Ibadan

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Ibadan
City
Ibadan street scene.jpg
Nickname(s): Ile Oluyole
Ibadan is located in Nigeria
Ibadan
Ibadan
Location in Nigeria
Coordinates: 7°23′47″N 3°55′0″E / 7.39639°N 3.91667°E / 7.39639; 3.91667Coordinates: 7°23′47″N 3°55′0″E / 7.39639°N 3.91667°E / 7.39639; 3.91667
Country  Nigeria
State Oyo State
War camp 1829
Ibadan District Council 1961
Ibadan Municipal Government 1989
Government
 • Governor Senator Abiola Ajimobi
 • Olubadan Samuel Odulana Odugade I
Area
 • Total 1,190 sq mi (3,080 km2)
Population (2011 (est.))[2]
 • Total 2,949 million[1]
 • Density 2,140/sq mi (828/km2)
 • Metro density 600/sq mi (250/km2)
 • Religions Muslim, Christianity, Yoruba traditional religion
Time zone WAT (UTC+1)
Website http://www.oyostate.gov.ng/

Ibadan (Yoruba: Ìbàdàn or fully (Ìlú) Ẹ̀bá-Ọ̀dàn, (the city at) the edge of the savannah) is the capital city of Oyo State and the third largest metropolitan area, by population, in Nigeria, after Lagos and Kano, with a population of 2.949 million according to the 2011 CIA World Factbook. Ibadan is also the largest metropolitan geographical area. At Nigerian independence, Ibadan was the largest and most populous city in the country and the third in Africa after Cairo and Johannesburg.

Ibadan is located in south-western Nigeria, 128 km inland northeast of Lagos and 530 km southwest of Abuja, the federal capital, and is a prominent transit point between the coastal region and the areas to the north. Ibadan had been the centre of administration of the old Western Region since the days of the British colonial rule, and parts of the city's ancient protective walls still stand to this day. The principal inhabitants of the city are the Yorubas.

History[edit]

Ibadan came into existence in 1829.[3] According to local historians, Lagelu, the Jagun (commander-in-chief) of Oyo kingdom and generalissimo, left Oyo with some his best warriors from Oyo, Ogbomoso and Ilesa, to found their military outpost to prevent attack on Oyo kingdom from Ijebu and Egba warriors and their allied in Eba Odan, which literally means 'between the forest and plains.' According to HRH Sir Isaac Babalola Akinyele, the late Olubadan (king) of Ibadan (Olu Ibadan means Lord of Ibadan), in his authoritative book on the history of Ibadan, Iwe Itan Ibadan, printed in 1911, the first city was destroyed due to an incident at an Egungun (masquerade) festival when an Egungun was accidentally disrobed and derisively mocked by women and children in an open marketplace full of people. In Yorubaland, it was an abomination for women to look an Egungun in the eye because the Egunguns were considered to be the dead forefathers who returned to the earth each year to bless their progeny. When the news reached the then Alaafin of Oyo, he commanded that Eba Odan be destroyed for committing such abominable act.

Lagelu was by now an old, frail man; he could not stop the destruction of his city, but he and some of his people survived the attack and fled to a nearby hill for sanctuary. On the hill they survived by eating oro fruit and snails; later, they cultivated the land and made corn and millets into pap meals known as oori or eko, which they ate with roasted snails. They improvised a bit by using the snail shells to drink the liquefied eko. Ultimately, Lagelu and his people came down from the hill and founded another city called Eba'dan.

The new city instantly grew prosperous and became a commercial nerve centre. Shortly afterwards, Lagelu died, leaving behind a politically savvy people and a very stable community. The newly enthroned Olubadan made a friendly gesture to the Olowu of Owu by allowing Olowu to marry his only daughter, Nkan. Coming from a war campaign one day, the raging Odo Oba (River Oba) would not allow Olowu and his army to cross until a human sacrifice was performed to appease the angry river. The chosen sacrifice was Nkan. The Olubadan was infuriated at hearing of Nkan's death; he sent an emissary to inform the Alafin of Oyo, some of now Yoruba kings and rulers. Then the Olubadan sent his army to attack the powerful Olowu of Owu and defeated him. The Olowu committed suicide to escape being captured by the Ibadan army. The battle shattered the great Owu kingdom into pieces till today. Some of it remains in the mother town which is the present Orile-Owu in Osun State, while others are in Ogun State, known as Owu Abeokuta and etc.

