Icaro Laminar

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Laminar
Role Hang glider
National origin Italy
Manufacturer Icaro 2000
Introduction 1994
Status In production
Unit cost
£3787 (Laminar MR 700, 2003 price)

The Icaro Laminar is a large family of Italian high-wing, single-place and two-place hang gliders, designed and produced by Icaro 2000.[1]

Design and development[edit]

The Laminar family of hang gliders was introduced in 1994 and has undergone continuous product improvement, keeping the line at the top of world competition.[1][2]

The aircraft is made from aluminum and carbon fibre tubing, with the wing covered in Dacron sailcloth. Some models use Mylar sail components. The competition Laminars are "topless" designs with no kingpost or upper rigging. The MastR model was introduced for pilots who wanted the Laminar wing with a kingpost.[1][2]

Operational history[edit]

The Laminar series has won many World Hang Gliding Championships, including the 2011 contest held at Monte Cucco, Italy, when first and second places went to Alex Ploner and Christian Ciech flying Laminar Z9 models.[2]

Variants[edit]

Laminar 12 MR 700
Small sized model for lighter pilots, produced circa 2003 and no longer in production. Its 9.84 m (32.3 ft) span wing is a "topless" design without a kingpost. The nose angle is 130°, wing area is 13.17 m2 (141.8 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.25:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 50 to 85 kg (110 to 187 lb). DHV certified.[1]
Laminar 13 MR 700
Medium sized model for mid-weight pilots, produced circa 2003 and no longer in production. Its 10 m (32.8 ft) span wing is a "topless" design without a kingpost. The nose angle is 130°, wing area is 13.7 m2 (147 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.41:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 60 to 90 kg (132 to 198 lb). DHV certified.[1]
Laminar 14 MR 700
Large sized model for heavier pilots, produced circa 2003 and no longer in production. Its 10.5 m (34.4 ft) span wing is a "topless" design without a kingpost. The nose angle is 130°, wing area is 14.9 m2 (160 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.51:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 75 to 110 kg (165 to 243 lb). DHV certified.[1]
Laminar Easy 14
Small sized model for lighter pilots, produced circa 2003 and no longer in production. Its 10.3 m (33.8 ft) span wing is cable braced from a single kingpost. The nose angle is 127°, wing area is 14.5 m2 (156 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.3:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 65 to 95 kg (143 to 209 lb). DHV certified.[1]
Laminar Easy 16
Large sized model for heavier pilots, produced circa 2003 and no longer in production. Its 10.15 m (33.3 ft) span wing is cable braced from a single kingpost. The nose angle is 127°, wing area is 15.7 m2 (169 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 75 to 110 kg (165 to 243 lb). DHV certified.[1]
Laminar Biplace
Two-place model for flight training and tourist flying, produced circa 2003 and no longer in production. Its 11.2 m (36.7 ft) span wing is cable braced from a single kingpost. The nose angle is 127°, wing area is 21 m2 (230 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 5:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 115 to 200 kg (254 to 441 lb). DHV certified.[1]
Laminar MastR 12
Small sized model for lighter pilots, produced circa 2003 and no longer in production. Its 9.9 m (32.5 ft) span wing is cable braced from a single kingpost. The nose angle is 130°, wing area is 14.5 m2 (156 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.3:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 45 to 65 kg (99 to 143 lb). DHV certified as Class 2-3.[1]
Laminar MastR 13
Medium sized model for mid-weight pilots, produced circa 2003 and no longer in production. Its 10 m (32.8 ft) span wing is cable braced from a single kingpost. The nose angle is 130°, wing area is 13.2 m2 (142 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.6:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 55 to 85 kg (121 to 187 lb). DHV and SHV certified as Class 2-3.[1]
Laminar MastR 14
Large sized model for heavier pilots, produced circa 2003 and no longer in production. Its 10.4 m (34.1 ft) span wing is cable braced from a single kingpost. The nose angle is 130°, wing area is 14.4 m2 (155 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.51:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 65 to 100 kg (143 to 220 lb). DHV and SHV certified as Class 3.[1]
Laminar Z9 12.6
Introduced in 2010, extra small sized model for small pilots. Its 9.61 m (31.5 ft) span wing is a "topless" design without a kingpost. The nose angle is 132°, wing area is 12.52 m2 (134.8 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.38:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 55 to 75 kg (121 to 165 lb). DHV certified as Class 3.[2]
Laminar Z9 13.2
Introduced in 2010, small sized model for light pilots. Its 10.05 m (33.0 ft) span wing is a "topless" design without a kingpost. The nose angle is 132°, wing area is 13.24 m2 (142.5 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.63:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 70 to 85 kg (154 to 187 lb). DHV certified as Class 3.[2]
Laminar Z9 13.7
Introduced in 2010, medium sized model for mid-weight pilots. Its 10.05 m (33.0 ft) span wing is a "topless" design without a kingpost. The nose angle is 132°, wing area is 13.88 m2 (149.4 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.28:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 80 to 90 kg (176 to 198 lb). DHV certified as Class 3.[2]
Laminar Z9 14.1
Introduced in 2010, large small sized model for heavier pilots. Its 10.54 m (34.6 ft) span wing is a "topless" design without a kingpost. The nose angle is 134°, wing area is 14.16 m2 (152.4 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.85:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 90 to 100 kg (198 to 220 lb). DHV certified as Class 3.[2]
Laminar Z9 14.8
Introduced in 2010, extra large sized model for very heavy pilots. Its 10.54 m (34.6 ft) span wing is a "topless" design without a kingpost. The nose angle is 134°, wing area is 14.82 m2 (159.5 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.5:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 100 to 110 kg (220 to 243 lb). DHV certified as Class 3.[2]
MastR S
Small sized model for light pilots. Its 9.40 m (30.8 ft) span wing is cable braced from a single kingpost. The nose angle is 128°, wing area is 12.60 m2 (135.6 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.01:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 50 to 75 kg (110 to 165 lb). DHV certified as Class 3.[3]
MastR M
Medium sized model for mid-weight pilots. Its 10.06 m (33.0 ft) span wing is cable braced from a single kingpost. The nose angle is 131°, wing area is 13.77 m2 (148.2 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.35:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 70 to 90 kg (154 to 198 lb). DHV certified as Class 3.[3]
MastR L
Large sized model for heavy pilots. Its 10.48 m (34.4 ft) span wing is cable braced from a single kingpost. The nose angle is 131°, wing area is 14.88 m2 (160.2 sq ft) and the aspect ratio is 7.38:1. Pilot hook-in weight range is 85 to 110 kg (187 to 243 lb). DHV certified as Class 3.[3]

Applications[edit]

Specifications (Laminar Z9 14.1)[edit]

Data from Company[2]

General characteristics

  • Crew: one
  • Wingspan: 10.54 m (34 ft 7 in)
  • Wing area: 14.16 m2 (152.4 sq ft)
  • Aspect ratio: 7.85
  • Empty weight: 32.5 kg (72 lb)
  • Gross weight: 142.5 kg (314 lb)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Bertrand, Noel; Rene Coulon; et al: World Directory of Leisure Aviation 2003-04, page 45. Pagefast Ltd, Lancaster OK, 2003. ISSN 1368-485X
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Icaro 2000 (2011). "Laminar again the 2011 World Champion Hang Glider". Retrieved 21 February 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c Icaro 2000 (undated). "Hang Glider MastR". Retrieved 21 February 2012. 

External links[edit]