Iain King

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
King (centre) speaking in Afghanistan, 2009
King (centre) in Afghanistan, 2009

Iain King CBE is a British philosopher, and author[1] of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time – Solving the Riddle of Right and Wrong. His heavily contested[2] theory of ethics has influenced public policy reform,[3][4][5] the British Liberal Democrats,[6][7][8] and the Buddhist community,[9][10] and it is taught in some undergraduate programmes.[11][12] He is one of the youngest people ever to become a CBE, awarded for work in Libya, Afghanistan, and Kosovo.[13][14][15][16]

Biography[edit]

Iain King was educated at a comprehensive school[17] in Gloucestershire, and went on to read Politics, Philosophy and Economics at Oxford University,[18][19] graduating in 1993.[20] According to a 2012 biography, he spent a year busking around Europe, "playing the guitar standing on his head".[21]

He became one of the first people to negotiate with Sinn Féin leaders after the IRA ceasefire.[22][23] Later, he helped introduce a new currency into Kosovo[24] where he had what the International Journal describes as "senior political role"[25] as a peacekeeping administrator[26] for the United Nations, which governed the country after the war.

In 2003, King was Head of Planning for the UN mission in Kosovo.[27]

King co-wrote a book about Kosovo in 2006.[28] The book has received critical acclaim.[29][30]

King went on to advise UN Secretary General Kofi Annan on Africa,[31][32] and worked alongside soldiers on the battlefront in Afghanistan[33] where he is reported to have deployed to more frontline bases than any other civilian.[34][35][36] He once worked from a former opium den,[37][38] with "bullets flying meters above his head."[39]

Iain King was deployed to Benghazi during the Libyan civil war at 12-hours' notice,[40] and described the Arab Spring as "exhilarating".[41] He was nearly killed by a car bomb in Libya.[42]

King was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2013 Birthday Honours for frontline aid work.[43][44][45][46]

Newspapers have described Iain King's career as "astonishing"[47] and "inspirational".[48]

King has led the UK's conflict research programme,[49][50] its democracy support agency,[51][52] and managed disaster relief efforts for the UNDP in the Caribbean.[53]

Philosophy[edit]

Iain King taught philosophy at Cambridge University, UK, where he gave what have been described as "amusing talks (about) famous philosophers"[54][55] as a Fellow of the University,[56][57][58] and was associated with Simon Blackburn's school of quasi-realism.[59] The Washington Monthly described him as "insightful (but) brutally honest"[60] while the Economist magazine concluded his "refreshingly frank judgements"[61] were sometimes "harsh… but well-written".[62]

His philosophy work may have been accidental,[63] intended to popularise the subject rather than innovate,[64][65] although the Observer newspaper concluded that Iain King "lived and worked the issues he writes about for years".[66] Other reviewers say he "draws on classic philosophy as well as his own experiences".[67]

King's quasi-utilitarianism[edit]

Iain King seeks a Newtonian revolution in ethics.[68] He starts with an assessment of utilitarianism, with which he accepts seven commonly cited flaws. These are:

  1. Utilitarianism can be self-defeating
  2. It only considers future consequences, ignoring important events in the past
  3. It places decision-making authority in questionable hands
  4. It doesn't discriminate fairly between people
  5. Individual concerns are sacrificed to the group interest
  6. Promises, fairness and telling the truth are down-graded
  7. Utilitarianism doesn't offer any clear rules.[69]

He attributes these flaws to a "more fundamental problem" with utilitarianism: "the basic reason for following it is hollow". He attacks John Stuart Mill's proof of utilitarianism as "not logic at all".[70] King then tries to re-build utilitarianism, so that these criticisms no longer apply.

Meta-ethics[edit]

Iain King's How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time

King presents four different arguments to establish a basic reason to believe a system of ethics. These are:

  • First, he asserts that "we can explain how our deeply held moral values have evolved through adaptation to the environment… over thousands of generations",[71] and he acknowledges the "randomness" of this evolutionary process. But he states that "we are trapped within evolution", and thus forced to respect the moral instincts it has instilled in us as if they were facts, "as real as the way the jungle birds fly out of the trees when I shout up at them".[72] King tries to prove we are forced to respect these instincts, despite their arbirary original, by challenging us to jettison them, concluding we cannot, because "even an 'anything goes' morality must hold something dear".[73] Where people concur about these "facts" – such as a common revulsion against murder - they can gain the status of a "shared moral law".[71]
  • Second, he offers a non-religious re-working of Pascal's Wager, to say that we should all seek value in life (because if there is no value to be found, then it doesn't matter what we do, so we might as well seek value just in case there is value to be found).[74] He then uses what one journal describes as "several clear arguments illustrated with numerous thought-experiments"[75] (which King calls "proofs") to argue that seeking value requires empathising with others[76] and accepting certain obligations.
  • Third, he queries what attributes we should expect from "right and wrong and our system for making decisions". He concludes any system must "provide a motive, be consistent with itself, and broadly consistent with our instincts."[77] He then argues that only a virtue which matches these criteria better than its equal and opposite virtue would contain the "essence of right and wrong". He contends that only empathy and obligation pass this test, and are therefore superior to other evolved instincts which could form the basis of ethics. He describes ethics and obligation as the "DNA of right and wrong".[78]
  • Fourth, he adapts an approach associated with John Rawls to think through what rules people would adopt if they were denied knowledge of their own self-interest, and so forced to be ethical.[79] He argues that this so-called original position would lead to not utilitarianism, or Rawlsian principles, but his own Help Principle – Help someone if your help is worth more to them than it is to you.[80]

