- For the town, see Ibiza Town. For the car, see SEAT Ibiza. For other uses, see Ibiza (disambiguation).
Ibiza (Catalan: Eivissa [əjˈvisə]) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea 79 km off the coast of the city of Valencia in Spain. It is the third largest of the Balearic Islands, an autonomous community of Spain. With Formentera, it is one of the two Pine Islands or Pityuses. Its largest cities are Ibiza Town (Catalan: Vila d'Eivissa, or simply Vila), Santa Eulària des Riu and Sant Antoni de Portmany. Its highest point, called Sa Talaiassa (or Sa Talaia), is 475 m/1,558 ft above sea level.
The relatively small island and its cities have become world-famous for their associations with tourism, nightlife, and the electronic music the island has originated. It is well known for its summer club scene which attracts very large numbers of tourists, but the island's government and the Spanish Tourist Office have controversially been working to promote more family-oriented tourism. Noted clubs include Space, Privilege, Amnesia, Ushuaïa Ibiza Beach Hotel, Pacha, DC10, Eden, and Es Paradis. Ibiza is also home to the legendary "port" in Ibiza Town, a popular stop for many tourists and now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The official name of the island is in Catalan Eivissa (pronounced: [əjˈvisə]). The name in Spanish is Ibiza (pronounced: [iˈβiθa]). In British English, the name is usually pronounced in an approximation of the Spanish (/ /), while in American English the pronunciation is more anglicized, or closer to Latin American Spanish (//, //).
The origin of the name is the Phoenician אִיבּוֹסִים, Ibosim.
In 654 BC, Phoenician settlers founded a port in the Balearic Islands, as Ibossim (from the Phoenician iboshim dedicated to the god of the music and dance Bes). It was later known to Romans as "Ebusus." The Greeks, who came to Ibiza during the time of the Phoenicians, were the first to call the two islands of Ibiza and Formentera the Pityûssae (Greek: Πιτυοῦσσαι, "pine-covered islands"). With the decline of Phoenicia after the Assyrian invasions, Ibiza came under the control of Carthage, also a former Phoenician colony. The island produced dye, salt, fish sauce (garum), and wool.
A shrine with offerings to the goddess Tanit was established in the cave at Es Cuieram, and the rest of the Balearic Islands entered Eivissa's commercial orbit after 400 BC. Ibiza was a major trading post along the Mediterranean routes. Ibiza began establishing its own trading stations along the nearby Balearic island of Majorca such as Na Guardis, where numerous Balearic mercenaries hired on, no doubt as slingers, to fight for Carthage.
During the Second Punic War, the island was assaulted by the two Scipio brothers in 209 BC but remained loyal to Carthage. With Carthaginian military luck running out on the Iberian mainland, Ibiza was last used by the fleeing Carthaginian General Mago to gather supplies and men before sailing to Minorca and then to Liguria. Ibiza negotiated a favorable treaty with the Romans, which spared Ibiza from further destruction and allowed it to continue its Carthaginian-Punic institutions well into the Empire days, when it became an official Roman municipality. For this reason, Ibiza today offers excellent examples of late Carthaginian-Punic civilization. During the Roman Empire, the island became a quiet imperial outpost, removed from the important trading routes of the time.
After the fall of the Roman empire and a brief period of first Vandal and then Byzantine rule, the island was conquered by the Moors in 990, the few remaining locals converted to Islam and Berber settlers came in. Under Islamic rule, Ibiza came in close contact with the city of Dénia—the closest port in the nearby Iberian peninsula, located in the Valencian Community—and the two areas were administered jointly by the Taifa of Dénia.
Ibiza together with the islands of Formentera and Menorca were invaded by the Norwegian king Sigurd I of Norway in the spring of 1110 on his crusade to Jerusalem. The king had previously conquered the cities of Sintra, Lisbon, and Alcácer do Sal and given them over to Christian rulers, in an effort to weaken the Muslim grip on the Iberian peninsula. King Sigurd continued to Sicily where he visited King Roger II of Sicily.
The island was conquered by Aragonese King James I in 1235. The local Muslim population got deported as was the case with neighboring Mallorca and the mainland Levant. New Christian colonists were brought in from Girona. The island maintained its own self-government in several forms until 1715, when King Philip V of Spain abolished the local government's autonomy. The arrival of democracy in the late 1970s led to the Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands. Today, the island is part of the Balearic Autonomous Community, along with Majorca, Minorca, and Formentera.
Ibiza is the larger of a group of the western Balearic archipelago called the "Pityuses" or "Pine Islands" composed of itself and Formentera. The Balearic island chain includes over fifty islands, many of which are uninhabited. The highest point of the island is Sa Talaiassa, at 475 metres.
