||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (September 2014)|
|Ian Hector Frazer
AC, FRCPE, FRCPA, FAA, FTSE
6 January 1953 |
|Institutions||Translational Research Institute, University of Queensland|
|Alma mater||University of Edinburgh
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research;
University of Melbourne (M.D.)
|Known for||HPV vaccine creation|
|Notable awards||Australian of the Year (2006),
Prime Minister's Prize for Science (2008),
Australian Living Treasure (2012),
Companion of the Order of Australia (2012)
Ian Hector Frazer AC (born 6 January 1953) is a Scottish-born Australian scientist and the CEO and Director of Research of the Translational Research Institute. In parallel with researchers at the National Cancer Institute, Georgetown University, and University of Rochester, Frazer and his colleagues developed and patented the basic technology behind the HPV vaccine against cervical cancer; the second cancer preventing vaccine, and the first vaccine designed to prevent a cancer. (Two are marketed as Gardasil and Cervarix).
Frazer was born in Glasgow, Scotland. His parents were medical scientists, and he was drawn to science from a young age. Frazer attended an Aberdeen private school, Robert Gordon's College, and was well educated in the sciences. He chose to pursue medicine over an earlier interest in physics (due to it having fewer research opportunities), receiving his Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, at the University of Edinburgh (in 1974 and 1977, respectively). During this time he met and married (1976) his present wife, Caroline. His 1978–79 residency was in the Edinburgh Eastern General Hospital, the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and the Roodlands General Hospital in Haddington.
In 1980/81 the Frazers emigrated to Melbourne after Ian Mackay noticed him and brought him over. Frazer came to research viral immunology at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, which had impressed him as the dominant publisher of scientific papers on immunology. In 1981 he discovered that immunodeficiency afflicting homosexuals in San Francisco was also found in the gay men in his hepatitis B study, and (in 1984) helped to confirm that HIV was a cause. They[who?] also found that another sexually transmitted virus was having a surprising effect: human papilloma virus (HPV) infection seemed to be inducing precancerous cells.
In 1985 he moved to the University of Queensland (UQ) (as a Senior Lecturer) for the opportunity to establish his own research laboratory: In the Lions Human Immunology Laboratories he continued to research HPV in men, and contributed to HIV research. His other tasks were teaching, and running diagnostic tests for Princess Alexandra Hospital; he received the Doctor of Medicine qualification in 1988.
On a 1989 sabbatical he met virologist Jian Zhou, and the two considered the problem of developing a vaccine for HPV – a virus that cannot be cultured without living tissue. Frazer convinced Zhou to join him, and in 1990 they began to use molecular biology to synthesize particles in vitro that could mimic the virus. In March 1991 Zhou's wife and fellow researcher, Xiao-Yi Sun, assembled by Zhou's instructions two proteins into a virus-like particle (VLP), resembling the HPV shell, from which HPV vaccine would ultimately be made. (The vaccine completely protects unexposed women against four HPV strains responsible for 70% of cervical cancers, which kill about 250,000 women annually.) Frazer and Zhou filed a provisional patent in June 1991 and began work on developing the vaccine within UQ. To finance clinical trials, Australian medical company CSL, and later Merck, were sold partial patents. (CSL has the exclusive license to sell Gardasil in New Zealand and Australia, Merck the license elsewhere.) GlaxoSmithKline independently used the same VLP-approach to develop Cervarix, under a later US patent, licensing Frazer's intellectual property in 2005.
Later in 1991 the research was presented at a US scientific meeting, and Frazer became Director of the Centre for Immunology and Cancer Research at the University of Queensland (later renamed The Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, where he held a personal chair as director). After three years in design, Gardasil went into testing, and Frazer became a Professor in the University's Department of Medicine. In 1998 Frazer completed the first human trials for Gardasil, and became an Australian citizen.
Pioneer Patent for VLPs and the HPV vaccine
- U.S. 7,476,389, titled "Papilloma Virus Vaccines", was granted to co-inventors Ian Frazer and Jian Zhou (Zhou posthumously) on 13 January 2009. Its U.S. application was filed on 19 January 1994, but claimed priority under a 20 July 1992 PCT filing to the date of an initial [AU] Australian patent application filed on 19 July 1991.