King argues that these four meta-ethical approaches converge on a single, firm basis for ethics, which has been called "Quasi-Utilitarianism".[81][82]

King's Help Principle - "Help someone if your time and effort is worth more to them than it is to you" – advocates maximising total happiness between two people, which is consistent with utilitarianism,[83] and King argues that it preserves attractive features of utilitarianism, such as the ability to extend ethics into unfamiliar areas through a "logical process",[84] impartiality, coherence and internal consistency, and the capacity to provide clear answers to what he calls "the most basic question of moral philosophy: 'What should we do?'".[85]

Differences from utilitarianism[edit]

However, King maintains there are four important differences between his moral philosophy and utilitarianism. These are:

  • First, King's system is based on one-to-one empathy. Someone in a group will need to apply the Help Principle to each other group member in turn.[86] This is because, he writes, "When we empathise, we imagine the concerns of another individual as if they were our own; we cannot do this with groups of individuals other than to treat each member separately."[87] He argues this "prevents (someone) from becoming a slave (to the greater good), since the impact… on their individual interests will exceed any benefit it could bring any single other person, even if the total benefit to several of them would be larger." King argues that "maximising happiness can override human rights…(but) The Help Principle and rights go together snugly, and that's good."[88] In large groups, instead of aggregating happiness, "the Help Principle advocates choosing whichever option will benefit any individual the most, so long as all reciprocate the help they receive."[88]
  • Second, King factors in past considerations as well as future happiness, "because we empathise with people in the past as well as the future."[89] He argues this allows for a practical consideration of both justice ("so punishments fit both the crime in the past and the criminal in the future") and promise-keeping, "because we rate the happiness a promise has already caused, even to a person who has since died."[90] He asserts this approach improves upon utilitarian explanations, which can only consider justice as a deterrent to future crimes, and can only explain promise-keeping through concern for future reputation.[91]
  • Third, King argues that empathy leads to reciprocity; empathising with someone who does not empathise themselves means affording them less concern. He derives a reciprocity rule: "Empathise with people only as much as they empathise with others", which he suggests improves upon the Golden Rule, and is an intuitively appealing basis for social decision-making.[92] It differs from utilitarianism and cost-benefit analysis by incorporating a notion of justice.[93]
  • Fourth, he argues for racist, sadistic and discriminatory preferences to be discounted, and justifies this as an automatic consequence of basing his decision-making system on empathy.[94] This differentiates his approach from utilitarianism, which would advocate publicly torturing a few victims for the mass pleasure of sadists, if it maximised happiness.[95]

King claims these differences address all the seven problems with traditional utilitarianism (listed above). King claims his approach also overcomes other deficiencies with utilitarianism, such as the is-ought problem,[96][97] the mere addition paradox,[98] the open-question argument,[99] the attack that utilitarianism is too demanding,[100] and the problem of predicting consequences.[101] He also claims it overcomes the "naïve view of decision-making"[102] behind utilitarianism: "Life is not like choosing from menus… sometimes new options have to be created or imagined, and decisions come in chains and clusters; they are rarely isolated and discrete."[103]

More broadly, he asserts that his approach moves away from judging actions purely by their consequences towards a more hybrid philosophy – "The Help Principle offers a rule for our actions; it thinks about consequences; and it is based on the virtue of empathy…"[104] this "transcends the debate about whether right and wrong concern characteristics, actions (or) outcomes."[105] He explains this by drawing an analogy between ethics and the wave-particle duality of light,[106] suggesting the way people make decisions about right and wrong takes different forms according to the situation. Others have concluded his philosophy is "compatible with consequence-, virtue- and act based ethics."[107]

Ethics[edit]

Having established empathy and obligation as the "DNA of right and wrong"[70] and the Help Principle as the "fundamental principle of ethics", he then derives intermediate principles for our actions. He endeavours to prove his intermediate principles follow logically and automatically from his fundamental principles.[108] His list of intermediate principles includes: "Let people choose for themselves"; "Treat people according to their own wants and intentions"; "Help others with humility"; and "Help others as much as they would help others themselves". (This is the "reciprocity rule", and King argues it is superior to the Golden Rule.)[109]