A part of Ibadan was historically an Egba town. The Egba occupants were forced to leave the town and moved to present-day Abeokuta under the leadership of Sodeke as result of their disloyalty. Ibadan grew into an impressive and sprawling urban center so much that by the end of 1829, Ibadan dominated the Yorùbá region militarily, politically and economically. The military sanctuary expanded even further when refugees began arriving in large numbers from northern Oyo following raids by Fulani warriors. After losing the northern portion of their region to the marauding Fulanis, many Oyo indigenes retreated deeper into the Ibadan environs.

The Fulani Caliphate attempted to expand further into the southern region of modern-day Nigeria, but was decisively defeated by the armies of Ibadan in 1840.

Colonial Ibadan[edit]

In 1893 Ibadan area became a British Protectorate after a treaty signed by Fijabi, the Baale of Ibadan with the British acting Governor of Lagos, George C. Denton on 15 August.[4] By then the population had swelled to 120,000. The British developed the new colony to facilitate their commercial activities in the area, and Ibadan shortly grew into the major trading center that it is today.

Education[edit]

The first university to be set up in Nigeria was the University of Ibadan. Established as a college of the University of London in 1948, and later converted into an autonomous university in 1962. It has the distinction of being one of the premier educational institutions in Africa. The Polytechnic, Ibadan is also located in the city. As at October, 2006, the university has a population of 13,823 undergraduate and 3,480 postgraduate students.

There are also numerous public and private primary and secondary schools located in the city. Other noteworthy institutions in the city include the University of Ibadan Teaching Hospital, also known as University College Hospital (UCH), which is the first teaching hospital in Nigeria; the internationally acclaimed International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA); the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). Also the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, the Nigerian Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), and the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), all under the auspices of the Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria;[5] and the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria.

Before the dissolution of the Western Region, Nigeria, Ibadan and its environs were the home of the most sophisticated and liberal scientific and cultural community on the continent of Africa, as personified by the immortalized Ibadan School of historiography.

In 1853, the first Europeans to settle in Ibadan, Reverend Hinderer and his wife, started Ibadan's first Western schools. They built churches and schools and the first two-storey building in Ibadan, which can still be found today at Kudeti. The first pupils to attend an elementary school in Ibadan were Yejide Olunloyo (female) and Akinyele Olunloyo (male) – the two children of an Ibadan high chief.

Transport[edit]

Ibadan has an airport, Ibadan Airport, and is served by the Ibadan railway station on the main railway line from Lagos to Kano. Poorly-maintained roads are particularly problematic in the rainy season. What are called interstate highways in the United States are called carriageways in Nigeria. There are not many miles of dual carriageways in Ibadan. The primary routes go from Ibadan to Lagos and to Benin City. Adding to the weather and terrain, roads typically have few or no speed limit signs or warning signs to alert the motorist of curves, hills, intersections or problems with the road itself such as large potholes or eroded road beds.[citation needed]

In-town transport comes in a variety of forms. Modes of transport include, taxis, taxi-vans commonly called danfos, private cars that are hired out by the day with a driver, personal family cars, scooters, and walking. All fares are negotiable depending upon the number in the party and the distance to be travelled.[citation needed] The average taxi is a small car, which seats four people and the driver. A danfo is a van, meanwhile, which seats seven people and the driver. This does not mean that more people will not be accommodated; often both taxis and danfos carry as many passengers as can squeeze into the vehicle. Danfos have an additional staff member. He is the "conductor," who arranges fare agreements and keeps track of delivery points. He is often to be seen holding onto the frame of the van while hanging out the door in order to locate potential fares.[citation needed] In December 2008 Governor Alao Akala Commissioned 55 brand new buses for interstate transport service which is to be used by Trans City Transport Company (TCTC) Eleyele, Ibadan with a promise to commence intracity transport service very early next year. in 2013 governor isiaka ajimobi also launched some long vehicle popularly called BRT to ease transportation in the city<Adegboyega Dayo>

Geography[edit]

Ibadan is located in southwestern Nigeria in the southeastern part of Oyo State about 120 km east of the border with the Republic of Benin in the forest zone close to the boundary between the forest and the savanna. The city ranges in elevation from 150 m in the valley area, to 275 m above sea level on the major north-south ridge which crosses the central part of the city. The city's total area is 1,190 sq mi (3,080 km2).

