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|Era||Medieval Islamic civilization|
|Major works||Kitab al-Taisir fi al-Mudawat wa al-Tadbir|
Abū-Marwān ʻAbd al-Malik ibn Zuhr (Arabic: أبو مروان عبد الملك بن زهر; 1094–1162 CE), better known in the West by his Latinized name Avenzoar, was an Arab-Muslim physician, surgeon and a contemporary of Averroes and Maimonides. He was born at Seville (now southwestern Spain) and was regarded as the most renowned physician of Al-Andalus.
Ibn Zuhr was known for his emphasis on a more rational, empiric basis of medicine. His major work, Al-Taysīr fil-Mudāwāt wal-Tadbīr ("Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet"), was translated into Latin and Hebrew and was influential to the progress of surgery. He also improved surgical and medical knowledge by keying out several diseases and their treatments.
His full name is 'Abū-Marwān ʻAbd al-Malik ibn Abī al-ʻAlāʼ Ibn Zuhr (Arabic: أبو مروان عبد الملك بن أبي العلاء بن زهر). His name was Latinized as Avenzoar, Abumeron, Abhomeron or Abhomjeron.
Early life 
He was born in Seville and belonged to the Banu Zuhr family (of Arab origin), which produced six consecutive generations of physicians, and included jurists, poets, viziers or courtiers, and midwives who served under rulers of Al-Andalus. He studied medicine with his father, Abu'l-Ala Zuhr (d.1131) at an early age.
Fleeing from Seville 
He fell out of favour of with the Almoravid ruler, 'Ali bin Yusuf bin Tashufin, and fled from Seville. He was however, apprehended and jailed in Marrakesh in 1140. Later in 1147 when the Almohad dynasty conquered Seville, he returned and devoted himself to medical practice. He died in Seville in 1162.
Ibn Zuhr wrote three major books:
- Kitab al-iqtisad fi Islah Al-Anfus WA al-Ajsad, written in his youth.
- Kitab al-aghdhiya, on foods and regimen of health, written in exile in Morocco.
- Kitab al-taysir, his opus magnum and written at the request of his colleague Averroes.
Animal testing 
Ibn Zuhr introduced animal testing as an experimental method of testing surgical procedures before applying them to human patients.
The Jewish physician-philosopher Maimonides admired Ibn Zuhr, describing him as "unique in his age and one of the great sages". He frequently quoted him in his medical texts. He performed medical procedures on animals before doing them on humans to know if they would work
See also 
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Avenzoar.|
- Azar 2008, p. 1.
- Missori, Paolo; Brunetto, Giacoma M.; Domenicucci, Maurizio (7 February 2012). "Origin of the Cannula for Tracheotomy During the Middle Ages and Renaissance". World Journal of Surgery 36 (4): 928–934. doi:10.1007/s00268-012-1435-1.
- Byrne, Joseph P. Encyclopedia of the Black Death. ABC-CLIO. p. 33. ISBN 1598842536.
- Azar 2008, p. 1.
- The Art as a Profession, United States National Library of Medicine
- Azar 2008, p. 3.
- Tweel, Jan G.; Taylor, Clive R. (25 May 2010). "A brief history of pathology". Virchows Archiv 457 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1007/s00428-010-0934-4.
- "2 Early concepts of cancer", 2000, Cancer and metastasis reviews, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 205-205.
- Hajar, Rachel (1 January 2011). "Animal testing and medicine". Heart Views 12 (1): 42. doi:10.4103/1995-705X.81548.
- Kraemer, Joel L. (2010). Maimonides: The Life and World of One of Civilization's Greatest Minds. Random House of Canada. p. 91. ISBN 0385512007.
- Azar 2008, p. 2.
- Shulman, S.T., M.D. 2002, "Otitis media: Old problem, new problem", Pediatric annals, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 767-768.
- Azar, Henry (2008). The Sage of Seville: Ibn Zuhr, His Time, and His Medical Legacy. Cairo: American University in Cairo. ISBN 9774161556. Azar, Henry A. (2008). The Sage of Seville: Ibn Zuhr, His Time, and His Medical Legacy. American Univ in Cairo Press. ISBN 9789774161551. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
- Millán, Cristina Álvarez (2005). "Ibn Zuhr". In Glick, Thomas F.; Livesey, Steven John; Wallis, Faith. Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. Routledge encyclopedias of the Middle Ages ; v. 11. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415969301.
- Hamarneh, Sami (2008) [1970-80]. "Ibn Zuhr,Abū Marwān ʿAbd Al-Malik Ibn Abiʿl-ʿAlāʿ (Latin,Abhomjeron or Avenzoar)". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Encyclopedia.com.