Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Ibn al-Jawzi.
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah
Born 7 Safar 691 AH / January 28, 1292 AD
Damascus, Bahri dynasty
Died 13 Rajab 751 AH / September 15, 1350 AD (aged 60 years)
Damascus, Bahri dynasty
Era Medieval era
Region Arab philosophy
School Hanbali
Main interests Ethics, Islamic jurisprudence, Islamic theology
Influences
Influenced

Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (also known as Ibn al-Qayyim ("The son of the principal") or Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah ("Son of the principal of the (school of) Jawziyyah")) (1292–1350 CE / 691 AH–751 AH) was an Arab Sunni Islamic jurist, commentator on the Qur'an and theologian. Although he is sometimes referred to as "the scholar of the heart",[citation needed] given his extensive works pertaining to human behavior and ethics, Ibn al-Qayyim's scholarship was focused on the sciences of Hadith and Fiqh.

Name[edit]

Full name:

Title Honorific Father of Son's name His name Son of Father's name Son of Grandfather's name Country Madhhab
Imam Shams-al-Din Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn Sa'd al-Dimashqi al-Hanbali al-Zar'i Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah

In correct order: Arabic: شمس الدين محمد بن أبي بكر بن أيوب ،ابن القيم الجوزية ابن القيم

He is Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr (محمد بن أبي بکر), son of Ayyub, son of Sa'd al-Zar'i, al-Dimashqi (الدمشقي), patronymed as Abu Abdullah Shamsu-Deen (أبو عبد الله شمس الدین), and known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, named after his father who was an attendant (qayyim) at a local school named Al-Jawziyyah.

Biography[edit]

Birth and education[edit]

Ibn Qayyim was born on Monday 7th of Safar 691 AH (circa January 28, 1292 AD) in the village of Izra' in Hauran, near Damascus, Syria. There is little known of his childhood except that he received a comprehensive Islamic education from his father, centered around Islamic jurisprudence, Islamic theology, and `Ulum al-Hadith (lit. the science of Hadith) From an early age, he was interested in the field of Islamic sciences, learning from the scholars of his time .[citation needed] He studied under his father who was a principal at of the Madrasah al-Jawziyyah (lit. the Jawziyyah school) one of the few centres devoted to Hanbali school of thought in Damascus, and thereafter pursued his quest for knowledge, studying the works and teachings of scholars known in his time.

The Islamic scholar Ibn Kathir described Ibn al-Qayyim's desire for knowledge in his famous work Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah:

He acquired from such books what others could not acquire, and he developed a deep understanding of the books of the Salaf (pious predecessors) and of the khalaf (those who came after the Salaf).[2]

Teachers[edit]

Ibn al-Qayyim's main teacher was the scholar Ibn Taymiyyah.[3] Ibn Qayyim first met Ibn Taymiyyah at the age of 21 and spent the rest of his life learning from him.[4] As a result of this union he shared his masters views in most issues.[5]

Imprisonment[edit]

Ibn al-Qayyim was imprisoned along with his teacher Ibn Taymiyyah. According to the historian al-Maqrizi, two reasons led to his arrest: the first was a sermon Ibn al-Qayyim had delivered in Jerusalem in which he decried the visitation of holy graves, including the Prophet Muhammad’s grave in Medina, the second was his agreement with Ibn Taymiyyah’s view on the matter of divorce, which contradicted the view of the majority of scholars in Damascus.[6]

The campaign to have Ibn al-Qayyim imprisoned was led by Shafi'i and Maliki scholars, and was also joined by the Hanbali and Hanafi judges.[7]

Whilst in prison Ibn al-Qayyim busied himself with the Qur'an. According to Ibn Rajab, Ibn al-Qayyim made the most of his time of imprisonment: the immediate result of his delving into the Qur'an while in prison was a series of mystical experiences (described as dhawq, direct experience of the divine mysteries, and mawjud, ecstasy occasioned by direct encounter with the Divine Reality).[8]

Following the Death of Ibn Taymiyah[edit]

When Ibn Taymiyyah died, Ibn al-Qayyim was freed and subsequently furthered his studies, holding study circles and classes. He taught Islamic Jurisprudence at al-Sadriyya school in Damascus, before he held the position of the Imam of the Jawziyyah school. Most of his writings were compilations, although he authored several books and manuscripts with his own handwriting which are preserved in the central Library of Damascus.

Spiritual Life[edit]

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah was an avid and a resolute worshipper. He devoted long hours to his supererogatory nightly prayers, and was in a constant state of remembrance (dhikr ذکر), as he was known for his extended prostrations. During Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah's imprisonment in al-Qal'a prison in Damascus, he was constantly reading the Qur'an, and studying its meanings. Ibn Rajab noted that during that period of seclusion, he gained extensive spiritual success, as well as he developed a great analytical wisdom, knowledge, and understanding of the prophetic traditions.

Upon his release, he performed the pilgrimage to Makkah several times, and sometimes he stayed in Makkah for a prolonged period of devotion and circumambulation of the holy Ka'ba.

Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya wrote a lengthy spiritual commentary on a treatise written by the Hanbali Sufi Khwaja Abdullah Ansari entitled Madarij al-Salikin.[9] He expressed his love and appreciation for Ansari in this commentary with his statement "Certainly I love the Sheikh, but I love the truth more!'.[10] Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya refers to Ansari with the honorific title "Sheikh al-Islam" in his work Al-Wabil al-Sayyib min al-Kalim al-Tayyab [11]

Death[edit]

Ibn al-Qayyim died at the age of 60 years 5 months & 5 days, on the 13th night of Rajab, 751 AH (September 15, 1350 AD), and was buried besides his father at Bab al-Saghīr Cemetery.

Views[edit]

Natural sciences[edit]

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah was also an astronomer and chemist, and a critic of alchemy and astrology. In his Miftah Dar al-Sa'adah, he used empirical arguments in astronomy and chemistry in order to refute the practice of alchemy and astrology along with the theories associated with them, such as divination and the transmutation of metals.[12]

He recognized that the stars are much larger than the planets, and thus argued:[13]

"And if you astrologers answer that it is precisely because of this distance and smallness that their influences are negligible, then why is it that you claim a great influence for the smallest heavenly body, Mercury? Why is it that you have given an influence to al-Ra's and al-Dhanab, which are two imaginary points [ascending and descending nodes]?"

He also recognized the Milky Way galaxy as "a myriad of tiny stars packed together in the sphere of the fixed stars" and thus argued that "it is certainly impossible to have knowledge of their influences."[13]

Reception[edit]

Ibn Qayyim was respected by a number of scholars during and after his life. Ibn Kathir stated that,

He [Ibn al-Qayyim] was the most affectionate person. He was never envious of anyone, nor did he hurt anyone. He never disgraced anyone, nor did he hate anyone. [14]

He also stated that,

I do not know in this world in our time someone who is more dedicated to acts of devotion [15]

Ibn Rajab mentioned that,

Although, he was by no means infallible, no one could compete with him in the understanding of the texts. [14]

He also remarked that :

He was constant in worship and performing tahajjud (the night Prayer), reaching the limits in lengthening his Salah (Prayer) and devotion. He was constantly in a state of dhikr (remembrance of Allah) and had an intense love for Allah. He also had a deep love for turning to Allah in repentance, humbling himself to Him with a deep sense of humility and helplessness. He would throw himself at the doors of Divine obedience and servitude. Indeed, I have not seen the likes of him with regards to such matters.[16]

Despite being praised by a number of sunni scholars, he was also criticised by others.

The influential shafi'i chief judge of Damascus Taqi al-Din al-Subki condemned Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, on the acceptability of the triple divorce[17] and on account of his view permitting the conduct of horse races without the participation of a third competitor.[18]

Subki also stated that,

The only thing this man [Ibn al-Qayyim] wants for the commoners is to establish that there is no Muslim but him and his partisans.[19]

He also wrote a treatise entitled "The Burnished sword in refuting Ibn al-Qayyim" regarding his position on the attributes of God.[20]

Ibn Hajar al-Haytami stated that,

Do not read what is in the books of Ibn al-Qayyim and others like him who have taken their own whim as their God, and who have been led astray by Allah. There hearts and ears have been sealed, and there eyes have been covered.[21]

Legacy[edit]

Works[edit]

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah's contributions to the Islamic library are extensive, and they particularly deal with the Qur'anic commentaries, and understanding and analysis of the prophetic traditions (Fiqh-us Sunnah) (فقه ):

