Ian Khama

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Ian Khama
Ian Khama (2014).jpg
Ian Khama at the London Conference on The Illegal Wildlife Trade, 13 February 2014
4th President of Botswana
Incumbent
Assumed office
1 April 2008
Vice President Mompati Merafhe succeeded by
Ponatshego Kedikilwe
Preceded by Festus Mogae
Vice President of Botswana
In office
13 July 1998 – 1 April 2008
President Festus Mogae
Preceded by Festus Mogae
Succeeded by Mompati Merafhe
Personal details
Born (1953-02-27) 27 February 1953 (age 61)
Chertsey, United Kingdom
Nationality Batswana
Political party Botswana Democratic Party
Relations Tshekedi Khama II (brother)
Parents Seretse Khama
Ruth Williams Khama
Alma mater Sandhurst
Profession Pilot
Religion Christian
Military service
Rank Lieutenant General
Commands Botswana Defence Force

Lieutenant General Seretse Khama Ian Khama (or Ian a Sêrêtsê; born 27 February 1953[1]) is a Motswana politician who has been the President of Botswana since 2008; he is also the de facto Paramount Chief of the Bamangwato tribe. After serving as Commander of the Botswana Defence Force, he entered politics and served as Vice-President of Botswana from 1998 to 2008, then succeeded Festus Mogae as President on 1 April 2008.

Early life[edit]

Ian Khama is the first-born son and second child of Sir Seretse Khama (1 July 1921–13 July 1980), who was the country's foremost independence leader and President from 1966 to 1980, and Lady Khama. He was born in Chertsey, Surrey during the period in which his father was exiled to the United Kingdom due to the opposition by the colonial government and the emergent apartheid regime in South Africa to his marriage to a white woman.

He is also the grandson of Sekgoma II (1869–1925), who was the paramount chief of the Bamangwato people, and the great-grandson of Khama III (1837–1923), their king; and the great-great grandson of Kgosikgolo Sekgoma I, the Chief of the Bamangwato people (1815–1885). The name "Seretse" means “the clay that binds together,” and was given to his father to celebrate the recent reconciliation of his father and grandfather; this reconciliation assured Seretse’s Khama's own ascension to the throne with his aged father’s death in 1925. Seretse Khama Ian Khama is named after his father to continue this historical legacy. He is also known simply as Ian Khama to differentiate between himself and his father. Tshekedi Khama II, Ian Khama's brother, was named after their great uncle, Tshekedi Khama who was the regent and guardian for Kgosi Seretse Khama, the first President of Botswana.

Education and training[edit]

Ian Khama is an alumnus of Waterford Kamhlaba, a United World College in Mbabane, Swaziland.[2] He is a qualified pilot and attended Royal Military Academy Sandhurst,[3] where the British Army trains its officers.

Political career[edit]

Khama, serving as Commander of the Botswana Defence Force, announced on 16 December 1997 that he would retire from his command on 31 March 1998. Because this was the same date as the planned retirement of President Quett Masire, it fueled political speculation about Khama.[4] On 1 April 1998, when Vice-President Festus Mogae succeeded Masire as President, Khama was appointed as the new Vice-President. However, Khama did not hold a seat in the National Assembly, and so could not immediately take office as Vice-President. In early July 1998 he overwhelmingly won a by-election in Serowe North, receiving 2,986 votes against 86 votes for the candidate of the opposition Botswana National Front.[5] On 13 July, he took his seat in the National Assembly and was sworn in as Vice-President.[6] By these actions, he effectively renounced his hitherto unclaimed hereditary chieftaincy, as the constitutional monarchs of modern Botswana are legally barred from actively taking part in party politics. Be this as it may, many traditional Bamangwato continue to recognize him as their chief.

Following the victory of the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) in the general election of October 1999, Khama remained Vice-President as well as Minister of Presidential Affairs and Public Administration.[7][8] Mogae granted Khama a one-year leave later in the year,[9][10] a decision that the opposition Botswana Congress Party[9] and the Botswana Council of Non-Governmental Organizations sharply criticized. Khama's leave became effective on 1 January 2000.[10] He returned to his duties as Vice-President on 1 September 2000, although he was replaced as Minister of Presidential Affairs and Public Administration at that time.[11]

Khama, already a member of the BDP Central Committee,[12] was elected as Chairman of the BDP on 22 July 2003 at a party congress; he defeated the previous Chairman, Ponatshego Kedikilwe, receiving 512 votes against 219 for Kedikilwe.[13][14] Khama had been backed for the post by President Mogae,[12][15] and the outcome was viewed as crucial, paving the way for Khama to eventually succeed Mogae as President.[12][13]

Mogae stepped down, as he had long said he would do,[16] on 1 April 2008; Khama succeeded him as President. At his swearing-in ceremony in Gaborone, Khama said that there would be continuity in policy and no "radical changes", although he said that "a change in style and special emphasis on a number of issues" might be evident, and he emphasized his commitment to democracy.[17] He immediately undertook a major cabinet reshuffle, and he appointed Mompati Merafhe, who had been Foreign Minister, as the new Vice-President.[18]

