Icelandic exonyms

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The following is a list of Icelandic exonyms, that is to say names for places in Icelandic that have been adapted to Icelandic spelling rules, or are simply native names from Viking times (i.e. old endonyms surviving in Icelandic).


Language Native name Icelandic exonym
 Albania Albanía
Albanian Tiranë Tirana
 Afghanistan Afganistan
Persian - Pashto Kābul - Kabəl Kabúl
 Algeria Alsír
Arabic Al-Ŷazā'ir Algeirsborg
 Armenia Armenía
Armenian Yerəvan Jerevan
 Angola Angóla
Portuguese Luanda Lúanda
 Argentina Argentína
Spanish Buenos Aires Góðviðra (not used)
Tierra del Fuego Eldland
 Austria Austurríki
German Wien Vín or Vínarborg
 Australia Ástralía
English New South Wales Nýja Suður-Wales
South Australia Suður-Ástralía
Western Australia Vestur-Ástralía
Australian Capital Territory Höfuðborgarsvæði Ástralíu
Northern Territory Norður-svæðið
Christmas Island Jólaeyja
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Kókoseyjar
Norfolk Island Norfolkeyjar
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Heard og McDonaldseyjar
 Azerbaijan Aserbaídsjan
Azerbaijani Bakı Bakú
 The Bahamas Bahamaeyjar
English Nassau Nassá
 Belarus Hvíta-Rússland
Belarusian Polotsk Palteskja (historical)
 Belize Belís
English Belmopan Belmópan
 Bhutan Bútan
Dzongkha Thimphu Timfú
 Bolivia Bólivía
Spanish - Quechua Sucre - Chuqichaka Súkre
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnía
Bosnian Sarajevo Sarajevó
 Botswana Botsvana
English - Tswana Gaborone Gaboróne
 Brazil Brasilía
Portuguese Brasília Brasilía
 Burma Mjanmar
Burmese Yangon Jangún
 Burundi Búrúndí
French Bujumbura Bújúmbúra
 Cameroon Kamerún
French - English Douala Dóúala
Yaoundé Jánde
 Canada Kanada
English - French Toronto Torontó
 Central African Republic Mið-Afríkulýðveldið
French Bangui Bangví
 Chile Síle
Spanish Rapa Nui Páskaeyja
Santiago Santíagó
 China Kína
Mandarin (pinyin Romanization) Beijing Peking
Shanghai Sjanghæ
Tianjin Tientsin
Qingdao Tsingtao
Nanjing Nanking
Xiamen Amoy
Guilin Kweilin
Guangzhou Kanton
 Macau Makaó
Portuguese - Cantonese Macau Makaó
 Taiwan Formósa
Mandarin (pinyin Romanization) Táiběi Taípei, Tæpei
 Colombia Kólumbía
Spanish Bogotá Bógóta
 Cook Islands Cookseyjar
Māori - English Avarua Avarúa
 Cyprus Kýpur
Greek - Turkish Lefkosía - Lefkoşa Nikósía
 Czech Republic Tékkland
Czech Plzeň Pilsen
Praha Prag
 Denmark Danmörk
Danish Aalborg Álaborg
Aarhus Árósar
Helsingør Helsingjaeyri
Falster Falstur
Fredrikshavn Friðrikshöfn
Fyn Fjón
Humlebæk Humlabekk (little used)
Jelling Jalangur
Jylland Jótland
København (Cophenhagen) Kaupmannahöfn
Lolland Láland
Læsø Hlésey
Odense Óðinsvé
Ribe Rípar
Ringsted Hringstað
Roskilde Hróarskelda
Silkeborg Silkiborg
Sjælland Sjáland
Skagen Skaginn
Slagelse Slagleysa
Sorø Sórey
Viborg Vébjörg
 Dominican Republic Dóminíska Lýðveldið
Spanish Santo Domingo Santó Dómingó
 Egypt Egyptaland
Arabic Al-Iskandariyya Alexandría
Qāhirah Kaíró
Suways Súes
 Equatorial Guinea Miðbaugs-Gínea
French - Spanish Malabo Malabó
 Ethiopia Eþíópía
Amharic Adis Abäba Addis Ababa
 Faroe Islands Færeyjar
Faroese Fuglafjørður Fuglafjörður
Fugloy Fugley
Klaksvík Klakksvík
Nólsoy Nólsey
Tórshavn Þórshöfn
 Finland Finnland
