Konya

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Konya
Metropolitan Municipality
City of Konya.jpg
Konya is located in Turkey
Konya
Konya
Location of Konya, Turkey
Coordinates: 37°52′N 32°29′E / 37.867°N 32.483°E / 37.867; 32.483Coordinates: 37°52′N 32°29′E / 37.867°N 32.483°E / 37.867; 32.483
Country  Turkey
Region Central Anatolia
Province Konya
Government
 • Mayor Tahir Akyürek (AKP)
Area
 • Metropolitan Municipality 38,873 km2 (15,009 sq mi)
Elevation 1,200 m (3,900 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Density 50/km2 (100/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,073,791
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 42XXX
Area code(s) (+90) 332
Licence plate 42
Website www.konya.bel.tr

Konya (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈkon.ja]; Greek: Ικόνιον Ikónion, Latin: Iconium) is a city in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. It is the seventh most populous city in Turkey. As of 2011, the Konya Metropolitan Municipality had a population close to 1.1 million. Konya is an economically and industrially developed city.[2][3][4]

Konya was historically the capital of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate and the Karamanids. The Neolithic settlement of Çatalhöyük in Konya Province was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2012.[5] It is now the capital of Konya Province.

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Konya, was known in classical antiquity and during the medieval period as Ἰκόνιον (Ikónion) in Greek (with regular Medieval Greek apheresis Kónio(n)) and as Iconium in Latin. This name is commonly explained as a derivation from εἰκών (icon), as an ancient Greek legend ascribed its name to the "eikon" (image), or the "gorgon's (Medusa's) head", with which Perseus vanquished the native population before founding the city.[6] In some historic English texts, the city's name appears as Konia or Koniah.

Ancient history[edit]

Hercules Sarcophagus (ca. 250–260 AD) at the Konya Archaeological Museum

Excavations have shown that the region was inhabited during the Late Copper Age, around 3000 BC.[6] The city came under the influence of the Hittites around 1500 BC. These were overtaken by the Sea Peoples around 1200 BC.

The Phrygians established their kingdom in central Anatolia in the 8th century BC. Xenophon describes Iconium, as the city was called, as the last city of Phrygia. The region was overwhelmed by Cimmerian invaders c. 690 BC. It was later part of the Persian Empire, until Darius III was defeated by Alexander the Great in 333 BC.

Alexander's empire broke up shortly after his death and the town came under the rule of Seleucus I Nicator. During the Hellenistic period the town was ruled by the kings of Pergamon. As Attalus III, the last king of Pergamon, was about to die without an heir, he bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman Republic. During the Roman Empire, under the rule of emperor Claudius, the city's name was changed to Claudioconium, and during the rule of emperor Hadrianus to Colonia Aelia Hadriana.

Saint Paul and Barnabas preached in Iconium during the First Missionary Journey in about 47–48 AD (see Acts 14:1–5 and Acts 14:21), and Paul and Silas probably visited it again during the Second Missionary Journey in about 50 (see Acts 16:2).[7] In Christian legend, it was also the birthplace of Saint Thecla.

During the Byzantine Empire the town was destroyed several times by Arab invaders in the 7th9th centuries.

Seljuk era[edit]

Ince Minaret Medrese (1279) in Konya

The Seljuks unsuccessfully attempted to conquer the area in the Battle of Iconium (1069). A period of chaos overwhelmed Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, won by the Seljuks.

The city was conquered by the Seljuk Turks in 1084.[8] From 1097 to 1243 it was the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. It was briefly occupied by the Crusaders Godfrey of Bouillon (August 1097), and Frederick Barbarossa (May 18, 1190) after the Battle of Iconium (1190). The area was retaken by the Turks.

The name of the town was changed to Konya by Mesud I in 1134.

Established in 1273, the Sufi Mevlevi Order and its Whirling Dervishes are among the renowned symbols of Konya and Turkey.

Konya reached the height of its wealth and influence in the second half of the 12th century when the Seljuk sultans of Rum also subdued the Anatolian beyliks to their east, especially that of the Danishmends, thus establishing their rule over virtually all of eastern Anatolia, as well as acquiring several port towns along the Mediterranean (including Alanya) and the Black Sea (including Sinop) and even gaining a momentary foothold in Sudak, Crimea. This golden age lasted until the first decades of the 13th century.