In 2006 results from the four-year Phase III trials led to Australian and US regulatory approval. Frazer's studies showed 100% efficacious protective immunity in HPV naïve women, but could not directly test protective immunity (against HPV exposure) in adolescent girls. As a surrogate test, antibody titer levels in vaccinated 9 to 15-year-old girls was shown high enough to give them the same level of immunity as vaccinated women. It has been (vandalised) that one way to bring cheaper equivalent vaccines to market is to mandate a similar induced immune response.
In the 2007 resolution of their US patent lawsuit, Frazer's and Jian Zhou's heirs (Zhou, who died in 1999, was survived by his widow Xiao-Yi Sun and a son Andreas) world-wide rights to the fundamental VLP science, and Frazer's and Zhou's priority to invention of that fundamental VLP science, were both established.
After 2009 reports of adverse Gardasil reactions, Frazer said "Apart from a very, very rare instance where you get an allergic reaction from the vaccine, which is about one in a million, there is nothing else that can be directly attributable to the vaccine." Ian Frazer is one of the "most trusted" Australians, and some critics have accused Gardasil's advocates of exploiting patriotism to promote its rapid Australian release. (Australia's government had the world's most generous coverage for the drug, though it is the nation with the lowest cervical cancer mortality.)
Awards and honours
In 1999 Frazer received the Australian Biotechnology Award, and has since received more than twenty awards for science:
- 2007: Howard Florey Medal for Medical Research
- 2008: Prime Minister's Prize for Science
- 2008: Balzan Prize for Preventive Medicine
- 2009: Australian Medical Association Gold Medal
- 2006: William B. Coley Award (with Harald zur Hausen)
- 2005: CSIRO Eureka Prize for Leadership in Science
- 2003: Centenary Medal for services to cancer research
- 2011: elected Fellow of the Royal Society
- 2008: Ramaciotti Medal
- 2008: American Academy of Dermatology Lila Gruber Award for Dermatology
- 2007: Novartis Prize for Clinical Immunology, Rio de Janeiro
- 2007: Golden Plate recipient, International Achievement Summit
- 2007: International Life Award for Scientific Research
- 2007: Merck Sharp & Dohme Howard Florey Medal
- 2007: Clunies Ross Award, Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering
- 2006: Distinguished Fellowship Award, Royal College of Pathologists
- 2006: Queenslander of the Year / Australian of the Year
- 2005: John Curtin Medal
- 1999: Business/Higher Education Round Table award for Collaborative Research .
On 11 June 2012, Frazer was named a Companion of the Order of Australia (AC) for "eminent service to medical research, particularly through leadership roles in the discovery of the Human Papilloma Virus vaccine and its role in preventing cervical cancer, to higher education and as a supporter of charitable organisations."
In February 2014, it was announced that Frazer's new vaccine against genital herpes has passed human safety trials in a trial of 20 Australians. The new vaccine is designed to work against preventing new infections, and to cure current patients.
Since[when?], Frazer has been the CEO and Director of Research at the Translational Research Institute, a joint initiative of The University of Queensland, Queensland University of Technology, the Mater Medical Research Institute and the Princess Alexandra Hospital. He is researching immunoregulation and immunotherapeutic vaccines, supported by several US and Australian research funding bodies. He is working on a VLP-based vaccine against hepatitis C, and is researching extensions to the VLP production technology for dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis vaccines. Frazer expects (50% effective) HIV vaccines to be available by 2028. He is already overseeing trials of the first vaccine for skin cancer (the Squamous cancer, caused by HPV) which might be ready before 2020.
Frazer is the inaugural holder of the Queensland Government Smart State premier’s fellowship, worth $2.5 million over 5 years. He has held continuous research funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) since 1985, mostly relating to papilloma viruses or tumor immunology. He is currently a joint Chief Investigator on an NHMRC program grant and a NHMRC/Wellcome program grant, together worth more than $2 million a year.
Teaching and industry
He teaches immunology to undergraduates and graduate students at the University of Queensland, is Cancer Council Australia president, Chairman of the ACRF's Medical Research Advisory Committee, and advises the WHO and the Gates Foundation on papillomavirus vaccines.
Frazer consults for many pharmaceutical companies on Immunomodulatory drugs, prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. He sits on the board of three for-profit small biotech companies and a number of not for profit organisations. He is a director of a biotechnology start up company, Coridon, with an interest in optimising and targeting polynucleotide vaccine protein expression.
- Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, since 1988
- Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia, since 1989
- Australian Institute of Company Directors, since 2002
- Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, since 2003
- Australian Academy of Science, since 2004
- "TRI Executive". Translational Research Institute. Retrieved 8 Jan 2013.
- McNeil C (April 2006). "Who invented the VLP cervical cancer vaccines?". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 98 (7): 433. doi:10.1093/jnci/djj144. PMID 16595773. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
- The Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) protects against the development of malignant liver cancer and was the first vaccine capable of preventing the development of a specific human cancer. But, the Australia antigen was understood to be a potential vaccine seven years before the carcinogenic effect of Hepatitis B was discovered (see: Javier, R. T.; Butel, J. S. (25 August 2008). "The History of Tumor Virology". Cancer Research. AACR Centennial Series 68 (7693): 7693–706. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3301. PMC 3501656. PMID 18829521.). HBV was designed to prevent the disease's other symptoms, whereas an HPV vaccine would have been low priority if HPV wasn't carcinogenic (for example, medcompare.com says men are almost always clinically asymptomatic). These two viruses are the only two oncoviruses to yet have effective vaccines developed against them.
- "Profile on Professor Ian Frazer – Diamantina Institute at The University of Queensland". www.di.uq.edu.au. Retrieved 29 May 2010. "For his creation of the first vaccine designed to protect against a cancer, Ian Frazer receives the Prime Ministers Prize for Science."[dead link]
- Thompson, Peter. "Professor Ian Frazer". Talking Heads. www.abc.net.au. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
- Belinda Gibbon (program producer). "Meeting Ian Frazer". Catalyst. ABC. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
- Williams, Robyn (2008). "Professor Ian Frazer". Interviews with Australian scientists. Australian Academy of Science.
- "Ian Frazer". Ri Aus. Retrieved 29 May 2010. "Eighty per cent of Australian secondary schoolgirls have been vaccinated with Gardasil"
- Whittaker, M. (4 March 2006). "God's Gift to Women". The Weekend Australian Magazine. "'Ian went to huge efforts and he got them visas to Australia,' recalls Margaret Stanley. 'It says a lot about Ian. If anything should come over in your article, it's that Ian is an extremely kind man.'"
- Frazer, I. H.; Crapper, R. M.; Medley, G.; Brown, T. C.; Mackay, I. R. (20 September 1986). "Association between anorectal dysplasia, human papillomavirus, and human immunodeficiency virus infection in homosexual men". The Lancet 328 (8508): 657–660. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(86)90168-6.
- Frazer, I. H.; McCamish M; Hay I; North P. (3 October 1988). "Influence of human immunodeficiency virus antibody testing on sexual behaviour in a "high-risk" population from a "low-risk" city.". Lions Human Immunology Laboratories, University of Queensland, Department of Medicine, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba.
- "A hero of women and science". Diamantina Institute at The University of Queensland. "Ian Frazer was set for a career in physics when a chance encounter with an immunologist, the father of his pen-friends girlfriend, changed his course."
- "1". Human Papillomaviruses: Clinical and Scientific Advances. London: Hodder Arnold. August 2001. ISBN 978-0-340-74215-0.
- Vaccines Forgotten Man [www.theaustralian.com.au/news/tribute-to-vaccines-forgotten-man-story-e6frg600-1111116233989]
- Williams, L. (August 2006). "A Simple Idea". Reader's Digest.
- Sawaya, G. F.; Smith-McCune, Karen (10 May 2007). "HPV Vaccination – More Answers, More Questions". The New England Journal of Medicine 356 (19). "Previous reports showed a remarkable 100% efficacy of a quadrivalent vaccine targeting HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 on outcomes related to vaccine HPV types in women with no evidence of previous exposure to those types [...] subgroups of subjects with no evidence of previous exposure to relevant vaccine HPV types were evaluated separately for vaccine efficacy. In these subgroups, efficacy of nearly 100% against all grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma in situ related to vaccine HPV types was reported [...] Why is vaccine efficacy modest in the entire cohort? One factor is the apparent lack of efficacy among subjects with evidence of previous exposure to HPV types included in the vaccine. The FUTURE II trial showed no effect of vaccination"
- Walker; J. (9 October 2005). "UQ Team Defeats Cervical Cancer". The Courier-Mail. "Ian Frazer’s break-through vaccine is 100 per cent effective against the most common form of the virus that causes cervical cancer, according to final-stage trial results [...] a delighted Professor Frazer, 52, said last night: 'It is very rare, almost unheard of, to achieve a 100 per cent efficacy rate in any treatment, so these results are truly wonderful.'"