Finnish - Swedish Turku - Åbo Árbæ
 France Frakkland
French Bretagne Bertangaland (obsolete), Bretanía (current)
Bourgogne Búrgund
Corse Korsíka
Nantes Namsborg (obsolete)
Normandy Norðmandí (obsolete), Normandí (current)
Paris París
Poitiers Peituborg
Reims Reimsborg
Rouen Rúðuborg
Strasbourg Strassborg
Versailles Versalir
 French Polynesia Franska Pólýnesía
Tahitian - French ’Enana mā Markesaseyjar
Tōtaiete mā Félagseyjar
Tahiti Tahítí
Tūāmotu mā Lágeyjar (obsolete)
 Ghana Gana
English Accra Akkra
 Georgia Georgía
Georgian Tbi'lisi Tíblisi
 Germany Þýskaland
German Berlin Berlín
Braunschweig Brúnsvík (obsolete)
Bremen Brimar
Flensburg Flensborg
Frankfurt Frakkafurða (little used)
Hamburg Hamborg
Haddeby Heiðabær
Holstein Holtsetaland
Kiel Kíl
Köln (Cologne) Kolni (little used)
Lübeck Lýbika
Oldenburg Aldinborg
Rostock Rauðstokkur (obsolete)
Schleswig Slésvík
Stralsund Stræla
Stuttgart Stóðgarður (little used)
Verden Ferðuborg (obsolete)
 Greece Grikkland
Greek Athína Aþena
Límnos Lemney
Thessaloníki Saloníka (obsolete), Þessalónika (current)
 Guinea Gínea
French Conakry Kónakrí
 Guatemala Gvatemala
Spanish Ciudad de Guatemala Gvatemalaborg
 Guinea-Bissau Gínea-Bissá
Portuguese Bissau Bissá
 Hungary Ungverjaland
Hungarian Budapest Búdapest
 India Indland
Hindi - English Kolkata Kalkútta (obsolete)
Naī Dillī - New Delhi Nýja-Delí
 Indonesia Indónesía
Indonesian DKI Jakarta Djakarta
 Iran Íran
Persian Tehrān Teheran
 Iraq Írak
Arabic - Kurdish Baġdād - Bexda Bagdad
 Ireland Írland
Irish Áth Cliath/Dubhlinn (Dublin) Dyflinn(i)
Luimneach (Limerick) Hlymrek (obsolete)
 Israel Ísrael
Hebrew - Arabic Yerushaláyim - al Quds Jórsalaborg (obsolete), Jerúsalem (current)
Ḥeifa - Ḥayfā Haífa
Tel Aviv Yafo - Tal ʼAbīb Tel Avív
 Italy Ítalía
Italian Bari Bár (obsolete)
Firenze Flórens
Genova Genúa
Lucca Lukkuborg (obsolete)
Milano Meilansborg (obsolete), Mílanó (current)
Napoli Napólí
Roma Róm, Rómaborg
Salerno Salernisborg (obsolete; literally means "Toilet city")
Torino Tórínó
Venezia Feneyjar
 Japan Japan
Japanese Kyōto-shi Kýótó
Tōkyō Tókýó
 Kenya Kenýa
English - Swahili Nairobi Naíróbí
 Latvia Lettland
Latvian Rīga Ríga
 Lebanon Líbanon
Arabic - French Bayrūt - Beyrouth Beirút
 Liberia Líbería
English Monrovia Monróvía
 Libya Líbýa
Arabic Ṭarābulus Trípólí
 Lithuania Litháen
Lithuanian Vilnius Vilníus
 Madagascar Madagaskar
Malagasy - French Antananarivo Antananarívó
 Malawi Malaví
English Lilongwe Lílongve
 Malaysia Malasía
Malay Kuala Lumpur Kúala Lúmpúr
 Mali Malí
French - Bambara Bamako - Bamakə Bamakó
Tombouctou - Timbuktu Timbúktú
 Marshall Islands Marshalleyjar
Marshallese - English Majuro Majúró
 Mauritania Máritanía
Arabic - French Nouakchott Núaksjott
 Mexico Mexíkó
Spanish Ciudad de México Mexíkóborg
 Moldova Moldóva
Romanian Chişinău Kisínev
 Mongolia Mongólía
Mongolian Ulaanbaatar Úlan Bator
 Mozambique Mósambík
Portuguese Maputo Mapútó
 North Korea Norður-Kórea
Korean P'yŏngyang Pjongjang
   Nepal Nepal
Nepali Kāţhmāņđau Katmandú
 The Netherlands Holland
Dutch Amsterdam Amsturdammur (little used), Erilstífla (little used)
Den Haag or ´s Gravenhage Haag
Utrecht Trekt (little used)
Zuiderzee Suðursjó (historical)
 Nicaragua Níkaragva
Spanish Managua Managva
 Niger Níger
French Niamey Níamey
 Nigeria Nígería
