Ido (language)

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Ido
Flag of Ido.svg
Created by Delegation for the Adoption of an International Auxiliary Language
Date 1907
Setting and usage International auxiliary language
Users 100–200  (2000)[1]
Purpose
Sources based on Esperanto
Official status
Regulated by Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido
Language codes
ISO 639-1 io
ISO 639-2 ido
ISO 639-3 ido
Linguasphere 51-AAB-db
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Ido /ˈd/ is a constructed language created to be a universal second language for speakers of diverse backgrounds. Ido was specifically designed to be grammatically, orthographically, and lexicographically regular, and above all easy to learn and use. In this sense, Ido is classified as a constructed international auxiliary language.

Ido was created in 1907 out of a desire to reform flaws in Esperanto, a language that had been created for the same purpose 20 years earlier. The name of the language traces its origin to the Esperanto word ido, meaning "offspring",[2] since the language is a "descendant" of Esperanto. After its inception, Ido gained support from some in the Esperanto community, but following the sudden death in 1914 of one of its most influential proponents, Louis Couturat, it declined in popularity. There were two reasons for this: first, the emergence of further schisms arising from competing reform projects; and second, a general lack of awareness of Ido as a candidate for an international language. These obstacles weakened the movement and it was not until the rise of the Internet that it began to regain momentum.

Ido uses the same 26 letters as the English (Latin) alphabet with no diacritics. It draws its vocabulary from French, Italian, Spanish, English, German, and Russian, and is largely intelligible to those who have studied Esperanto.

Several works of literature have been translated into Ido, including The Little Prince and the Gospel of Luke. As of the year 2000, there were approximately 100–200 Ido speakers in the world.[1]

History[edit]

The idea of a universal second language is not new, and constructed languages are not a recent phenomenon. The first known constructed language was Lingua Ignota, created in the 12th century. But the idea did not catch on in large numbers until the language Volapük was created in 1879. Volapük was popular for some time and apparently had a few thousand users, but was later eclipsed by the popularity of Esperanto, which arose in 1887. Several other languages such as Latino sine Flexione and Idiom Neutral had also been put forward. It was during this time that French mathematician Louis Couturat formed the Delegation for the Adoption of an International Auxiliary Language.

This delegation made a formal request to the International Association of Academies in Vienna to select and endorse an international language; the request was rejected in May 1907.[3] The Delegation then met as a Committee in Paris in October 1907 to discuss the adoption of a standard international language. Among the languages considered was a new language anonymously submitted under the pen name Ido.[4] In the end the Committee concluded that no language was completely acceptable, but that Esperanto could be accepted "on condition of several modifications to be realized by the permanent Commission in the direction defined by the conclusions of the Report of the Secretaries [Louis Couturat and Léopold Leau] and by the Ido project."[5]

The International Ido Congress in Dessau, Germany, in 1922

Esperanto's inventor, L. L. Zamenhof, had suggested in an 1894 proposition for a Reformed Esperanto several changes that Ido adopted: eliminating the accented letters and the accusative case, changing the plural to an Italianesque -i, and replacing the table of correlatives with more Latinate words. However, the Esperanto community rejected Reformed Esperanto,[4] and likewise most rejected the recommendations of the 1907 Committee. Zamenhof deferred to their judgment. Furthermore, controversy ensued when the "Ido project" was found to have been primarily devised by Louis de Beaufront, who represented Esperanto before the Committee.[6]

It is estimated that 20% of the Esperanto leaders and 3–4% of the ordinary Esperantists defected to Ido.[7] Although it fractured the Esperanto movement, the schism gave the remaining Esperantists freedom to concentrate on using and promoting their language as it stood.[8] At the same time, it gave the Idists freedom to continue working on their own language for several more years before actively promoting it. The Uniono di la Amiki di la Linguo Internaciona (Union of Friends of the International Language) was established along with an Ido Academy to work out the details of the new language.[4]