He then applies these intermediate principles to a range of subject areas and philosophical puzzles,[110] and derives principles which provide more specific ethical advice.[111] According to The Independent, this means "difficult moral quandaries… are no longer a matter of judgment or guesswork…" but can be tackled by "a system of formulas".[112] His approach has been described as "a comprehensive system of ethics",[113] and "simple formulas for telling the difference between right and wrong".[114] Topics he covers include: promises, romance,[115] lying, human rights, poverty,[116] the fair distribution of resources, economics,[117] social choice theory, charity, what people should do about lethal poverty,[118] punishment, mercy, and legal positivism.[119]

King distinguishes ethical principles (derived automatically from empathy and the Help Principle, so they should all be consistent with each other and universally applicable) from social conventions. Social conventions, he argues, "are organic"[120] He says they can differ between societies, or between the same society at different times, reflecting different histories and situations. The distinction between principles and conventions enables him to determine when different social practices should be respected, tolerated, or challenged. King has argued that social conventions can never be perfected, so it can be right for incompatible social conventions to co-exist.[121] It also allows him to account for "moral progress" - the evolution of ethical values.[122] Hence, he advocates social conventions like "Help others more if you know them or you owe them", and "Only do bad things to stop other people doing worse", without rating them as universally appropriate.[123]

Through his work Iain King may – or may not– have resolved a paradox identified by Aristotle,[124][125][126] who argued it was impossible to advocate a "credible rule for lying"[127] – which is exactly what King claims to provide in his book.[128] His "credible rule for lying" was generated by a process described by Publishers Weekly as a "logical method of… clear arguments… and moral science",[129] and has been much debated.[130] Two independent studies may have found evidence to back up King's theory on lying.[131][132] Meanwhile, a research paper written by a strong critic of King's position suggests King may offer the only valid ethical theory that some lies can be intrinsically good.[133]

Criticism and reaction[edit]

In 2009, David Allen Green, a columnist for the New Statesman, argued that King's "underlying project is… misconceived" because his book "offers the possibility of moral certainty", thus allowing "cruel and dishonest people to have the comfort of feeling they are absolutely right… One problem in this world is that there is too much moral certainty, and it really shouldn't be encouraged any further."[134]

King's ideas were mocked in a 2010 book: "Can great moral dilemmas be so simply solved?... And if so how come no one realised this before King did?"[135] The author of these criticisms, who believes ethics require a religious foundation, writes that "King appears to be searching for a humanist foundation for virtuous behaviour which does not rely on any divinely revealed code", and this author goes on to argue this is impossible.[136]

King's philosophy has been satirised in cartoons.[137]

King's contention that, "Played out over thousands of generations, communities of people with an instinctive revulsion (of) murder would win out" has been challenged.[138] The argument made is that more murderous instincts might triumph, for example through war. This challenges King's attempt to establish how moral instincts, such as empathy, have a basis in evolution and can be established through observable fact (see first point in "Meta-ethics", above).

King's work has been criticised because, like utilitarianism and quasi-realism, he derives an "objective morality from subjective valuations".[139] King has argued that a straightforward distinction between objective and subjective ethics is impossible, asserting "Moral instincts may just be in our heads, but they are nonetheless still real... empathy can be observed and proven... The genesis of the Help Principle provides a neat bridge between those who think right and wrong are Absolute Features Of The Universe, and those who think they are more like personal tastes….it's both."[140]

King has been accused of discriminating against psychopaths.[141] The argument made is that since the 1% of people who feel no empathy – psychopaths – may be excluded by his philosophy, his system of ethics could be discriminatory, and cannot be truly universal.[142]

King has been accused of defending a "fringe" position, since he opposes the consensus that all lies are bad.[143]

King has been criticised for failing to respond to Robert Nozick's critique of John Rawls.[139]

King's book has been described as "controversial"[144] and accused of disrespectfully "ripping apart traditional tenets of morality, dismantling even the golden rule that you should 'do unto others as you would have done unto you.'"[145]

Because Iain King avoids what he calls "philosophical jargon",[70] his work has been both praised as "accessible"[146] and criticised for being "simplistic".[147]

An online critic has described King's ideas as "sugary",[148] while a bookseller has described his book as "pop philosophy".[149] One review assessed his work as "bracing and inspiring"[150] but perhaps too "optimistic".[151]

British Liberal Democrats have suggested his work provides "a reason to try to do what is right"[152] and "a reminder there probably are deep moral truths out there".[153]

The Royal Institute of Philosophy offers a partial endorsement of his work,[154] describing it as an "ambitious attempt to think through and answer questions at the heart of morality", recommending it is read widely and used to solve practical problems, but without a conclusion whether his attempt to find "practical answers to moral questions"[155] succeeds, fails, or is even possible.