The city is naturally drained by four rivers with many tributaries: Ona River in the North and West; Ogbere River towards the East; Ogunpa River flowing through the city and Kudeti River in the Central part of the metropolis. Ogunpa River, a third-order stream with a channel length of 12.76 km and a catchment area of 54.92 km2.

Climate[edit]

Ibadan has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen climate classification Aw), with a lengthy wet season and relatively constant temperatures throughout the course of the year. Ibadan’s wet season runs from March through October, though August sees somewhat of a lull in precipitation. This lull nearly divides the wet season into two different wet seasons. November to February forms the city’s dry season, during which Ibadan experiences the typical West African harmattan. The mean total rainfall for Ibadan is 1420.06 mm, falling in approximately 109 days. There are two peaks for rainfall, June and September. The mean maximum temperature is 26.46 C, minimum 21.42 C and the relative humidity is 74.55%.

Climate data for Ibadan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37
(99)
39
(102)
38
(100)
38
(100)
35
(95)
33
(91)
31
(88)
31
(88)
36
(97)
33
(91)
34
(93)
35
(95)
39
(102)
Average high °C (°F) 33
(91)
34
(93)
34
(93)
33
(91)
32
(90)
29
(84)
28
(82)
27
(81)
29
(84)
30
(86)
32
(90)
33
(91)
31
(88)
Average low °C (°F) 21
(70)
22
(72)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
22
(72)
21
(70)
21
(70)
22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
21
(70)
22
(72)
Record low °C (°F) 10
(50)
12
(54)
18
(64)
18
(64)
18
(64)
18
(64)
16
(61)
16
(61)
17
(63)
18
(64)
14
(57)
14
(57)
10
(50)
Rainfall mm (inches) 8
(0.31)
23
(0.91)
76
(2.99)
125
(4.92)
145
(5.71)
163
(6.42)
132
(5.2)
74
(2.91)
170
(6.69)
152
(5.98)
43
(1.69)
10
(0.39)
1,121
(44.13)
Avg. precipitation days 1 2 5 9 11 12 12 10 15 12 4 1 94
 % humidity 76 71 75 78 82 86 88 88 86 84 80 76 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 170 198 170 170 170 141 85 57 85 141 198 198 1,783
Source: BBC Weather[6]

Administration[edit]

There are eleven (11) Local Governments in Ibadan Metropolitan area consisting of five urban local governments in the city and six semi-urban local governments in the less city. Local governments at present are institutions created by the military governments but recognised by the 1999 constitution and they are the third tiers of government in Nigeria. Local governments Councils consist of the Executive Arm made up of the Executive Chairman, the vice chairman, the secretary and the supervisory councilors.[7]

Local government areas[edit]

Ibadan Urban
  1. Ibadan North
  2. Ibadan North-East
  3. Ibadan North-West
  4. Ibadan South-East
  5. Ibadan South-West
Ibadan Semi-Urban
  1. Akinyele
  2. Egbeda
  3. Ido
  4. Lagelu
  5. Ona Ara
  6. Oluyole

Demography[edit]

Population[edit]

Until 1970, Ibadan was the largest city in sub-Saharan Africa.[3] In 1952, it was estimated that the total area of the city was approximately 103.8 km2[8] However, only 36.2 km2 was built up. This meant that the remaining 67 km2 were devoted to non-urban uses, such as farmlands, river floodplains, forest reserves and water bodies. These “non-urban land uses” disappeared in the 1960s: an aerial photograph in 1973 revealed that the urban land-scape had completely spread over about 100 km2. The land area increased from 136 km2 in 1981 to 210–240 km2 in 1988-89 (Areola, 1994: 101). By the year 2000, it is estimated that Ibadan covered 400 km2.[9] The growth of the built-up area during the second half of the 20th century (from 40 km2 in the 1950s to 250 km2 in the 1990s) shows clearly that there has been an underestimate of the total growth of the city. In the 1980s, the Ibadan-Lagos expressway generated the greatest urban sprawl (east and north of the city), followed by the Eleiyele expressway (west of the city). Since then, Ibadan city has spread further into the neighbouring local government areas of Akinyele and Egbeda in particular.

Monuments, landmarks and other locations[edit]

There is a museum in the building of the Institute of African Studies, which exhibits several remarkable pre-historic bronze carvings and statues. The city has several well stocked libraries, and is home to the first television station in Africa. Dugbe Market is the nerve centre of Ibadan's transport and trading network. The best method to move about the city is to use reference points and notable landmarks. The city also has a zoo located inside the University of Ibadan, and a botanical garden located at Agodi.