Couturat, who was the leading proponent of Ido, was killed in an automobile accident in 1914.[4] This, along with World War I, practically suspended the activities of the Ido Academy from 1914 to 1920.[3] In 1928 Ido's major intellectual supporter, the Danish linguist Otto Jespersen, published his own planned language, Novial. His defection from the Ido movement set it back even further.[9]

Digital era[edit]

The language still has active speakers today, and the Internet has sparked a renewal of interest in the language in recent years. A sample of 24 Idists on the Yahoo! group Idolisto during November 2005 showed that 57% had begun their studies of the language during the past three years, 32% from the mid-1990s to 2002, and 8% had known the language from before.[10]

Changes[edit]

Few changes have been made to Ido since 1922.[11]

Camiel de Cock was named secretary of linguistic issues in 1990, succeeding Roger Moureaux.[12] He resigned after the creation of a linguistic committee in 1991.[13] De Cock was succeeded by Robert C. Carnaghan, who held the position from 1992 to 2008. No new words were adopted between 2001 and 2006.[14] Following the 2008–2011 elections of ULI's direction committee, Gonçalo Neves replaced Carnaghan as secretary of linguistic issues in February 2008.[15] Neves resigned in August 2008.[16] A new linguistic committee was formed in 2010.[17][18][19] In April 2010, Tiberio Madonna was appointed as secretary of linguistic issues, succeeding Neves.[20][21] In January 2011, ULI approved eight new words.[22] This was the first addition of words in many years.[23] As of April 2012, the secretary of linguistic issues remains Tiberio Madonna.[24]

Phonology[edit]

Ido has five vowel phonemes. The vowels [e] and [ɛ] are interchangeable depending on speaker preference, as are [o] and [ɔ]. The combinations /au/ and /eu/ become diphthongs in word roots but not when adding affixes.[25]

Ido vowels
Front Back
Close i u
Mid e ~ ɛ o ~ ɔ
Open a
Ido consonants
Labial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop p b t d k ɡ
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ h
Approximant l j w
Flap ɾ


All polysyllable words are stressed on the second-to-last syllable except for verb infinitives, which are stressed on the last syllable – skolo, kafeo and lernas for "school", "coffee" and the present tense of "to learn", but irar, savar and drinkar for "to go", "to know" and "to drink". If an i or u precedes another vowel, the pair is considered part of the same syllable when applying the accent rule – thus radio, familio and manuo for "radio", "family" and "hand", unless the two vowels are the only ones in the word, in which case the "i" or "u" is stressed: dio, frua for "day" and "early".[26]

Orthography[edit]

Ido uses the same 26 letters as the English alphabet with three digraphs and no ligatures. Where the table below lists two pronunciations, either is perfectly acceptable.[27]

Letter IPA English
a /a/ most similar to a as in "father"
b /b/ b as in "stable"
c /t͡s/ ts as in "cats"; also used in the digraph ch
d /d/ d as in "adopt"
e /e/, /ɛ/ most similar to e as in "egg" or e as in "bet"
f /f/ f as in "afraid"
g /ɡ/ hard g as in "go"
h /h/ h as in "hat", "ahoy"
i /i/ i as in "machine", ee in "bee"
j /ʒ/ s as in "pleasure, measure" or g in "mirage, beige"
k /k/ k as in "skin, skip"
l /l/ most similar to l as in "lamb"
m /m/ m as in "admit"
n /n/ n as in "analogy"
o /o/, /ɔ/ most similar to o as in "or"
p /p/ p as in "spin, spark"
q /k/ same as k; used only in the digraph qu
r /ɾ/ tapped or rolled r
s /s/ s as in "east"; also used in the digraph sh
t /t/ t as in "stake, stop"
u /u/ u as in "duma", "dugong" or oo in "moon"
v /v/ v as in "avoid"
w /w/ w as in "award"
x /ks/, /ɡz/ x as in "except" or "exist"
y /j/ y as in "yes"
z /z/ z as in "zebra"

The digraphs are:[27]

Digraph IPA English
ch /t͡ʃ/ ch as in "chick"
qu /kw/ qu as in "quick"
sh /ʃ/ sh as in "shy"

Grammar[edit]

Each word in the Ido vocabulary is built from a root word. A word consists of a root and a grammatical ending. Other words can be formed from that word by removing the grammatical ending and adding a new one, or by inserting certain affixes between the root and the grammatical ending.