By the 1220s, the city was filled with refugees from the Khwarezmid Empire, fleeing the advance of the Mongol Empire. Sultan Kayqubad I fortified the town and built a palace on top of the citadel. In 1228 he invited Bahaeddin Veled and his son Rumi, the founder of the Mevlevi order, to settle in Konya.

In 1243, following the Seljuk defeat in the Battle of Köse Dağ, Konya was captured by the Mongols as well. The city remained the capital of the Seljuk sultans, vassalized to the Ilkhanate until the end of the century.

Karamanid era[edit]

Main article: Karamanids

Following the fall of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate in 1307, Konya was made the capital of a Turkish beylik (emirate); which lasted until 1322 when the city was captured by the neighbouring Beylik of Karamanoğlu. In 1420, the Beylik of Karamanoğlu fell to the Ottoman Empire and, in 1453, Konya was made the provincial capital of Karaman Eyalet.

Ottoman era[edit]

16th century Konya carpet, in the LACMA collections.

During Ottoman rule, Konya was administered by the Sultan's sons (Şehzade), starting with Şehzade Mustafa and Şehzade Cem (the sons of Sultan Mehmed II), and later the future Sultan Selim II. Between 1483 and 1864, Konya was the administrative capital of Karaman Eyalet. During the Tanzimat period, as part of the vilayet system introduced in 1864, Konya became the seat of the larger Vilayet of Konya which replaced Karaman Eyalet.

Turkish War of Independence[edit]

Konya had a major air base during the Turkish War of Independence. In 1922, the Air Force was renamed as the Inspectorate of Air Forces[9] and headquartered in Konya.[10][11] The Third Air Wing[12] of the 1st Air Force Command[13] is based at Konya Air Base The wing controls Boeing 737 AEW&C Peace Eagle aircraft of the Turkish Air Force.[14][15]

Republic era[edit]

Konya was a center for agriculture at the turn of the 20th century.[citation needed] Since the late 20th century, the economy has diversified.

The Meram highway was constructed in 1950.[citation needed]

The first Konya National Exhibition and Fair was held in 1968.[citation needed]

The Koyunoğlu Museum was donated to the city in 1973 and it reopened in a new building.[citation needed]

Government[edit]

Konya Metropolitan Municipality

The first local administration in Konya was founded in 1830. This administration was converted into a municipality in 1876.[16] In March 1989, the municipality became a Metropolitan Municipality. As of that date, Konya had three central district municipalities (Meram, Selçuklu, Karatay) and a Metropolitan Municipality.

In 2012, the Metropolitan Municipality expanded to include non-central districts.[citation needed]

The mayor is elected in every five years.[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

Konya has the largest area of any city of Turkey.[citation needed] It is located in the middle of Anatolia. It is the seventh most populated city in Turkey.[17]

Climate[edit]

Konya has a continental climate with cold, snowy winters and hot, dry summers.[18] Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn.

Under Köppen's climate classification the city has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk).[19] Summers temperatures average 30 °C (86 °F). The highest temperature recorded in Konya was 40.6 °C (105 °F) on 30 July 2000. Winters average −4.2 °C (24 °F). The lowest temperature recorded was −25.8 °C (−14 °F) on 25 January 1989. Due to Konya's high altitude and its dry summers, nightly temperatures in the summer months are cool. Precipitation levels are low, but precipitation can be observed throughout the year.

Climate data for Konya (1960–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.6
(63.7)
21.6
(70.9)
28.9
(84)
31.5
(88.7)
34.4
(93.9)
37.2
(99)
40.6
(105.1)
39.6
(103.3)
36.1
(97)
31.6
(88.9)
25.2
(77.4)
20.4
(68.7)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
6.8
(44.2)
12.0
(53.6)
17.4
(63.3)
22.2
(72)
26.8
(80.2)
30.2
(86.4)
30.0
(86)
26.1
(79)
20.0
(68)
13.0
(55.4)
6.7
(44.1)
17.99
(64.39)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.2
(31.6)
1.2
(34.2)
5.7
(42.3)
11.0
(51.8)
15.7
(60.3)
20.2
(68.4)
23.6
(74.5)
23.0
(73.4)
18.6
(65.5)
12.5
(54.5)
6.1
(43)
1.8
(35.2)
11.6
(52.89)
Average low °C (°F) −4.1
(24.6)
−3.3
(26.1)
0.0
(32)
4.5
(40.1)
8.6
(47.5)
12.9
(55.2)
16.2
(61.2)
15.7
(60.3)
11.2
(52.2)
6.1
(43)
0.8
(33.4)
−2.2
(28)
5.53
(41.97)
Record low °C (°F) −25.8
(−14.4)
−26.5
(−15.7)
−15.8
(3.6)
−8.6
(16.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
3.2
(37.8)
7.5
(45.5)
6.6
(43.9)
1.2
(34.2)
−7.6
(18.3)
−20.0
(−4)
−22.4
(−8.3)
−26.5
(−15.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 35.3
(1.39)
28.2
(1.11)
27.1
(1.067)
34.0
(1.339)
43.6
(1.717)
23.2
(0.913)
6.9
(0.272)
5.6
(0.22)
11.2
(0.441)
31.3
(1.232)
33.1
(1.303)
44.8
(1.764)
324.3
(12.768)
Avg. rainy days 9.7 8.8 8.7 9.6 10.6 6.5 2.8 2.4 3.5 6.7 7.0 10.0 86.3
 % humidity 76 72 62 55 53 48 41 39 47 58 70 78 58.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 96.1 126 189.1 207 266.6 312 347.2 341 288 220.1 150 93 2,636.1
Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [1]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory [2]