King's philosophy book was categorised as a best-seller in 2013.[156]

Bibliography[edit]

  • 이언킹 (2011). 우리는 왜 착한 선택을 해야 하는가. ISBN 978-89-509-2914-5. 
  • King, Iain (2011). Kako se dobro odločamo in imamo ves čas prav kaj je prav in kaj narobe. ISBN 978-961-01-1643-1. 
  • King, Iain (2008). How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time Solving the Riddle of Right and Wrong. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 1-84706-347-0. 
  • Peace at Any Price, 2007 (ISBN 9951-417-03-7)
  • King, Iain; Mason, Whit (2006). Peace at Any Price How the World Failed Kosovo. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4539-2. 
  • King, Iain; Mason, Whit (2006). Peace at Any Price How the World Failed Kosovo. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85065-842-9. 
  • 9, 1997 (ISBN 978-1-901603-03-3)

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Media have not referred to Iain King as a philosopher and author, only one or the other. For example, CNN introduced him in 2007 as an "author and planner" (the transcript of the CNN interview is accessible here (link to CNN interview) and Prospect Magazine describes him as a "author and former University Fellow" (accessible here - link); while Military History Monthly describes him as a "Cambridge Philosopher" (link accessible here), and Sri Lanka's Sunday Observer refer to him as a "utilitarian philosopher" (link to Sunday Observer here.) Archived February 11, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ An incomplete list of critiques of and possible faults with King's philosophy is set out in the "Criticisms and Reaction" section, further down this page.
  3. ^ For example, Barry Quirk CBE, who has led several large-scale reviews of public policy in Britain, credits King with setting out the philosophical principles which defined his approach on page 222 of his 2011 book: Quirk, B, Re-imagining Government: Public Leadership in Challenging Times, published by Palgrave MacMillan, ISBN 978-0-230-31442-9.
  4. ^ King may have had influence on policy beyond the UK. In a Boston Globe interview, September 2013, King is quoted as calling for the international community to develop a "better understanding of the dynamics of urbanization, and a better understanding of effective strategies so that we might work towards better outcomes for the urban poor." (the article is available here - link.) Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Discussions on how to ration expensive medicines reflect King's ideas: NICE has taken on quasi-utilitarian considerations, for example by refusing to look solely at future value, in this story (link to Channel Four news article), accessed March 2014. Archived March 24, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Liberal Democrat News, page 8, Issue 1034, 6 March 2009 says "King offers a reason to try to do what is right" - quote partially verified here.
  7. ^ Former Liberal Democrat Leader Paddy Ashdown may also have been influenced by an earlier book by Iain King, which he described as "compelling", cited by the publisher Cornell University Press, here. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ A tweet from former Liberal Democrat Leader Rt Hon Charles Kennedy MP on 17 June 2013 described Iain King as "a friend" – here (link) Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Also read the Sri Lanka Sunday Observer here. Archived February 11, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Quoted in this (link) Buddhist festival article. Archived October 20, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ For example, see this (link) Drake University (US) Website.[dead link]
  12. ^ Including the University of Pretoria, and Oxford University's PPE course.
  13. ^ This Guardian datablog (link) explains that 89% of honours are either MBEs or OBEs, with only the most senior 11% of awards at or above CBE level (10.1% are CBEs; 0.9% are knighthoods). Meanwhile, page 75 of the Phillips Review of the Honour System (link to pdf) offers the age distribution of recipients of all awards (but without separating out CBEs), and shows that King was in the youngest 3% of people to receive any sort of honour, including MBEs and OBEs. Page 92 (of the Phillips Review) provides typical citations for the different types of award. These explain that 40-years' service is typical for a CBE, and that the award is usually given at the end of a career; the typical citations for MBEs and OBEs indicate virtually all of the honour recipients younger than King will have received MBEs or OBEs, not CBEs. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that Iain King is one of the youngest ever CBE recipients. However, he is not the youngest ever CBE: multiple-Olympic gold medal winners Mo Farah, Victoria Pendleton and Jessica Ennis, and multiple-Oscar winner Kate Winslet were all younger when they were awarded a CBE.
  14. ^ Page 14 of This official report on the Honours System (link to pdf) explains that "The majority of honours are in recognition of long-standing commitment to service; they therefore tend to be awarded to older people."
  15. ^ The award was for "bravery" according to "From Afghanistan to Libya and Northern Ireland peace process: Brave Iain King gets CBE" (link to news website), dated 26-09-2013, Retrieved 2013-12-02, and "Royal Honour for Frontline Bravery" (link to newspaper article here), dated September 2013, Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ CBE's are awarded for "having a prominent role at national level, or a leading role at regional level, or a distinguished, innovative contribution to any area", according to the UK government website, accessible here (link). Archived February 25, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Katharine Lady Berkeley's School according to this local website. The school's status as a comprehensive since 1973 is confirmed on the school's webpage (link), Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Taken from Gloucestershire Echo, 26 September 2013, article entitled Dad's an Afghanistan hero but I'd sooner meet Mr Bean at the palace, Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ King attended Pembroke College, Oxford, according to this website (link), accessed March 2014. Archived March 24, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ From Gloucestershire Echo, 10 February 2010 Dad helps stabilise Afghanistan, Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Roman Krznaric, 2012 (2), Published by Pan Macmillan, ISBN 978-1-4472-0228-8. Krznaric writes that King "has never been conventional".