The Bower Memorial Tower[10] to the east on Oke Aàre (Aare's Hill) ("Aare" in Yoruba means commander-in-chief or generalissimo), which can be seen from practically any point in the city; it also provides an excellent view of the whole city from the top. Another prominent landmark, Cocoa House,[11] was the first skyscraper in Africa. It is one of the few skyscrapers in the city and is at the hub of Ibadan's commercial centre. Other attractions include Mapo Hall[12] – the colonial style city hall – perched on top of a hill, "Oke Mapo," Mapo Hill ("oke" is hill in Yoruba), the Trans-Wonderland amusement park, the cultural centre Mokola and the Obafemi Awolowo Stadium, a major stadium. The first citadel of higher learning, University of Ibadan (formerly the University College of Ibadan), the Obafemi Awolowo Hall in the university of Ibadan is said to be the tallest and largest hostel in west Africa. The first teaching hospital in Nigeria, University College Hospital, UCH, were both built in this ancient but, highly important city. Ibadan is also home to the legendary Shooting Stars FC – a professional Football Club. There are some good golf courses: the Ibadan Golf Club is a large 18-hole challenge and the Barracks course has just been extended to 18 holes. The most challenging and exclusive is the IITA Golf Club based on the 1,000 hectare premises of IITA.

Economy[edit]

With its strategic location on the non-operational railway line connecting Lagos to Kano, the city is a major center for trade in cassava, cocoa, cotton, timber, rubber, and palm oil.

The main industries in the area include the processing of agricultural products; Tobacco processing and Cigarette (Manufacture); flour-milling, leather-working and furniture-making.

There is abundance of clay, kaolin and aquamarine in its environs, and there are several cattle ranches, a dairy farm as well as a commercial abattoir in Ibadan.

The headquarters of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) have extensive grounds for crop and agricultural research into key tropical crops such as bananas, plantains, maize, cassava, soybean, cowpea and yam.[13]

List of people from Ibadan[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Ibadan is twinned with:



See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Nigeria". Central Intelligence Agency:The World Factbook. Retrieved July 25, 2014. 
  2. ^ Summing the 5 Local Government Areas Ibadan North/North West/South West/South East/North East as per:
    Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette (15 May 2007). "Legal Notice on Publication of the Details of the Breakdown of the National and State Provisional Totals 2006 Census" (PDF). Retrieved 19 May 2007. 
  3. ^ a b Lyold, P.C et.al (1967). The City of Ibadan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-11217-8. 
  4. ^ Olufemi Vaughan. Nigerian Chiefs: Traditional Power in Modern Politics, 1890s-1990s. 
  5. ^ "National Agricultural Research Institutes". ARCH. Retrieved 10 August 2009. 
  6. ^ "Average Conditions: Ibadan, Nigeria". BBC Weather. Retrieved 29 June 2010. 
  7. ^ Tomori M. A. "IBADAN METROPOLITAN AREA AND THE CHALLENGES TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT". 
  8. ^ Areola, O. "The Spatial Growth of Ibadan City and its impact on the rural Hinterland" in M.O. Filani, F.O. Akintola and C.O. Ikporukpo edited Ibadan Region, Rex Charles Publication, Ibadan, 1994 page 99.
  9. ^ Onibokun, P. and Faniran A., Urban research in Nigeria. IFRA and CASSAD, Ibadan, 1995
  10. ^ "The Bower Memorial Tower on wikimapia". Wikimapia.org. Retrieved 2014-02-18. 
  11. ^ "Ibadan travel guide". World66.com. Retrieved 2014-02-18. 
  12. ^ Mapo Hall on wikimapia
  13. ^ by IITA. "International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)". / Cgiar. Retrieved 2014-02-18. 
  14. ^ Rice, Andrew (12 April 2009). "Mission from Africa". New York Times. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  15. ^ "Nigeria HomePage". Thenigerianvoice.com. 2008-05-23. Retrieved 2014-02-18. 
  16. ^ "Home". ibadanrecords.com. Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  17. ^ "Sister Cities International (SCI)". Sister-cities.org. Retrieved 2013-04-21. 

'On Education' - Page 69; 'Seventeen Years In the Yoruba Country : Memorials of Anna Hinderer (wife of the Rev. David Hinderer, C.M.S. Missionary in Western Africa).