Some of the grammatical endings are defined as follows:

Grammatical form Ido English Esperanto
Singular noun -o (libro) book -o (libro)
Plural noun -i (libri) books -oj (libroj)
Adjective -a (varma) warm -a (varma)
Adverb -e (varme) warmly -e (varme)
Present tense infinitive -ar (irar) to be going to go -anti (iranti) -i (iri)
Past tense infinitive -ir (irir) to have gone -inti (irinti)
Future tense infinitive -or (iror) to be going to go -onti (ironti)
Present -as (iras) go, goes -as (iras)
Past -is (iris) went -is (iris)
Future -os (iros) will go -os (iros)
Imperative -ez (irez) go! -u (iru)
Conditional -us (irus) would go -us (irus)

These are the same as in Esperanto except for -i, -ir, -ar, -or and -ez. Esperanto marks noun plurals by an agglutinative ending -j (so plural nouns end in -oj), uses -i for verb infinitives (Esperanto infinitives are tenseless), and uses -u for the imperative. Verbs in Ido do not conjugate depending on person, number or gender; the -as, -is, and -os endings suffice whether the subject is I, you, he, she, they, or anything else.

Syntax[edit]

Ido word order is generally the same as English (subject–verb–object), so the sentence Me havas la blua libro is the same as the English "I have the blue book", both in meaning and word order. There are a few differences, however:

  • Adjectives can precede the noun as in English, or follow the noun as in Spanish. Thus, Me havas la libro blua means the same thing.
  • Ido has the accusative suffix -n. Unlike Esperanto, this suffix is only required when the object of the sentence is not clear, for example, when the subject-verb-object word order is not followed. Thus, La blua libron me havas also means the same thing.

Ido generally does not impose rules of grammatical agreement between grammatical categories within a sentence. For example, the verb in a sentence is invariable regardless of the number and person of the subject. Nor must the adjectives be pluralized as well the nouns – in Ido the large books would be la granda libri as opposed to the French les grands livres or the Esperanto la grandaj libroj.

Negation occurs in Ido by simply adding ne before a verb: Me ne havas libro means "I do not have a book". This as well does not vary, and thus the "I do not", "He does not", "They do not" before a verb are simply Me ne, Il ne, and Li ne. In the same way, past tense and future tense negatives are formed by ne before the conjugated verb. "I will not go" and "I did not go" become Me ne iros and Me ne iris respectively.

Yes/no questions are formed by the particle ka in front of the question. "I have a book" (me havas libro) becomes Ka me havas libro? (do I have a book?). Ka can also be placed in front of a noun without a verb to make a simple question, corresponding to the English "is it?" Ka Mark? can mean, "Are you Mark?", "Is it Mark?", "Do you mean Mark?" depending on the context.

Pronouns[edit]

The pronouns of Ido were revised to make them more acoustically distinct than those of Esperanto, which all end in i. Especially the singular and plural first-person pronouns mi and ni may be difficult to distinguish in a noisy environment, so Ido has me and ni instead. Ido also distinguishes between intimate (tu) and formal (vu) second-person singular pronouns as well as plural second-person pronouns (vi) not marked for intimacy. Furthermore, Ido has a pan-gender third-person pronoun lu (it can mean "he", "she", or "it", depending on the context) in addition to its masculine (il), feminine (el), and neuter (ol) third-person pronouns.