Upon becoming President, Khama left his post as Chairman of the BDP; Daniel Kwelagobe was chosen to replace him.[19]

Khama is a member of the Board of Directors of the US-based organization Conservation International, which is also active in Botswana.[citation needed] In 2007, Khama appeared on British television in the BBC's Top Gear motoring programme and he met the presenters as they prepared to cross the Makgadikgadi Pan in northern Botswana by car.[20] In 2009, Khama appeared on CNN's African Voices which painted a positive picture of the outgoing and physically fit Khama who is leading a new generation of African leaders.

Interim term (1 April 2008-19 October 2009)[edit]

Even though President Ian Khama was not elected to the Presidency, which some political commentators see as a flaw in the electoral system in Botswana, he governed as if he was elected and proceeded to make some fundamental changes to the way the Botswana was governed during his "interim term". President Khama first articulated his desire to impose a 70% alcohol levy, meant to combat the scourge of excessive drinking in Botswana which had become a real problem, especially amongst the youth. Although the idea was laudable, the practical effect of such a levy was soon seen to have a deleterious effect on the brewing industry who resisted the imposition of such a levy, along with bars and other drinking establishments. The President shifted his policy to focus on prevention and education but still, at the end of the day, imposed a 30% levy after consulting with industry leaders. Unpopular as this was, it showed that the Khama was willing to do not just what was popular but what he felt was right for the country.

The Media Practitioners Law has been criticized both inside and outside of government as inhibiting free speech. The bill's language seeks to encourage a more professional journalistic standard, but detractors counter that it leaves this standard in the hands of politicians.

Under Khama, the government has also established the Directorate of Internal Security (DIS) with police powers, which is seen as the Botswana equivalent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the United States. Although this type of organization is not new and is found in many countries, it has critics in Botswana who charge that there are very few domestic or transnational threats that the police and the military could not handle. Some have argued that the institution, headed by President Khama's close friend Issac Kgosi, could easily be manipulated and used against political enemies or others who criticize the President or his administration. There have been reports of extrajudicial killings in Botswana, linked by many to the DIS. One such high-profile killing was that of John Kalifatis, whose death resulted during the course of a robbery investigation, in which it was believed that Kalifatis was armed and dangerous.

Khama had some recognized successes during his interim term. He got international and regional kudos for his stance against the Zimbabwean government, particularly Robert Mugabe. He did so by not recognizing the government unless and until it included members of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) headed by Morgan Tsvangarai. That showed Khama's democratic creditials, his willingness to be unpopular with some of his SADC colleagues when it came to a matter of principle, and his willingness be an active leader rather than be just a passive observer. Khama also condemned the action of Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir in the region of Dafur and became a vocal critic of despotic governments in Africa along with President Jakaya Kikwete of Tanzania and President Levy Mwanawasa of Zambia.

On the economic front, Khama has been a vocal proponent of in moving Botswana away from its over-reliance on diamonds and diversifying its economy, especially to the agriculture and tourism sector. Under his watch, the number of siteholders licensed to operate diamond polishing and cutting operations in Botswana has grown, creating employment opportunities in the downstream diamond markets. Botswana, under Khama, hopes to have not just cutting and polishing factories set up in Botswana, but jewellery manufacturing and vendors, as well as security firms, banking, finance, insurance and training facilities that will make Botswana a diamond hub. ABN/AMRO, the Dutch-based diamond trading bank just announced that it will be headquartering its African offices in Botswana.

Politically, Khama's interim term was dominated by internal squabbling in the BDP. The BDP is now clearly divided into two major factions, the A-Team and the Barata Phati factions. The A-Team is led by President Khama, Jacob Nkate, the former Minister of Education, and Vice President Mompati Merafhe. The Barata Phati faction is led by Daniel Kwelagobe, the Chairman of the Party, Gomemelo Motswaledi, and Ponatshego Kedikilwe, who wish to bring about constitutional reform not only to the BDP but also to the country's constitution. Things got so bad in the run up to the 2009 elections that Motswaledi, who gave up on his ambition to run for a seat in Serowe in order to make way for Ian Khama's brother, Tshekedi Khama II, was also excluded from representing Gaborone when he ran afoul of President Khama. After this incident, critics accused Khama of authoritarian tendencies, while others say that he was simply playing instilling discipline as part of his role as the head of the party.