  22. ^ According to the Gloucestershire Echo, 26 September 2013, article entitled "Dad's an Afghanistan hero but I'd sooner meet Mr Bean at the palace" (link), Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ His meetings with Sinn Fein leaders are also referenced in the Editorial of the Gloucestershire Citizen, September 2013 Inspirational Iain (Editorial - starts in middle of page) Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ This quote is taken from Roman Krznaric's 2012 book How to Find Fulfilling Work, Published by Pan Macmillan, ISBN 978-1-4472-0228-8, which includes an interview with Iain King.
  25. ^ International Journal, Summer 2007 edition, accessible here.
  26. ^ The description "peacekeeping administrator" is taken from publicity material for the launch of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, accessible if you scroll to the bottom of this page. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Source: CNN, December 2007 (the transcript of the CNN interview is accessible here (link to CNN webpage)., accessed March 2014. Archived February 3, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ The book was called: Peace at Any Price: How the World Failed Kosovo ISBN 978-0-8014-4539-2. King's co-author was Whit Mason.
  29. ^ Several reviews of the book of the book are available through this link. Archived March 24, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ As of March 2014, the book has been cited or referenced in more than 100 other books or academic articles.
  31. ^ This London Tourism Events website describes Iain King as a "Consultant to Kofi Annan's Africa Progress Panel". Archived December 6, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ According to the official blog publicising the London Review Bookshop launch of his 2009 ethics book, accessible here. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ "…worked alongside soldiers on the battlefront in Afghanistan" is a direct quote from Roman Krznaric, 2012 (2), Published by Pan Macmillan, ISBN 978-1-4472-0228-8.
  34. ^ Source: a UK Government website, accessed 25 June 2012, available here (link).
  35. ^ More on this is provided on the official Amazon author page, here Amazon.co.uk: Books. Archived March 20, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ There is another reference to Iain King's work in Kosovo, Afghanistan and Libya on the London News 24 website, here [1]. Archived December 4, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ Source: OneNewsPage, September 2013, "From Afghanistan to Libya and Northern Ireland peace process: Brave Iain King gets CBE" (link) Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ Also cited in the Gloucestershire Echo, 26 September 2013, article entitled "Dad's an Afghanistan hero but I'd sooner meet Mr Bean at the palace" (link here), Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ Source: Gloucestershire Echo, 10 February 2010, "Dad helps stabilise Afghanistan" (link here), Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ According to the Gloucestershire Echo, 26 September 2013, article entitled "Dad's an Afghanistan hero but I'd sooner meet Mr Bean at the palace" (link) Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ This quote if from the Gloucestershire Echo, article dated 26 September 2013, entitled "Dad's an Afghanistan hero but I'd sooner meet Mr Bean at the palace" (link here) Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ According to "Royal Honour for Frontline Bravery" (link to newspaper article), dated September 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ The Hampstead and Highgate Gazette, a newspaper, wrote that he worked in "some of the most difficult political environments in the world" – the article is available through this link Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ The Guardian writes "Iain King was awarded the CBE for services to governance in Libya, Afghanistan and Kosovo" (article dated 15 June 2013, link here). Archived July 21, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  45. ^ "Frontline aid work", according to Rt Hon Charles Kennedy MP – (link here). Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ The official June 2013 Queen's Birthday Honours is here Birthday Honours lists 2013 - Publications - GOV.UK. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  47. ^ Gloucestershire Echo, 26 September 2013, article entitled:"Dad's an Afghanistan hero but I'd sooner meet Mr Bean at the palace" (link here), Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ Editorial in the Gloucestershire Citizen, September 2013, entitled "Inspirational Iain" (Editorial – link here, scroll to the middle of the page). Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ Iain King is described as "Head of Conflict Research" on the cover of The Use of Statebuilding Research in British Policy by Thomas Waldman and Andrea Varisco, ISBN 978-1-4724-2758-8, and at the bottom of the publisher's page on the book (link) Archived March 24, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ The Guardian newspaper quotes Iain King projecting that, "By 2025, 80% of world's poor (are expected to) live in countries beset by conflict." (the quote is available through this link). Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  51. ^ King was Director of the Westminster Foundation for Democracy, according to - click on "authors" on this page (link). Archived March 24, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ As Director of the Westminster Foundation for Democracy, King may have interacted with Czech President Václav Havel, Yulia Tymoshenko of Ukraine and former world chess number one Garry Kasparov according to this conference invitation list from June 2007 (link here), accessed March 2014.
  53. ^ Source: Page 4 of this list of participants (link), which describes King role for the UNDP.
  54. ^ Iain King, described here as a "Cambridge Philosopher", offers further cameos of famous philosopher in this military history article, accessed 29 January 2014. Archived April 4, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  55. ^ This quote taken from an Online Dictionary entry on Iain King, accessible here iain king : definition of iain king and synonyms of iain king (English), accessed 2013-01-29. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  56. ^ 'Iain King is a Former Fellow of Cambridge University, UK' - verified here.