Pronouns
singular plural indefinite
first second third first second third
familiar formal masculine feminine neuter pan-gender masculine feminine neuter pan-gender
Ido me tu vu il(u) el(u) ol(u) lu ni vi ili eli oli li on(u)
English I you you he she it he/she/it we you they one
Esperanto mi ci¹ vi¹ li ŝi ĝi ni vi ili ili ili ili oni
  1. ci, while technically the familiar form of the word "you" in Esperanto, is almost never used. Esperanto's inventor himself did not include the pronoun in the first book on Esperanto and only later reluctantly; later he recommended against using ci on the grounds that different cultures have conflicting traditions regarding the use of the familiar and formal forms of "you".[28]

It should be noted that ol, like English it and Esperanto ĝi, is not limited to inanimate objects, but can be used "for entities whose sex is indeterminate: babies, children, humans, youths, elders, people, individuals, horses, [cattle], cats, etc."

Lu is often mistakenly labeled an epicene pronoun, that is, one that refers to both masculine and feminine beings, but in fact, lu is more properly a "pan-gender" pronoun, as it is also used for referring to inanimate objects. From Kompleta Gramatiko Detaloza di la Linguo Internaciona Ido by Beaufront:

Lu (like li) is used for all three genders. That lu does duty for the three genders at will in the singular is not in itself any more astonishing than seeing li serve the three genders at will in the plural ... By a decision (1558) the Idist Academy rejected every restriction concerning the use of lu. One may thus use that pronoun in exactly the same way for a thing and a person of obvious sex as for animals of unknown sex and a person that has a genderless name, like baby, child, human, etc., these being as truly masculine as feminine.

The motives for this decision were given in "Mondo", XI, 68: Lu for the singular is exactly the same as li for the plural. Logic, symmetry and ease demand this. Consequently, just as li may be used for people, animals, and things whenever nothing obliges one to express the gender, so lu may be used for people, animals, and things under the same condition. The proposed distinction would be a bothersome subtlety ...

Table of correlatives[edit]

What That Some Any No Every
Person qua/i (i)ta/i ulu/i irgu/i nulu/i omnu/i
Thing quo/i (i)to/i ulo/i irgo/i nulo/i omno/i
Place ube ibe ulaloke irgaloke nulaloke omnaloke
Time kande lore ulatempe irgatempe nulatempe sempre
Way quale tale ule irge nule omne
Quantity quanto tanto ulaquanto irgaquanto nulaquanto omnaquanto

Vocabulary[edit]

Vocabulary in Ido is derived from French, Italian, Spanish, English, German, and Russian. Basing the vocabulary on various widespread languages was intended to make Ido as easy as possible for the greatest number of people possible. Early on, the first 5,371 Ido word roots were analyzed compared to the vocabulary of the six source languages, and the following result was found:[29]

  • 2024 roots (38%) belong to 6 languages
  • 942 roots (17%) belong to 5 languages
  • 1111 roots (21%) belong to 4 languages
  • 585 roots (11%) belong to 3 languages
  • 454 roots (8%) belong to 2 languages
  • 255 roots (5%) belong to 1 language

Another analysis showed that:

  • 4880 roots (91%) are found in French
  • 4454 roots (83%) are found in Italian
  • 4237 roots (79%) are found in Spanish
  • 4219 roots (79%) are found in English
  • 3302 roots (61%) are found in German
  • 2821 roots (52%) are found in Russian
Comparison of Ido vocabulary with its six source languages
Ido English Italian French German Russian Spanish
bona good ("bonus") buono bon gut ("Bonus") khoroshiy (хороший) bueno
donar give ("donate") dare ("donare") donner geben darit (дарить) dar, donar
filtrar filter filtrare filtrer filtern filtrovat (фильтровать) filtrar
gardeno garden giardino jardin Garten sad (caд) jardín
kavalo horse ("cavalry") cavallo cheval Pferd ("Kavallerie") loshad, kobyla (лошадь, кобыла) caballo
maro sea ("marine") mare mer Meer more (море) mar
naciono nation nazione nation Nation natsija (нация) nación
studiar study studiare étudier studieren izuchat, (изучать) estudiar
yuna young ("juvenile") giovane jeune jung yunyi, molodoy (юный, молодой) joven