English - Yorùbá Abuja-Abùjá Abútja
 Norway Noregur
Norwegian
Akershus Akershús
Arendal Arnardalur
Aust-Agder Aust-Agðir
Bergen Björgyn (obsolete), Björgvin (current)
Bjørnøya Bjarnarey
Bodø Boðvin
Bærum Bergheimur (obsolete)
Drammen Dröfn (obsolete)
Gjøvik Djúpvík (historical)
Longyearbyen Longyearbær
Oslo Kauphágur (historical), Ósló (current)
Stavanger Stafangur
Trondheim Niðarós (historical), Þrándheimur (current)
Østfold Austfold
Ålesund Álasund
 Oman Óman
Arabic Masqaṭ Múskat
 Paraguay Paragvæ
Spanish - Guaraní Asunción Asúnsjón
 Peru Perú
Spanish Lima Líma
 Philippines Filippseyjar
Tagalog - Cebuano Maynila - Manila Maníla
 Poland Pólland
Polish Kraków Kraká
Warszawa Varsjá
Szczecin Stettín
 Portugal Portúgal
Portuguese Lisboa Lissabon
 Romania Rúmenía
Romanian Bucureşti Búkarest
Constanţa Konstantía
 Russia Rússland
Russian Murom Móramar (historical)
Novgorod Hólmgarður
Rostov Ráðstofa
Sankt Peterburg Sankti Pétursborg
Smolensk Smáleskja (historical)
Staraya Ladoga Aldeigjuborg (historical)
Suzdal Súrsdalar (historical)
 Rwanda Rúanda
Kinyarwanda - French Kigali Kígalí
 Samoa Samóa
Samoan Apia Apía
 Saudi Arabia Sádí-Arabía
Arabic Makkah Mekka
Riyāḍ Ríad
 Serbia Serbía
Serbian Beograd Belgrad
 Somalia Sómalía
Somali - Arabic Muqdisho - Maqadīshū Mógadisjú
 South Africa Suður-Afríka
English - Afrikaans Cape Town - Kaapstad Höfðaborg
Johannesburg Jóhannesarborg
Pretoria Pretoría
 South Korea Suður-Kórea
Korean Seoul Seúl
 Spain Spánn
Spanish Barcelona Barselóna
 Sri Lanka Srí Lanka
Sinhala - Tamil Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte Srí Jajevardenepúra
 Sudan Súdan
Arabic - English Kharṭūm - Khartoum Kartúm
 Suriname Súrínam
Dutch Paramaribo Paramaríbó
 Sweden Svíþjóð
Swedish Göteborg Gautaborg
Helsingborg Helsingjaborg
Lund Lundur
Malmö Málmey
Stockholm Stokkhólmur
Uppsala Uppsalir
  Switzerland Sviss
German - French Basel - Bâle Boslaraborg (obsolete)
 Syria Sýrland
Arabic Dimašq Damaskus
 Tajikistan Tadsjikistan
Tajik Dushanbe Dúshanbe
 Tanzania Tansanía
Swahili Dodoma Dódóma
 Thailand Taíland
Thai Krung Thep Bangkok
 Tonga Tonga
Tongan - English Nukuʻalofa Núkúalófa
 Turkey Tyrkland
Turkish İstanbul Mikligarður (historical), Istanbúl (current)
 Ukraine Úkraína
Ukrainian Kiev Kænugarður
 United Arab Emirates Sameinuðu Arabísku Furstadæmin
Arabic Abū Zabī Abú Dabí
'Ajmān Adsman
Dubayy Dúbæ
 United Kingdom Bretland
English Aberdeen Apardjón (obsolete)
Canterbury Kantaraborg
Dover Dofrar (little used)
Edinburgh Edinborg
Yarmouth Járnamóða (little used)
Cambridge Kambabryggja (little used)
Lerwick Leirvík
London Lundúnir
Southampton Suðurhamtún (little used)
Oxford Öxnafurða (little used)
Scarborough Skarðaborg (obsolete)
York Jórvík
 United States Bandaríkin
English
California Kalifornía
New York Nýja-Jórvík (little used)
 Uruguay Úrúgvæ
Spanish Montevideo Montevídeó
 Uzbekistan Úsbekistan
Uzbek Toshkent Taskent
  Vatican City Vatíkanið or Páfagarður
Latin Status Civitatis Vaticanae Páfagarður
 Venezuela Venesúela
Spanish Caracas Karakas
 Vietnam Víetnam
Vietnamese Hà Nội Hanoí
Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh Hochimin-borg
 Zambia Sambía
English Lusaka Lúsaka
Language Native name Icelandic exonym

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