- Estimates of the contemporary global mortality rate have remained in the 190,000 to 300,000 range from 2000 to 2010. The 2007 WHO progress report says that preventable cervical cancer "was responsible in 2005 for up to 500,000 new cases, and up to 257,000 deaths, more than 90% in low- and middle-income countries", but, "According to WHO’s projections, deaths from cervical cancer will rise to 320,000 in 2015 and to 435,000 in 2030" (p.4). These projections may be little effected by vaccination programs (anyway unlikely on cost grounds) because "A reduction in cancer incidence and mortality might not be measurable before 10 to 30 years after the vaccine is introduced." (p.5). Other estimates of the problem's scale are broadly in agreement:
- Kennedy, F. (25 January 2006). "UQ Australian of the Year Will Continue Fight for Women's Health". UQ News. "Professor Frazer said Australia and other developed nations had effective Pap smear programs to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. 'Despite this, cervical cancer continues to be a shocking disease for women in the developed world. Women living in poverty in the developing world, where Pap smears are not widely available, account for most of the 250,000 deaths from cervical cancer each year. So this vaccine has the potential to do most good in the developing world, where it could help lift women out of poverty by relieving the burden of disease"
- "Transcripts – Professor Ian Frazer". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 29 May 2010. "Ian Frazer was made Australian of the Year in 2006. He and his team at Princess Alexandra Hospital in Brisbane have developed a vaccine to beat cervical cancers that kill 250,000 women a year worldwide."
- "Cervical Cancer Statistics". CervicalCancer.org. 2 March 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2010. "A woman dies of cervical cancer approximately every 2 minutes. In less developed countries, this type of cancer is the second most common in women and accounts for up to 300,000 annual deaths."
- Kantrowitz, Barbara (15 March 2010). "Message in a Bottle The subtle ads for drug giant Glaxo's new cervical-cancer drugs have people talking.". Newsweek. Retrieved 29 May 2010. "Cervarix may also protect against other types that cause cervical cancer, but more research is needed to confirm this. ... GlaxoSmithKline's] estimate of the prevalence of cervical cancer in USA roughly matches the National Cancer Institute's statistics. But according to the World Health Organization, the disease is far more common in developing countries, which account for 80 percent of the annual cases worldwide and about 190,000 deaths a year (compared to about 4,000 deaths in USA)."
- Chen, Huanhuan; Wang, Danhong (22 October 2007). "An interview with Jian Zhou's wife, Dr. Xiaoyi Sun". Science Times.
- Siers-Poisson, Judith (18 July 2007). "Profit Knows No Borders, Selling Gardasil to the Rest of the World". Center for Media and Democracy. "The federal government will also cover young women who are not in school and are still under 27 years through their general practitioners and community immunization clinics. This age group will receive the vaccine free from July 2007, until the end of June 2009."
- Beran, Ruth (21 June 2006). "Ian Frazer's patent problem". Australian Life Scientist. "Jian Zhou died in 1999, but he was an equal partner"
- Frazer, I. (November 2007). "Correlating immunity with protection for HPV infection". International Journal of Infectious Diseases (Elsevier) 11. Retrieved 6 June 2010. "with no breakthrough HPV infections due to waning immunity, the minimum protective anti-HPV antibody level could not be ascertained. Nevertheless, antibody titer has been used as a surrogate marker of protection in clinical trials, particularly in adolescent populations in whom efficacy studies are not feasible." (The 100% efficacious immunity is against HPV 16 and 18-related cervical cancer indicators.)
- Crager, S. E.; Guillen, E.; Price, M. (2009). "University Contributions to the HPV Vaccine and Implications for Access to Vaccines in Developing Countries". American Journal of Law & Medicine 35: 268. "Evaluating the ability of a vaccine to induce a specific immune response is far less complex, less costly, and less time-consuming, than performing clinical trials to assess the ability of the vaccine to confer protective immunity."
- Pollard, Ruth (9 September 2006). "One small jab, but a giant leap for womankind". Sydney Morning Herald. "It will mean a 70 per cent reduction in abnormal pap smears, and in parts of the world where there are no pap smears, a 70 per cent reduction in cervical cancer.""