Education[edit]

Library of Selçuk University in Konya

Konya ranks among the nation's top 10 cities for the average score of high school graduates.[citation needed] There are various elementary and secondary schools in the province. The Meram Fen Lisesi is among Turkey's first-tier science high schools.[citation needed]

Konya is one of the few cities[citation needed] to contain more than 100,000 college students. Selçuk University had the largest number of students, 76,080, of any public university in Turkey during the 2008-09 academic year.[20] It was founded in 1975. The other public university is Necmettin Erbakan University which was established in Konya in 2010.[21]

Private colleges in Konya include the KTO Karatay University and Mevlana University.[22][23]

Economy[edit]

The 42-floor Seljuk Tower (2006) in Konya

The city ranks among the Anatolian Tigers.[2][3][4] There are a number of industrial parks.[24] In 2012 Konya's exports reached 130 countries.[24] A number of Turkish industrial conglomerates, such as Kombassan Holding, have their headquarters in Konya.[25]

While agriculture-based industries play a role, the city's economy has evolved into a center for the manufacturing of components for the automotive industry; machinery manufacturing; agricultural tools; casting industry; plastic paint and chemical industry; construction materials; paper and packing industry; processed foods; textiles; and leather industry.[24]

Transportation[edit]

A Škoda 28 T tram produced for the Konya Metropolitan Municipality

Bus[edit]

The bus station has connections to a range of destinations, including Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir.

Tram[edit]

Konya has an tramway network in the city center, on which the Škoda 28 T trams are being used.[26]

Railway[edit]

Konya is connected to Ankara, Eskişehir and Istanbul via the high-speed railway services of the Turkish State Railways.[27][28] High-speed trains (Yüksek Hızlı Tren) operate between Ankara and Konya.[29]

Airport[edit]

Konya Airport is a public airport and military airbase that's also used by NATO. In 2006, Konya Airport served 2,924 aircraft and 262,561 passengers.[30]

Notable people[edit]

Main sights[edit]

Alaeddin Mosque (1235) in Konya

Culture[edit]

Etli ekmek is a local dish of Konya
Mevlana Museum (1274) in Konya

Konya was the final home of Rumi (Mevlana), whose tomb is in the city. In 1273, his followers in Konya established the Mevlevi Sufi order of Islam and became known as the Whirling Dervishes. Konya has the reputation of being one of the more religiously conservative metropolitan centers in Turkey. It was once known as the "citadel of Islam" and its inhabitants are still comparatively more devout than those from other cities.[32]

Konya produced Turkish carpets that were exported to Europe during the Renaissance.[33][34] These expensive, richly patterned textiles were draped over tables, beds, or chests to proclaim the wealth and status of their owners, and were often included in the contemporary oil paintings as symbols of the wealth of the painter's clients.[35]

A Turkish folk song is named "Konyalım", making reference to a loved one from Konya.[36]

The local cuisine of Konya includes dishes made of bulgur wheat and lamb meat.[37] One of the renowned dishes of the city is etli ekmek, which is similar to lahmacun and pizza.[37]

Twin towns[edit]

International relations[edit]

Konya is twinned with:

Europe

Asia

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ Büyükşehir belediyeleri ve bağlı belediyelerin nüfusları - 2011
  2. ^ a b Financial Times: Reports — Anatolian tigers: Regions prove plentiful
  3. ^ a b Investopedia: Anatolian Tigers
  4. ^ a b Zaman: Anatolian tigers conquering the world
  5. ^ Çatalhöyük added to UNESCO World Heritage List Global Heritage Fund blog article
  6. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica: Konya
  7. ^ see William Ramsay, Cities of St. Paul, 315–384; F. F. Bruce, Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1977. p. 475.
  8. ^ Clive F. W. Foss "Ikonion" The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Ed. Alexander P. Kazhdan. © 1991, 2005 by Oxford University Press, Inc.. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. King's College London. 30 May 2012 http://www.oxford-byzantium.com/entry?entry=t174.e2437
  9. ^ Turkic:Kuva-yı Havaiye Müfettişliği
  10. ^ Turkish Air Force: History (1918-1923)
  11. ^ Utkan Kocatürk, Atatürk ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarihi kronolojisi, 1918-1938, Türk Tarîh Kurumu Basımevi, 1983, p. 674.
  12. ^ Ana Jet Üssü or AJÜ
  13. ^ Hava Kuvvet Komutanlığı
  14. ^ Hürriyet: "TSK yeni yıldızı Barış Kartalı'na kavuştu" (21 February 2014)
  15. ^ Today's Zaman: "Turkey takes delivery of military aircraft" (21 February 2014)
  16. ^ " İhtisab Agalıgi" (Islamic-Ottoman office for public regularity)
  17. ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/Turkey-RBC20.html December 2012 address-based calculation of the Turkish Statistical Institute as presented by citypopulation.de
  18. ^ Effect of Climate Changes on Groundwater - Selcuk University, Department of Geology Engineering, Konya, Turkey
  19. ^ Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification - Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
  20. ^ About Turkey and Konya, Konya Livestock Congress, 2014
  21. ^ Konya Necmettin Erbakan Univercity, History
  22. ^ "KTO Karatay Üniversitesi". Karatay.edu.tr. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  23. ^ A Fuat Mercan. "Mevlana Üniversitesi | Mevlana University". Mevlana.edu.tr. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  24. ^ a b c Konya Chamber of Commerce: General Overview of the Konya Economy
  25. ^ Kombassan Holding: History
  26. ^ (English) "Škoda Transportation wins Konya tram contract". Retrieved 2013-09-05. 
  27. ^ "Opening of Ankara - Konya fast line completes strategic link". Railway Gazette. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 
  28. ^ "Invensys commissions ERTMS solution on Turkish High Speed Line". European Railway Review. 7 September 2011. Archived from the original on 19 December 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011. 
  29. ^ "High-Speed Rail Line Connecting Ankara-Konya Concluded". Turkish Weekly. 17 August 2011. Archived from the original on 19 December 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011. 
  30. ^ (Turkish) Konya Hava Meydanı at DHMİ (State Airports Authority)
  31. ^ Programmer World: Orkut Büyükkökten
  32. ^ 'Islam problem' baffles Turkey, By Jonny Dymond - BBC
  33. ^ King, Donald and Sylvester, David. The Eastern Carpet in the Western World, From the 15th to the 17th century, Arts Council of Great Britain, London, 1983, ISBN 0-7287-0362-9. pp. 26-27, 52-57.
  34. ^ Campbell, Gordon. The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts, Volume 1, "Carpet, S 2; History (pp. 187–193), Oxford University Press US, 2006, ISBN 0-19-518948-5, ISBN 978-0-19-518948-3 Google books. p. 189.
  35. ^ Old Ottoman "Holbein" carpets in Renaissance painting
  36. ^ Song Lyrics
  37. ^ a b Konya Büyükşehir Belediyesi: "Konya Mutfağı"
  38. ^ Kyoto İle Kardeş Şehir Protokolü İmzalandı, Heyet Japon Parkı'nı Gezdi, Konya Büyükşehir Belediyesi (2010)

Further reading[edit]

Published in the 19th century
  • "Konia", Handbook for Travellers in Turkey (3rd ed.), London: J. Murray, 1854, OCLC 2145740 
Published in the 20th century
  • "Konia", The Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424 
  • E. Broadrup (1995). "Konya/Catal Huyuk". International Dictionary of Historic Places. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. 
Published in the 21st century
  • C. Edmund Bosworth, ed. (2007). "Konya". Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill. 
  • "Konya". Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture. Oxford University Press. 2009. 

External links[edit]