus
|Audio CD: RCA Victor
Cat: 09026 68899-2
Scottish Chamber Orchestra and Chorus
|Audio CD: Teldec
Orchestra Internazionale d'Italia
|Audio CD: Dynamic
Vienna Symphony Orchestra and the Wiener Singakademie
Recorded in the Vienna Konzerthaus, April
|Audio CD: Deutsche Grammophon
Cat: 477 8031
- Performance history from Operatoday
- Synopsis from operajaponica
- Kimbell, in Holden, p. 49
- Performances since 1 January 2011 listed on operabase.com Retrieved 10 August 2013
- Paul Horsley, "FAMILY TIES: Eternal ‘clash of clans’ shines in Lyric’s polished, beautifully sung production", The Independent (Kansas City), 23 September 2013 on www.kcindependent.com
- The synopsis by Simon Holledge was first published on Opera japonica and appears here by permission.
- Recordings of I Capuleti e i Montecchi on operadis-opera-discography.org.uk
- Casa Ricordi (pub.), "Vincenzo Bellini": Outline of his life (in English) and list of critical editions of his works published by Ricordi on ricordi.it. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
- Galatopoulos, Stelios (2002), Bellini: Life, Times, Music 1801-1835. London, Sanctuary Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9781860744051
- Kimbell, David (2001), in Holden, Amanda (Ed.), The New Penguin Opera Guide, New York: Penguin Putnam. ISBN 0-140-29312-4
- Maguire, Simon; Forbes Elizabeth; Budden, Julian (1998), "I Capuleti e I Montecchi", in Stanley Sadie, (Ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Vol. One. London: MacMillan Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-333-73432-7 ISBN 1-56159-228-5
- Osborne, Charles (1994), The Bel Canto Operas of Rossini, Donizetti, and Bellini, Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0931340713
- Orrey, Leslie (1973), Bellini (The Master Musicians Series), London: J. M. Dent, Ltd. ISBN 0-460-02137-0
- Rosselli, John (1996), The Life of Bellini, New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-46781-0
- Thiellay, Jean; Thiellay, Jean-Philippe, Bellini, Paris: Actes Sud, 2013, ISBN 978-2-330-02377-5 (French)
- Willier, Stephen Ace, Vincenzo Bellini: A Guide to Research. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0-8153-3805-8 and on books.google.com.
- Weinstock, Herbert (1971), Bellini: His life and His Operas, New York: Knopf. ISBN 0394416562