Vocabulary in Ido is often created through a number of official prefixes and suffixes that alter the meaning of the word. This allows a user to take existing words and modify them to create neologisms when necessary, and allows for a wide range of expression without the need to learn new vocabulary each time. Though their number is too large to be included in one article, some examples include:

  • The diminutive suffix -et-. Domo (house) becomes dometo (cottage), and libro (book) becomes libreto (novelette or short story).
  • The pejorative suffix -ach-. Domo becomes domacho (hovel), and libro becomes libracho (a shoddy piece of work, pulp fiction, etc.)
  • The prefix retro-, which implies a reversal. Irar (to go) becomes retroirar (to go back, backward) and venar (to come) becomes retrovenar (to return).

New vocabulary is generally created through an analysis of the word, its etymology, and reference to the six source languages. If a word can be created through vocabulary already existing in the language then it will usually be adopted without need for a new radical (such as wikipedio for Wikipedia, which consists of wiki + enciklopedio for encyclopedia), and if not an entirely new word will be created. The word alternatoro for example was adopted in 1926, likely because five of the six source languages used largely the same orthography for the word, and because it was long enough to avoid being mistaken for other words in the existing vocabulary.[30] Adoption of a word is done through consensus, after which the word will be made official by the union. Care must also be taken to avoid homonyms if possible, and usually a new word undergoes some discussion before being adopted. Foreign words that have a restricted sense and are not likely to be used in everyday life (such as the word intifada to refer to the conflict between Israel and Palestine) are left untouched, and often written in italics.

Ido, unlike Esperanto, does not assume the male sex by default. For example, Ido does not derive the word for waitress by adding a feminine suffix to waiter, as Esperanto does. Instead, Ido words are defined as sex-neutral, and two different suffixes derive masculine and feminine words from the root: servisto for a waiter of either sex, servistulo for a male waiter, and servistino for a waitress. There are only two exceptions to this rule:[11] First, patro for father, matro for mother, and genitoro for parent, and second, viro for man, muliero for woman, and adulto for adult.[31]

Sample[edit]


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The Lord's Prayer:

Ido

Patro nia, qua esas en la cielo,
tua nomo santigesez;
tua regno advenez;
tua volo facesez
quale en la cielo, tale anke sur la tero.
Donez a ni cadie l'omnadiala pano,
e pardonez a ni nia ofensi,
quale anke ni pardonas a nia ofensanti,
e ne duktez ni aden la tento,
ma liberigez ni del malajo.

English

Our Father, who are in heaven,
hallowed be your name.
Your kingdom come,
your will be done,
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread,
and forgive us our debts,
as we also have forgiven our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil.

Literature and publications[edit]

Ido has a number of publications that can be subscribed to or downloaded for free in most cases. Kuriero Internaciona is a magazine produced in France every few months with a range of topics. Adavane! is a magazine produced by the Spanish Ido Society every two months that has a range of topics, as well as a few dozen pages of work translated from other languages. Progreso is the official organ of the Ido movement and has been around since the inception of the movement in 1908. Other sites can be found with various stories, fables or proverbs along with a few books of the Bible translated into Ido on a smaller scale. The site publikaji has a few podcasts in Ido along with various songs and other recorded material.

The online encyclopedia Wikipedia includes an Ido-language edition (known in Ido as Wikipedio); in January 2012 it was the 81st most visited Wikipedia.[32]