- "Australian of the Year Awards – Australian of the Year 2006". www.australianoftheyear.org.au. Retrieved 28 May 2010. "Ian embodies Australian know-how, determination and innovation"
- Lewis, Wendy (2010). Australians of the Year. Pier 9 Press. ISBN 978-1-74196-809-5.
- Crawford, C.; Elsworth, S. (20 September 2009). "Ian Frazer defends cervical cancer vaccine Gardasil". The Courier-Mail (Brisbane: Queensland Newspapers). Retrieved 29 May 2010. ""For 23 million doses that have been given out, we received 12,424 reports of adverse events", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study author Barbara Slade said. [...] Of the adverse reports in the US, 772 cases were considered serious"
- Klein, Renate (21 September 2008). "The Gardasil 'miracle' coming undone?". On Line Opinion, Australia's e-journal of social and political debate. p. 2. Retrieved 29 May 2010. "Frazer: “God’s Gift to Women” proclaimed the cover of The Weekend Australian’s magazine [...] In Australia, critics are almost perceived as national traitors"
- Klein, Renate. "The Gardasil 'miracle' coming undone?". p. 1. "It was only on 23–24 February 2008 that the Victorian Cytology Service ran a job advertisement for a 'newly created position' to 'help establish and operate the new National HPV Vaccination Program' (The Australian, 23–24 February 2008). That’s 11 months after thousands of school girls had already received the jab."
- "Queensland scientist profiles > Ian Frazer". Queensland Government. 9 February 2010. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2010. "'What is the most unusual or fun thing you've done in your job?' Being Australian of the Year and carrying the Commonwealth Games torch round Darling Harbour on a boat on Australia Day"
- "International Balzan Prize Foundation: The Balzan Forum 2008 at the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei". www.balzan.org. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
- "Ian Frazer wins AMA gold medal for work on cervical cancer vaccines". Australian Medical Association. 31 May 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2010. "Through the development of vaccines, Ian has helped protect the lives of countless women"
- "Cervical cancer vaccine research wins CSIRO Eureka Prize (Media Release)". www.csiro.com. 10 September 2005.
- "Selected awards". www.di.uq.edu.au. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
- "Professor Ian Hector Frazer FRS". Royal Society. Retrieved 2012-03-18.[dead link]
- Farrow, Lauren (5 March 2012). "Seven added to national living treasure list". Canberra Times. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
- "Companion in the General Division of the Order of Australia (AC)". The Queen's Birthday 2012 Honours Lists. Official Secretary to the Governor-General of Australia. 11 June 2012. p. 3.
- "Cervical cancer vaccine inventor to target herpes".
- "About TRI". Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "Cancer Control in the 21st Century". James Cook University. 25 May 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2010.[dead link]
- Leng, Lay (November 2008). "FEATURE: Vaccinating against Cancer". In Candace, Lim. INNOVATION (Singapore: World Scientific Publishing & The NUS) 7 (3). "According to Frazer, the opportunity for vaccine improvement comes from novel adjuvants [...] and recombinant DNA"
- Kelly, James (30 March 2010). "Vaccine doctor's good news". Stateline Queensland. ABC. Retrieved 29 May 2010. "It's not exactly the same virus and therefore the vaccine we already have will not protect against that particular cancer. But the technology that we've used to develop a vaccine for cervical cancer should in principle be possible to use for prevention of some skin cancers."
- "Scientist Ian Frazer close to creating skin cancer vaccine". Brisbane Times. 16 November 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2010. "If we can get encouraging results we will try and push it on as fast as we can It's really a given that we try to focus on health problems that are significant ones."
- "Professor Ian Frazer wins Prime Minister's Prize for Science". Cancer Council Australia. 17 October 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2010. "Sometimes it seems almost impossible to believe that something we did all those years ago could have such a dramatic impact on so many people"
- "Ian Frazer honoured by major Fellowship". www.coridon.com. 6 June 2004. Retrieved 29 May 2010. "I saw becoming a fellow of the AAS as recognition received towards the end of a career, whereas I see myself working in research for a lot longer yet"
- King, Madonna (2013). Ian Frazer: The man who saved a million lives. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. ISBN 9780702249570.
- Australian Cancer Research Foundation Profile
- University of Queensland Research Profile
- Australian Academy of Science Profile
- Australian of the Year Award Profile
- Queensland Government Science Profile