|Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, a UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Region||Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)|
|Founded||June 18, 1966|
|• Type||Province of the Philippines|
|• Governor||Denis Habawel (Independent)|
|• Vice Governor||Pedro Mayam-o (LP)|
|• Total||2,628.2 km2 (1,014.8 sq mi)|
|Area rank||53rd out of 80|
|• Rank||71st out of 80|
|• Density||69/km2 (180/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||73rd out of 80|
|• Independent cities||0|
|• Component cities||0|
|• Districts||Lone district of Ifugao|
|Time zone||PHT (UTC+8)|
|Spoken languages||Ifugao, Tuwali, Ayangan, Kalanguya, Ilocano, Tagalog, English|
Ifugao is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Covering a total land area of 2,628.2 km², the province of Ifugao is located in a mountainous region characterized by rugged terrain, river valleys, and massive forests. Its capital is Lagawe and borders Benguet to the west, Mountain Province to the north, Isabela to the east, and Nueva Vizcaya to the south.
It is named after the term "i-pugo" which means "i" (from/people) and "pugo" (hill), thus it means people of the hill.
The Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras and Banaue Rice Terraces are the main tourist attractions in the province. These 2000-year-old terraces were carved into the mountains, without the aid of machinery, they used their "bare" hands to provide level steps where the natives can plant rice. In 1995, they were declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
During Spanish occupation, government was established in Kiangan. The Spanish occupation ended with the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution. Ifugao used to be part of the former Mountain Province prior to its split into four separate and independent provinces. In 1905, Ifugao was made a sub-province of the old Mountain Province. Captain Pedro Bulan became the first native to become the first provincial governor.
Ifugao became the center of warfare in the last year of World War II when Gen. Yamashita launched his last stand against the American and Philippine Commonwealth forces at Mount Napulawan. He informally surrendered to Captain Grisham of the 6th US Army in the Philippines based in Kiangan, Ifugao before he was flown to Camp John Hay where he formally surrendered.
Mountain tribes in Northern Luzon
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Traveling to the northern part of the island Luzon will bring you not only to beautiful landscapes with amazing rice terraces. It will bring you also to the regions with remote villages and colorful and traditional living upland tribal communities. Their ancestors constructed the fascinating rice terraces with the perfect working irrigation systems. These mountain tribes still distinguish themselves by their specific cultural expression and their skills.
They have skills in making bowls, baskets, weapons and clothing. It was the Ifugao people who built up the rice terraces. They are still living and working as in the past.
In the past the Ifugao were feared head-hunters, just as other tribes in the mountainous regions of northern Luzon. The war-dance (the bangibang) is one of the cultural remnants of the time of tribal conflict.
This dance is traditionally held on the walls of the rice terraces by the men, equipped with spears, axes and wooden shields and a headdress made of leaves.
People and culture
The people of Ifugao province are Ifugao, but mistakenly called by non-Cordilleran as Igorot. Ifugaos are different from other tribes in the cordilleras in culture, tradition, language, and idealism, in everything. Neighboring non-Ifugao tribes have tried to annex or connect themselves with the Ifugao with the intention of sharing their positive reputation.
As of today`s total number of population of Tinguian in the province of Ifugao is 2,609. (source: National Statistics Office)
Ifugao culture revolves around rice, which is considered a prestige crop. There is an elaborate and complex array of rice culture feasts inextricably linked with taboos and intricate agricultural rites, from rice cultivation to rice consumption. Harvest season calls for grandiose thanksgiving feasts, while the concluding harvest rites "tungo" or "tungul" (the day of rest) entail a strict taboo of any agricultural work. Partaking of the rice wine (bayah), rice cakes, and 'moma' (mixture of several herbs, powdered snail shell and betel nut/ arecoline: and acts as a chewing gum to the Ifugaos) is an indelible practice during the festivities and ritual activitiess. their retual and Agricultural terracing is their principal means of livelihood along with farming. Their social status is measured by the number of rice field granaries, family heirlooms, gold earrings, carabaos (water buffaloes), as well as, prestige conferred through time and tradition. The more affluent, known as kadangyan were usually generous by nature, giving rice to poor neighbors in time of food shortage(s) and/or hardship(s). Furthermore, their culture was known for their legal system, using one of the world's most extensive oral legal traditions specifying the offense depending on the use of custom law; trial by elders (influenced in part by public opinion); or trial by ordeal. The wealthy were subjected to greater fines than the poor.
Untouched by the influences of Spanish colonialism, Ifugao culture value kinship, family ties, religious and cultural beliefs. They're unique among all ethnic groups in the mountain province, not only for their interesting customs and traditions but also for their narrative literature such as the hudhud, an epic dealing with hero ancestors sung in a poetic manner. Another feature unique to the Ifugao is their woodcarving art, most notably the carved granary guardians bului and the prestige bench of the upper class, the hagabi. Their textiles renowned for their sheer beauty, colorful blankets and clothing woven on looms. Houses were well-built, characterized by as a square with wooden floors, windowless walls, and pyramidal thatch roofs. Elevated from the ground by four sturdy tree trunks, they feature removable staircases that were hoisted up at night to prevent entry by enemies and/or wild animals. Lastly, their attire remain traditional for male Ifugaos, donning the wanno or g-string; there are six types of wanno which are used depending on the occasion or the man's social status. Ifugao women, on the contrary, wear tapis, a wraparound skirt; there are five kinds of skirts worn, depending on the occasion and/or status of the woman.
Ifugao is subdivided into 11 municipalities.
Based on the 2000 census survey, Ifugao are the majority of the province population with them comprising about 67.9% of the population. other ethnic groups living in the province are the Ilocanos 13.7%, Kalahan 8.6%, Ayangan 6.2% 0.6%.
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