International Ido conventions[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Blanke (2000), cited in Sabine Fiedler "Phraseology in planned languages", Phraseology / Phraseologie, Walter de Gruyter 2007. pp. 779.
  2. ^ "Esperanto-English Dictionary". Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Guérard, A. L. "Chapter VII". A Short History of the International Language Movement. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d Dyer, Luther H (1923). The Problem of an International Auxiliary Language and its Solution in Ido. pp. 54–74. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  5. ^ Leau, Léopold (August 1933). "La Vereso pri la Delegitaro en 1907" [The Truth about the Delegation in 1907]. Progreso X (96): 4. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  6. ^ Jacob, Henry (1947). "II. Ido". A Planned Auxiliary Language. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  7. ^ Lapenna, Ivo; Ulrich Lins; Tazio Carlevaro (1974). Esperanto en perspektivo: Faktoj kaj analizoj pri la internacia lingvo (in Esperanto). London: Centro de Esploro kaj Dokumentado pri la Monda Lingvo-Problemo. p. 424. 
  8. ^ Harlow, Donald J (4 July 2006). "Ido". How to Build a Language. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  9. ^ Harlow, Donald J (4 July 2006). "Novial". How to Build a Language. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  10. ^ MacLeod, Dave (23 November 2005). "Votez! Kande vu komencis lernar Ido?" [Vote! When did you start learning Ido?]. Retrieved 19 January 2012. 
  11. ^ a b Chandler, James (6 November 1997). "Changes in Ido since 1922". Retrieved 19 January 2012. 
  12. ^ "Listo di nova vorti propozita da la Linguala komitato dil Uniono". Suplemento a la revuo Progreso numero 290. ULI. 
  13. ^ BOL, Jacques (2004-11-15). "Pri Camiel de Cock". 
  14. ^ Chandler, James (2006-04-16). "Lasta decido pri nova vorti". 
  15. ^ Landais, Loïc (2008-02-17). "Nova DK di ULI por 2008–2011". 
  16. ^ Neves, Gonçalo (2008-08-29). "demisiono ed adio". 
  17. ^ Landais, Loïc (2009-09-28). "Linguala Komitato di ULI". 
  18. ^ Richard, Gaël (2010-02-09). "RE: [linguo] Ube es komitato linguala". 
  19. ^ "Linguala Komitato di ULI". Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido (ULI). 
  20. ^ Jibran (Partaka), Khalil (2010-04-16). "Ido havas nova Sekretario pri Linguala Questioni". 
  21. ^ "Nomino di Sekretario por Linguala Questioni di ULI". Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido. 2010-04-03. 
  22. ^ Madonna, Tiberio (2011-01-01). "2esma raporto de la Linguala Komitato". 
  23. ^ Chandler, James (2011-01-02). "RE: [linguo] 2esma raporto de la Linguala Komitato". 
  24. ^ "La Direktanta Komitato di ULI". ULI. 
  25. ^ De Beaufront, L (2004). "Pronunco dil vokali" [Pronunciation of vowels]. Kompleta Gramatiko Detaloza di Ido. p. 7. Archived from the original on 2012-02-06. Retrieved 19 January 2012. 
  26. ^ De Beaufront, L (2004). "Acento tonika" [Tonic accent]. Kompleta Gramatiko Detaloza di Ido. pp. 11–12. Retrieved 19 January 2012. 
  27. ^ a b De Beaufront, L (2004). "Kompleta Gramatiko Detaloza di Ido" [Comeplete Detailed Grammar of Ido]. pp. 7–10. Retrieved 19 January 2012. 
  28. ^ Eventoj, no. 103, ISSN 01215-959 X. Ci estas senvalora balasto (Ci is useless ballast). 1996. Available at http://www.eventoj.hu/arkivo/eve-103.htm
  29. ^ Dyer, Luther H (1923). The Problem of an International Auxiliary Language and its Solution in Ido. pp. 101–121. Retrieved 19 January 2012. 
  30. ^ De Cock, Camiel (1988). "Lexiko di nova vorti" [Lexicon of new words]. Retrieved 19 January 2012. 
  31. ^ ApGawain, Niklas; P.D. Hugon, J.L. Moore, L. de Beaufront (30 December 2008). Ido For All. pp. 52, 70. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  32. ^ Zachte, Erik (18 January 2012). "Page Views for Wikipedia, Non-mobile, Normalized". Retrieved 19 January 2012. 
Additional notes
  1. L. Couturat, L. Leau. Delegation pour l'adoption d'une Langue auxiliare internationale (15–24 October 1907). Coulommiers: Imprimerie Paul Brodard, 1907

External links[edit]

General information
History and opinions
Places to learn Ido and pages in the language