Khama's first cabinet[edit]

Botswana's cabinet is headed by the President, who is also head of government.[21]

Office Incumbent
President Ian Khama
Vice president Ponatshego Kedikilwe
Minister of Presidential Affairs and Public Administration Mokgweetsi Masisi
Minister of Local Government Lebonaamang Mokalake
Minister of Trade and Industry Dorcus Makgatho Malesu
Minister of Finance and Development Planning Kenneth Matambo
Minister of Youth, Sports and Culture Shaw Kgathi
Minister of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources Ponatshego Kedikilwe
Minister of Communications, Science and Technology Nonofo Molefi
Minister of Defence, Justice and Security Ramadeluka Ndelu Dikgakgamatso Seretse
Minister of Agriculture Christian De Graaf
Minister of Works and Transport Johnnie Swartz
Minister of Labour and Home Affairs Peter Siele
Minister of Health Dr.Reverend John Seakgosing
Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Phandu Skelemani
Minister of Environment, Wildlife and Tourism Onkokame Mokaila
Minister of Education and Skills Development Pelonomi Venson-Moitoi
Minister of Lands and Housing Nonofo Molefhi

First full term (20 October 2009)[edit]

President Ian Khama began his first full term with a reshuffled Cabinet which saw two women in key positions. However even with few women in primary cabinet positions, the Botswana Democratic Party was able to make a first for Botswana, by electing the first female speaker of Parliament in the form of Ms. Margaret Nasha.

Khama's second cabinet[edit]

Botswana's cabinet is headed by the President, who is also head of government.

Office Incumbent
President Ian Khama
Vice president Mompati Merafhe
Minister of Presidential Affairs and Public Administration Lesego Motsumi
Minister of Local Government Lebonamang Mokalake
Minister of Trade and Industry Baledzi Gaolathe
Minister of Finance and Development Planning Kenneth Matambo
Minister of Youth, Sports and Culture Shaw Kgathi
Minister of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources Ponatshego Kedikilwe
Minister of Infrastructure, Science and Technology Johnnie Swartz
Minister of Defence, Justice and Security Dikgakgamatso Seretse
Minister of Agriculture Christian De Graaf
Minister of Works and Transport Frank Ramsden
Minister of Labour and Home Affairs Peter Siele
Minister of Health John Seakgosing
Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Phandu Skelemani
Minister of Environment, Wildlife and Tourism Onkokame Mokaila
Minister of Education and Skills Development Pelonomi Venson-Moitoi
Minister of Lands and Housing Nonofo Molefhi

Source: [1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "True to tradition, Khama is born to rule Botswana", Sapa-AFP (Pretoria News), 1 April 2008.
  2. ^ "Waterford Kamhlaba Background"
  3. ^ Gordon Bell "Botswana's leader to keep winning formula", Reuters (IOL), 30 March 2008.
  4. ^ "Botswana: Army commander announces he will retire at end of March 1998", SAPA news agency (nl.newsbank.com), 18 December 1997.
  5. ^ "Botswana: Ian Khama wins by-election and can therefore be vice-president", SAPA news agency (nl.newsbank.com), 6 July 1998.
  6. ^ "Botswana: Ian Khama takes parliamentary seat, sworn in as vice-president", SAPA news agency (nl.newsbank.com), 13 July 1998.
  7. ^ Ernest Chilisa, "Major shake-up after Botswana poll", Saturday Star (IOL), 22 October 1999.
  8. ^ "Botswana: President Mogae appoints new cabinet", Radio Botswana (nl.newsbank.com), 21 October 1999.
  9. ^ a b "Botswana: President Mogae faces court action", PANA news agency (nl.newsbank.com), 23 December 1999.
  10. ^ a b "Botswana: Vice-president's year-long sabbatical leave criticized", PANA news agency (nl.newsbank.com), 3 January 2000.
  11. ^ "Botswana: Vice-president "resumes duty"; cabinet reshuffle reported", Radio Botswana (nl.newsbank.com), 30 August 2000.
  12. ^ a b c "BOTSWANA: Feature – leadership contest may test stability", IRIN, 19 June 2003.
  13. ^ a b "BOTSWANA: Khama win eases Mogae's concerns", IRIN, 23 July 2003.
  14. ^ "Botswana: Vice-president wins ruling party chairmanship", Business Day, Johannesburg (nl.newsbank.com), 22 July 2003.
  15. ^ "Botswana: President Mogae defends decision to back Khama for party chairmanship", Radio Botswana (nl.newsbank.com), 19 June 2003.
  16. ^ "Botswana's Mogae set to retire", AFP (IOL), 15 July 2007.
  17. ^ "New president calms nerves", AFP (IOL), 1 April 2008.
  18. ^ "Khama fires five ministers", Mmegi Online, 2 April 2008.
  19. ^ "DK is BDP chairman", BOPA, 8 April 2008.
  20. ^ Top Gear: Botswana Special, Top Gear Series 10, episode 4, BBC, broadcast 4 November 2007.
  21. ^ http://palapye.wordpress.com/2008/04/06/the-new-cabinet-of-botswana
Political offices
Preceded by
Festus Mogae
Vice President of Botswana
1998–2008
Succeeded by
Mompati Merafhe
President of Botswana
2008–present
Incumbent