Ibiza is administratively part of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands, whose capital is Palma, on the island of Majorca. Ibiza comprises 5 of the community's 67 municipalities. Clockwise from the south coast, these are:
- Sant Josep de sa Talaia
- Sant Antoni de Portmany
- Sant Joan de Labritja
- Santa Eulària des Riu
- Vila d'Eivissa ("Ibiza Town"; known simply as simply Vila, "Town")
1 November 2001
1 January 2010
|Sant Josep de sa Talaia||159.4||14,267||22,871|
|Sant Antoni de Portmany||126.8||15,081||22,136|
|Sant Joan de Labritja||121.7||4,094||5,477|
|Santa Eulària des Riu||153.6||19,808||32,637|
These municipalities had a total population of 88,076 inhabitants (as of the 2001 census), which had risen to an estimated 132,637 by the start of 2010, and have a land area of 572.56 km2 (221.07 sq mi).
|Climate data for Eivissa|
|Average high °C (°F)||15.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||11.8
|Average low °C (°F)||8.1
|Precipitation mm (inches)||38
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||5||5||4||4||3||2||1||2||4||6||5||5||46|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||161||167||207||243||277||297||335||302||237||198||164||148||2,732|
|Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología|
Demographically, Ibiza displays a very peculiar configuration, as census agencies diverge on exact figures. According to the 2001 national census, Ibiza had 88,076 inhabitants (against 76,000 in 1991, 64,000 in 1981, 45,000 in 1971, and 38,000 in 1961). However, two years later, this figure jumped to 108,000 (Govern de les Illes Balears - IBAE 2004), and by the start of 2010 had reached 132,637. This rapid growth stems from the amnesty which incorporated a number of unregistered foreign migrants. In terms of origin, about 55 percent of island residents were born in Ibiza, 35 percent are domestic migrants from mainland Spain (mostly working-class families from Andalusia, and the remainder from Catalonia, Valencia and Castile), and the remaining 10 to 15 percent are foreign, dual and multi-national citizens of the EU and abroad (Govern de les Illes Balears - IBAE 1996). In decreasing order, foreigners are Germans, British, Latin Americans, Moroccans, French, Italians, Dutch, in addition to a myriad of other nationalities. This mosaic reflects the fluidity of foreigners living and moving across the island, in ways that render impossible to exactly quantify the expatriate population (Rozenberg 1990).
The Spanish composer and music theorist Miguel Roig-Francolí was born in Ibiza, as was the politician and Spain's former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Abel Matutes. Notable former residents of Ibiza include English punk musician John Simon Ritchie (Sid Vicious), the psychedelic rock band Philiac, comic actor Terry-Thomas Hungarian master forger Elmyr de Hory. American fraudster Clifford Irving and film director Orson Welles
Eivissenc is the native dialect of Catalan that is spoken on Ibiza and nearby Formentera. Catalan shares co-official status with Spanish." Additionally, because of the influence of tourism and expatriates living in or maintaining residences on the island, other languages like German, English and Italian, are widely spoken. Polylinguality is the norm, not the exception.
Ibiza is considered a popular tourist destination, especially due to its legendary and at times riotous nightlife centred around two areas: Ibiza Town, the island's capital on the southern shore and Sant Antoni to the West. Well-known nightclubs are Privilege, Amnesia, Space, Pacha, Eden, Es Paradís, Underground and DC10. During the summer, the top producers and DJs in dance come to the island and play at the various clubs, in between touring to other international destinations. Some of the most famous DJs run their own weekly nights around the island. Many of these DJs use Ibiza as an outlet for presenting new songs within the house, trance and techno genres of electronic dance music. The city has achieved renown worldwide fame as a cultural center for house and trance in particular, with its name often being used as a partial metonym for the particular flavor of electronic music originating there, much like Goa in India.
Since 2005, the live music event, Ibiza Rocks, has helped to redefine the Ibiza party landscape. Bands such as Arctic Monkeys, Kasabian, The Prodigy, and the Kaiser Chiefs have played in the courtyard of the Ibiza Rocks Hotel. And from 2013 Ushuaïa Ibiza "will be turned into a giant ant colony to coincide with the new ANTS dance music events every Saturday".
Elsewhere on the island, underground music parties are common and enjoyed by the many international musicians, artists, and travelers that are drawn to the unique creative environment of Ibiza.