  57. ^ The Free Library describes him as a "noted author and Cambridge University Fellow" here.
  58. ^ Iain King was assigned to Wolfson College, verified here. Archived February 2, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  59. ^ King is described by Crocker as "an erudite academic, a UK Cambridge philosopher and colleague of Simon Blackburn" - taken from Geoff Crocker, 2010, on page 85-86 of An Enlightened Philosophy: Can an Atheist Believe Anything?, ISBN 978-1-84694-424-6.
  60. ^ Washington Monthly, cited by Cornell University Press, accessible on the review section here. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  61. ^ The Economist, 2006-09-21, accessible here [2], and cited here. Archived November 8, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  62. ^ The Economist, 2006-09-21, accessible here. Archived November 8, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ "He also found time to write a philosophy book" - taken from page 6 of Roman Krznaric, 2012, ISBN 978-1-4472-0228-8.
  64. ^ Gary Cox, 2010, see Page 6 of "How to Be a Philosopher" ISBN 978-1-4411-4478-2.
  65. ^ See also the citation in "Philosophy for Teenagers" (available here), Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived September 14, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  66. ^ Quote from The Observer, as cited by the publisher on their webpage, here. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  67. ^ The Free Library, accessible here.
  68. ^ According to the Daily Telegraph online bookshop here. link checked 2014-01-29. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  69. ^ This list is from pages 30-31 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Iain King 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  70. ^ a b c How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  71. ^ a b Taken from a Philosophy Now article, "Moral Laws of the Jungle" (link), accessed 2014-01-29. Archived February 8, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  72. ^ Iain King CBE in Philosophy Now issue 100, "Moral Laws of the Jungle" (link here), accessed 2014-01-29.
  73. ^ From Iain King CBE in Philosophy Now issue 100, "Moral Laws of the Jungle" (link here), accessed 2014-01-29. Archived February 8, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  74. ^ This argument is set out in detail in Chapter 7, "The Meaning of Life", of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Iain King, Continuum, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  75. ^ This quote is from Publishers Weekly, accessible here. Archived November 1, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  76. ^ The centrality of empathy to Iain King's ethical system and his justification for basing ethics on empathy is analysed in This academic blog (Spanish). Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  77. ^ This argument is set out in detail in Chapter 11, "Applying the Sherlock Holmes Method", of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Iain King, Continuum, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  78. ^ This conclusion is reached in Chapter 12, "How to Become a Better Person", of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Iain King, Continuum, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  79. ^ This argument is contained in Chapter 13, "The Help Principle", of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Continuum, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  80. ^ Note that in Philosophy Now the Help Principle is defined differently, as "Help someone if your time and effort is worth more to them than it is to you" – see "Moral Laws of the Jungle" (link), accessed 2014-01-29. Archived February 8, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  81. ^ King's ideas reflect aspects of quasi-realism and utilitarianism. In 2012, King's ideas were described as "quasi-utilitarian" by Charlotte Vardy, in chapter eight of Ethics Matters, ISBN 978-0-334-04391-1 (published by SCM Press, April 2012). Vardy suggests it is an original "development" on the utilitarian theme. A Google Books link to the reference can be accessed through this link. King accepted the term "Quasi-Utilitarian" himself in a 2014 article, "Moral Laws of the Jungle" (link here). Archived October 26, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  82. ^ Although he criticises and tries to correct Utilitarianism, King's theory is still described as a "distinctive utilitarianist" philosophy. For example, see the 20 June 2013 entry on this blog Archived December 8, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  83. ^ A critic of King, Geoff Crocker, describes King's approach as "a methodology for moral decision-making based on a net help calculation" on page 86 of An Enlightened Philosophy: Can an Atheist Believe Anything? by Geoff Crocker, 2010, ISBN 978-1-84694-424-6.
  84. ^ King argues that "It's very easy to expand the Help Principle into a very coherent set of ethics…" in the last part of "Moral Laws of the Jungle" (link). Archived February 8, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  85. ^ Source: this is a direct quote from King's "Moral Laws of the Jungle" (link here)., accessed March 2014. Archived February 8, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  86. ^ On page 159 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, 2008, Iain King, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  87. ^ Page 159 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, 2008, Iain King, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  88. ^ a b Quote from King's article, "Moral Laws of the Jungle" (link). Archived February 8, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  89. ^ This quote is from King's article, "Moral Laws of the Jungle" (link). Archived February 8, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  90. ^ Both quotes are from King's article, "Moral Laws of the Jungle" (link here). Archived February 8, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  91. ^ From King's article, "Moral Laws of the Jungle" (link). Archived February 8, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  92. ^ Taken from Chapters 19 and 29 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, 2008, Iain King, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  93. ^ From page 170 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, 2008, Iain King, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  94. ^ In chapter 18 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, 2008, Iain King, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  95. ^ See "Torturers and Charitable Show-Offs", pages 102-108, in How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, 2008, Iain King, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  96. ^ In Philosophy Now, he explains how his ethics "straddle the gulf between facts and values" – see "Moral Laws of the Jungle" (link), accessed 2014-01-29. Archived February 8, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  97. ^ There is support for King's argument in the letter's page of Philosophy Now, Issue 101, accessible here (link), accessed March 2014. Archived March 24, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  98. ^ King dismisses Derek Parfitt's repugnant conclusion argument as "The philosophical equivalent of an optical illusion" because we more easily empathise with differences in levels of well-being than in being a different number of people. King argues his point in this blog (link), accessed March 2014. Archived August 1, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  99. ^ King offers an answer to G. E. Moore's Open question argument on page 84 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Continuum, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  100. ^ On page 206 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Continuum, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2, King derives a non-utilitarian rule from a thought experiment based on helping successive people in a car park. He concludes we should help others until the total impact on us from all the help we give matches the benefit to any single individual.
  101. ^ King argues that, by reconciling a consequentialist approach with virtue (empathy) and deontological ethics (his Help Principle), his system is resilient to consequences become unpredictable because virtue and principles can come to the fore. This is covered on page 176 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Continuum, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2. On page 222 of the book, he explains how different societies can develop different norms to overcome problems of lack of information, for example about the future.
  102. ^ King, 2008, p.171.
  103. ^ From page 171 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Continuum, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  104. ^ From "Moral Laws of the Jungle" (link). Archived February 8, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  105. ^ Taken from the Online Dictionary, accessed from here iain king : definition of iain king and synonyms of iain king (English) on 2013-01-29. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  106. ^ In chapter 14 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, 2008, Iain King, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  107. ^ This is a quote from Ethics Matters by Charlotte and Peter Vardy, ISBN 978-0-334-04391-1 (April 2012; SCM Press) Page 116 of this book says that Iain King's system is "compatible with consequence-, virtue- and act based ethics."
  108. ^ Source: page 89 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  109. ^ In chapter 19 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, 2008, Iain King, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  110. ^ "Most of the book is devoted to elaborating this principle", according to Publishers Weekly, accessible here. Archived November 1, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  111. ^ The International Academic Database of Journal Articles in Philosophy describe this as a six-step process here Iain King, How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time: Solving the Riddle of Right and Wrong - PhilPapers. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  112. ^ Source: This quote is from a synopsis on The Independent website, accessible here (link).
  113. ^ The National Library of Australia, possibly citing material supplied by the publisher here. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  114. ^ Quote from the Free Library, accessible here.
  115. ^ Iain King's philosophy of romance is compared with Plato's, René Girard's, and Arthur Schopenhauer's in "When Romance and Philosophy Meet" (link to blog) retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  116. ^ Yahoo! Finance, Indian Zee TV, and a Fox News affiliate all carry the same quote from Iain King CBE on the links between urbanisation, violence and poverty. The pages are accessible here (Zee News), here (Yahoo!), and here (a Fox News affiliate) Archived December 4, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  117. ^ See the article entitled "Ethical Economics" in Prospect Magazine accessible here (link). Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  118. ^ Iain King's work on poverty is discussed at length here. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  119. ^ This non-exhaustive selection is from Chapter 30 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Iain King, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  120. ^ From Page 193 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Iain King, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  121. ^ King writes: "The Principles of Right and Wrong are absolute, and we should defend them, but different cultures can turn them into different conventions… Neither should try to impose their convention on the other.... Social conventions can never be perfect." Pages 222-223 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Iain King, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2. He explains which conventions to challenge – on the basis of logic rather than cultural bias – on page 194 of the book.
  122. ^ Quote from "Against an Ethical Lifestyle" by Iain King (link)., writing in Culture Wars. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  123. ^ On pages 214-215 of How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Iain King, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84706-347-2.