  • Zad al-Ma'ad (Provision of the hereafter)
  • Al-Waabil Sayyib minal kalim tayyib – a commentary on hadith about Prophet Yahya ibn Zakariyya.
  • I'laam ul Muwaqqi'een 'an Rabb il 'Aalameen (Information for Those who Write on Behalf of the Lord of the Worlds)
  • Tahthib Sunan Abi Da'ud
  • Madaarij Saalikeen which is a rearrangement of the book by Shaikh Abu Ismail al-Ansari al-Harawi al-Sufi, Manazil-u Sa'ireen (Stations of the Seekers);
  • Tafsir Mu'awwadhatain (Tafsir of Surah Falaq and Nas);
  • Badāʾiʿ al-Fawāʾid (بدائع الفوائد): Amazing Points of Benefit
  • Ad-Dā'i wa Dawā also known as Al Jawābul kāfi liman sa'ala 'an Dawā'i Shaafi
  • Haadi Arwah ila biladil Afrah
  • Uddat as-Sabirin wa Dhakhiratu ash-Shakirin (عدة الصابرين وذخيرة الشاكرين)
  • Ighathatu lahfaan min masaa'id ash-shaytan (إغاثة اللهفان من مصائد الشيطان) : Aid for the Yearning One in Resisting the Shayṭān
  • Rawdhatul Muhibbīn
  • Ahkām ahl al-dhimma"
  • Tuhfatul Mawdud bi Ahkam al-Mawlud: A Gift to the Loved One Regarding the Rulings of the Newborn
  • Miftah Dar As-Sa'adah
  • Jala al-afham fi fadhl salati ala khayral anam
  • Al-Manar al-Munif
  • Al-Tibb al-Nabawi – a book on Prophetic medicine (available in English as "The Prophetic Medicine", printed by Dar al-Fikr in Beirut (Lebanon), or as "Healing with the Medicine of the Prophet (sal allahu `alayhi wa salim)", printed by Darussalam Publications.
  • Al-Furusiyya[22]
  • Shifa al-Alil (Healing of the Sick)
  • Mukhtasar al-Sawa'iq
  • Hadi al-Arwah ila Bilad al-Arfah (Spurring Souls on to the Realms of Joy)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah
  2. ^ Dhayl Tabaqaatul-Hanaabilah, 4/449
  3. ^ Roger M. A. Allen, Joseph Edmund Lowry, Devin J. Stewart, Essays in Arabic Literary Biography: 1350-1850, p 211. ISBN 3447059338
  4. ^ Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, p 362. ISBN 0415966906
  5. ^ Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, p 363. ISBN 0415966906
  6. ^ Livnat Holtzman, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, p. 211 (https://www.academia.edu/1057824/Ibn_Qayyim_al-Jawziyya)
  7. ^ Caterina Bori and Livnat Holtzman, A Scholar in the Shadow p. 19 (https://www.academia.edu/2565390/A_Scholar_in_the_Shadow-the_Introduction-_by_Caterina_Bori_and_Livnat_Holtzman)
  8. ^ Livnat Holtzman, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, p. 212 (https://www.academia.edu/1057824/Ibn_Qayyim_al-Jawziyya)
  9. ^ Livnat Holtzman, Essay on Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, p. 219 (http://www.academia.edu/1057824/Ibn_Qayyim_al-Jawziyya) and Livnat Holtzman, Essay on Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, p. 363 (https://www.academia.edu/1070946/Ibn_Qayyim_al-Jawziyya)
  10. ^ Michael Fitzgerald and Moulay Slitine, The Invocation of God, Islamic Texts Society, Introduction, p 4 (quoting Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Madarij al-Salikin fi ma bayna iyyaka na'budu wa iyyaka nasta'in, ed. Ahmad Fakhri al-Rifi and Asam Faris al-Hurstani, Beirut, Dar al-Jil, 1412/1991, II,. 41 and III. 431). Also, Ovamir Anjum, University of Toledo, Ohio, Sufism without Mysticism: Ibn al-Qayyim's Objectives in Madarij al-Salikin p. 164 (http://www.academia.edu/2248220/Sufism_without_Mysticism_Ibn_al-Qayyims_Objectives_in_Madarij_al-Salikin)
  11. ^ Michael Fitzgerald and Moulay Slitine, The Invocation of God, Islamic Texts Society, Introduction, p 4. Also, Ovamir Anjum, University of Toledo, Ohio, Sufism without Mysticism: Ibn al-Qayyim's Objectives in Madarij al-Salikin p. 164 (http://www.academia.edu/2248220/Sufism_without_Mysticism_Ibn_al-Qayyims_Objectives_in_Madarij_al-Salikin)
  12. ^ Livingston, John W. (1971). "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation". Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 (1): 96–103. doi:10.2307/600445. JSTOR 600445. 
  13. ^ a b Livingston, John W. (1971). "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation". Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 (1): 96–103 [99]. doi:10.2307/600445. JSTOR 600445. 
  14. ^ a b Livnat Holtzman, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, p. 208. https://www.academia.edu/1057824/Ibn_Qayyim_al-Jawziyya
  15. ^ Birgit Krawietz, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyah: His Life and works http://mamluk.uchicago.edu/MSR_X-2_2006-Krawietz.pdf
  16. ^ Dhayl Tabaqaatul- Hanaabilah (4/450)
  17. ^ Caterina Bori and Livnat Holtzman, A scholar in the shadow, p 20. https://www.academia.edu/2565390/A_Scholar_in_the_Shadow-the_Introduction-_by_Caterina_Bori_and_Livnat_Holtzman
  18. ^ Livnat Holtzman, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, p. 220. https://www.academia.edu/1057824/Ibn_Qayyim_al-Jawziyya
  19. ^ Stephan Conermann, Ubi Sumus? Quo Vademus?: Mamluk Studies - State of the Art, p. 82. Quoting Bori Hotlzman, Scholar in the Shadow, 24
  20. ^ Birgit Krawietz, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyah: His Life and works, p. 33 http://mamluk.uchicago.edu/MSR_X-2_2006-Krawietz.pdf
  21. ^ Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, Fatawa al-Hadithiyya, 4.112
  22. ^ ed. Nizam al-Din al-Fatih, Madinah al Munawara: Maktaba Dar al-Turath, 1990.[ISBN missing]

Further reading[edit]

  • Bori, Caterina; Holtzman, Livnat, eds. (2010). A scholar in the shadow : essays in the legal and theological thought of Ibn Qayyim al-Ǧawziyyah. Oriente Moderno. Nuova serie, Anno 90 (Nr 1). Roma : Istituto per l'Oriente C.A. Nallino. ISSN 0030-5472. JSTOR i23249612. 

External links[edit]