The season traditionally begins at the start of June with Space and DC10's opening parties and finishes on the first weekend of October with the Closing Parties. A typical schedule for clubbers going to Ibiza includes waking at noon, early evening naps, late night clubbing, and "disco sunrises." Due to Ibiza's notable tolerance toward misbehaviour from young adult tourists, it has acquired the sobriquet "Gomorrah of the Med." Also well-known is Café del Mar, a long-standing bar where many tourists traditionally view the sunset made famous by José Padilla, who has released more than a dozen eponymous album compilations of ambient music played at the location. That and other bars close by have become an increasingly popular venue for club pre-parties after sunset, hosting popular DJ performers.
The island's government is trying to encourage a more cultured and quieter tourism scene, passing rules including the closing of all nightclubs by 6 a.m. at the latest, and requiring all new hotels to be 5-star. The administration wants to attract a more international mixture of tourists.
World Heritage Site 
Though primarily known for its party scene, large portions of the island are registered as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and thus protected from the development and commercialization of the main cities. A notable example includes "God's Finger" in the Benirràs Bay as well as some of the more traditional Ibizan cultural sites such as the remains of the first Phoenicians settlement at Sa Caleta. Other sites are still under threat from the developers, such as Ses Feixes Wetlands, but this site has now been recognised by as a threatened environment and it is hoped that steps will be taken to preserve this wetland.
Because of its rustic beauty, companies and artists alike frequently use the island for photographic and film shoots. A monument ("The Egg") erected in honour of Christopher Columbus can be found in Sant Antoni; Ibiza is one of several places purporting to be his birthplace.
Since the early days of mass tourism on the island, there have been a large number of development projects ranging from successful ventures, such as the super clubs at Space and Privilege, to other failed development projects, such as Josep Lluís Sert's abandoned hotel complex at Cala D'en Serra, the half completed and now demolished "Idea" nightclub in Sant Antoni and the ruins of a huge restaurant/nightclub in the hills near Sant Josep called "Festival Club" that only operated for three summer seasons in the early 1970s. In 2013, Ibiza Property prices generally remain above market value and many of the development projects on the island have now been completed or continue as well as some exciting new projects being announce at the end of 2012. Since 2009, Ibiza has seen an increase in tourist numbers every year, with nearly 6 million people traveling through Ibiza Airport in 2012. The summer season has become concentrated between June and September, focusing on the clubbing calendar which is currently booming. In recent years, the luxury market has dramatically improved and with new restaurants, clubs, and improvements to the Marina in Ibiza Town, this looks set to continue 2013.
Ibiza is served by Ibiza Airport.
There are also ferries from the harbour of Sant Antoni and Ibiza Town to Barcelona, Majorca, Dénia, and Valencia. There are also ferries to Formentera leaving Sant Antoni Harbour (normally every Wednesday), and daily from Ibiza Town, Santa Eulària, and Figueretes–Platja d'en Bossa.
Several public busses also travel between Sant Antoni and Ibiza Town—every 15 minutes in summer and every half hour in winter. In addition, there are buses from Sant Antoni to Cala Bassa, Cala Conta and Cala Tarida, and to the Airport. From Ibiza there are buses to the Platja d'en Bossa, Ses Salines, the Airport, and Santa Eulària.
Ibiza's local cuisine is typically Mediterranean. One of the most common culinary products of the island are sweets known as flaons. Other savory dishes include sofrit pagès, bollit de peix (fish stew), arròs de matança (rice with pork) and arròs a la marinera.
In popular culture 
A number of novels have been written using Ibiza as the setting, including Joshua Then and Now by Mordecai Richler, Soma Blues by Robert Sheckley, Vacation in Ibiza by Lawrence Schimel, A Short Life on a Sunny Isle: An Alphonse Dantan Mystery by Hannah Blank, They Are Ruining Ibiza by A.C. Greene and The Python Project by Victor Canning. The 1960 novel Out of the Red into the Blue by the English novelist Barbara Comyns Carr is based on the island. Part of The Shell Seekers by Rosamund Pilcher takes place on Ibiza.