  124. ^ Whether or not Iain King succeeded in resolving the paradox is open for debate. Aristotle's paradox, along with previous failed attempts to answer it, and Iain King's solution, is explained in this article. But this source is insufficient, by itself, to establish that King has solved the paradox, or that he was the first to do so. Archived February 11, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  125. ^ Publishers Weekly states that "King is even able to formulate a credible rule that tells us when to lie" here. Archived November 1, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  126. ^ King's theory on lying was analysed in a 2012 research paper by Ross Gendels, here [3]. Gendels found some evidence to support King's theory.[dead link]
  127. ^ Aristotle argued "…he who swears that he will break his oath, and then breaks it, keeps this particular oath only; he is not a keeper of his oath." Aristotle's position is set out in detail on the MIT Classics portal, here The Internet Classics Archive | On Sophistical Refutations by Aristotle, accessed 29 January 2014 Archived April 20, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  128. ^ King offers chapters entitled "How to Answer Aristotle" and "A Credible Rule on Lying", as shown in the contents page, here. Archived December 4, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  129. ^ This quote from Publishers Weekly, accessible here. Archived November 1, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  130. ^ For example, in this blog. Archived December 8, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  131. ^ King's theory on lying was analysed in a 2012 research paper by Ross Gendels, here [4]. Gendels' paper offers a partial endorsement of King's theory.[dead link]
  132. ^ King's theory on lying is also assessed and used as a basis for the clinical comparison of pathological and non-pathological liars in The Pathology of Lying (available here), Retrieved 2013-12-02. Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  133. ^ By Canadian academic David J Shockking of McMaster University, on page 32 of his research paper entitled "Honest, Authentic and Distinct" (link), accessed March 2014. Archived March 24, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  134. ^ This critique was made in 2009 by David Allen Green in his blog. The full argument is accessible here: On How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time by Iain King (link), accessed March 2014. Archived March 24, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  135. ^ This is from page 86 of An Enlightened Philosophy: Can an Atheist Believe Anything? by Geoff Crocker, 2010, ISBN 978-1-84694-424-6.
  136. ^ Source: Page 86 of An Enlightened Philosophy: Can an Atheist Believe Anything? by Geoff Crocker, 2010, ISBN 978-1-84694-424-6. Crocker also attacks King for not demonstrating that empathy and obligation drive all other virtues. This overlooks Chapter 12 of King (2008). Page 74 of King's book states: "Empathy and obligation… uniquely match what we know we should be looking for when we look for right and wrong."
  137. ^ For example, by Simon and Finn, here (link). The cartoon may overlook King's work on reciprocity. Archived March 24, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  138. ^ This critique is made in "Why We Disagree with the 'Help Principle' Proposal" (link here) by Aurora de la Puenta, accessed March 2014. Archived March 24, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  139. ^ a b Page 85-86 of An Enlightened Philosophy: Can an Atheist Believe Anything? by Geoff Crocker, 2010, ISBN 978-1-84694-424-6.
  140. ^ These quotes are taken from Iain King's article in issue 100 of Philosophy Now - "Moral Laws of the Jungle" (link), accessed 2014-01-29. Archived February 8, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  141. ^ The argument is set out in "Why We Disagree with the 'Help Principle' Proposal" (link here) by Aurora de la Puenta, accessed March 2014. Archived March 24, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  142. ^ The critic behind argument also anticipates a possible counter-argument by King: that being "99% universal" could be used to justify discrimination against other minorities, such as the 1.5% of the US population which is homosexual. This line of argument is from "Why We Disagree with the 'Help Principle' Proposal" by Aurora de la Puenta (link here). King himself does not appear to make this counter-argument. Archived March 24, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  143. ^ By Canadian academic David J Shockking of McMaster University, on page 32 of a research paper entitled "Honest, Authentic and Distinct" (link). Archived March 24, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  144. ^ This is the verdict of book retailer Waterstones, accessible here. Archived October 24, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  145. ^ Quote from Barnes & Noble, accessible here. Archived February 2, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  146. ^ Gary Cox, 2010, Page 6 of ISBN 978-1-4411-4478-2, How to Be a Philosopher
  147. ^ "Simplistic" is the judgement on page 85-86 of An Enlightened Philosophy: Can an Atheist Believe Anything? by Geoff Crocker, 2010, ISBN 978-1-84694-424-6.
  148. ^ This is a verdict in the Philosophy Now Discussion forum, accessed 29 January 2014. Archived February 3, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  149. ^ London Review of Books, January 2014, verdict here (link), accessed 2014-1-31. Archived February 2, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  150. ^ Publishers Weekly, here. Archived November 1, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  151. ^ Publishers Weekly, accessible here. Archived November 1, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  152. ^ King offers an anchor of moral certainty - Liberal Democrat News, page 8, Issue 1034, 6 March 2009, partly accessible here.
  153. ^ Full quote verifiable here. Archived December 4, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  154. ^ The secretary of the Royal Institute of Philosophy, James Garvey, is quoted by the publisher here (link). Archived December 4, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  155. ^ The full quote is available on the publisher's webpage here., checked 29 January 2014. Archived December 4, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  156. ^ Iain King's book is described as a bestseller on page 8 of this catalogue (link here), accessed 29 January 2014. Archived May 5, 2013 at the Wayback Machine