In 1047, Ibrahim wrested Hamadan and Kangawar from the Kakuyid ruler Garshasp I. Ibrahim later commanded a successful raid against the eastern provinces of the Byzantine Empire which culminated in the Battle of Kapetrou in September 1048. The Arab chronicler Ibn al-Athir reports that he brought back 100,000 captives and a vast booty loaded on the backs of ten thousand camels. In 1058, he revolted against his brother, but was eventually defeated and personally strangled by Toğrül with his bowstring at Baghdad.
- Bosworth 1968, p. 19.
- Paul A. Blaum (2005). Diplomacy gone to seed: a history of Byzantine foreign relations, A.D. 1047-57. International Journal of Kurdish Studies. (Online version)
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Bosworth, C. E. (1968). "The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (A.D. 1000–1217)". In Frye, R. N. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 5: The Saljuq and Mongol periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–202. ISBN 0-521-06936-X.
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