The song "We're Going to Ibiza" by Vengaboys also featured the island's notorious nightlife as the ideal location for vacations. In Jennifer Lopez's song, "On the Floor", the lyrics state "Brazil, Morocco, London to Ibiza". in JoJo's song, "Sexy to Me", the lyrics state "We gon rock the party like we up in Ibiza". Also the song One Night In Ibiza (by Mike Candys) gives the island a central role. Swedish House Mafia also has a song called "Miami 2 Ibiza." Approaching Nirvana has a song named "I Dream of Ibiza". The Midnight Beast put out a song about Ibiza called "Pizza in Ibiza". The 1969 film More was filmed on location in Ibiza, and the soundtrack by Pink Floyd features a song titled "Ibiza Bar". The 2004 film It's All Gone Pete Tong was also filmed in Ibiza. Also the 2000 film Kevin and Perry Go Large was filmed on location in Ibiza. In addition there is the 1995 French hit 'Mélissa, métisse d'Ibiza' by Julien Clerc. The 2011 video game Test Drive Unlimited 2 is set upon two islands: Ibiza and Oahu (one of the Hawaiian Islands). Both islands have been modeled mostly accurate by using satellite data but Ibiza in the game has a desert added to it to replace cropland north-west of Ibiza Town. "The Cool Kids" member Chuck Inglish references the island in the song "Gas Station". British-Irish boy band The Wanted filmed the video for the hit single "Glad You Came" in and around Ibiza. German luxury fashion house Escada had a fragrance called Ibiza Hippie. It was released in 2003 as a limited edition scent but is now discontinued. Top notes are Lychee, Pear, Black Currant; middle notes are Water Hyacinth, Blue Freesia, Cranberry; top notes are Amber, Sandalwood, Musk, Passion Flower, Wood. Pop superstar Christina Aguilera mentioned the island of Ibiza in her song "Around the World" from her album 'Lotus' stating, "We're making love worldwide, Brazil to Ibiza, baby just wanna please you."
In the 2012 film The Dark Knight Rises, Selina Kyle mentions Ibiza and Bruce Wayne corrects her on the pronunciation (although the correction is still wrong). The The Dark Knight Rises soundtrack contains a bonus song called "Bombers Over Ibiza".
One of Ibiza's most arguably biggest contributors to the lavish club scene came in mid 2007, from world-renowned electronic artist Tiesto. After a string of successful releases from his famous In Search Of Sunrise compilation CDs, he released In Search of Sunrise 6: Ibiza.
The Platja d'en Bossa looking north towards Ibiza Town
See also 
- Armstrong, Stephen (2006-07-01). "Ibiza unplugged". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
- "Ibiza". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.
- Random House dictionary
- American Heritage dictionary
- Jones, Daniel; Peter Roach et al. (2003). English Pronouncing Dictionary (16th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Wells, John C. (2000). Longman Pronunuciation Dictionary (2nd ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
- "Ibiza Literature,Literature in Ibiza". Liveibiza.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon
- Strab. xiv. p. 654; Plin. l. c "The Rhodians, like the Baleares, were celebrated slingers"
Sil. Ital. iii. 364, 365: "Jam cui Tlepolemus sator, et cui Lindus origo, Funda bella ferens Balearis et alite plumbo."
- "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Ibiza / Aeropuerto". June 2011.
- Enciclopèdia d'Eivissa i Formentera. "Roig-Francoli Costa, Miguel Angel"
- Who's Who at NATO. "Abel Matutes"
- Sid Vicious history
- Bounder! The Biography of Terry-Thomas by Graham McCann, serialised in The Times
- Sant Agustí
- Clifford Irving Ibiza
- "Introduction to Ibiza". Frommer's. 2006-11-20. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
- Johnny Lee (May 9, 2013). "Ushuaïa brings ANTS to Ibiza". Mixmag.
- Robbins, Tom (2007-11-18). "Is the party over in Ibiza?". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
- "Is Ibiza changing??". Bbs.clubplanet.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- World Heritage Ibiza
- Ibiza Preservation Fund
- Abandoned hotel at Cala D'en Serra
- An abandoned Idea
- Festival Club
- Sheckley, Robert (1997). Soma Blues. New York: Forge/Tom Doherty Associates. p. 222. ISBN 0-312-86273-3.
- Schimel, Lawrence (2003). Vacation in Ibiza. Eurotica. ISBN 1-56163-377-1.
- Blank, Hannah (2002). A Short Life on a Sunny Isle: An Alphonse Dantan Mystery. New York: Hightrees/Prism Corporation. p. 221. ISBN 0-9652778-4-4.
- Greene, A.C. (1998). They Are Ruining Ibiza. Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press. p. 123. ISBN 1-57441-042-3.
- Canning, Victor (1967). The Python Project. London, UK: Heinemann. p. 284.
- 05:53 PM. "Ibiza Hippie by Escada (2003) - Basenotes Fragrance Directory". Basenotes.net. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
|Find more about Ibiza at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
Media related to Ibiza at Wikimedia Commons
- Consell Insular d'Eivissa (local government) (Catalan)
- Official tourism portal of Ibiza - Consell Insular d'Eivissa
- Ibiza and the Historic Town of Eivissa by The Guardian