|c. 30 million (est.)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Nigeria c. 30 million |
|Igbo · Igboid languages|
Minority: Traditional Igbo religion
|Related ethnic groups|
|other Cross River groups of southeastern Nigeria (Ibibio, Efik, Annang, Ogoni); more remotely the YEAI group within Volta-Niger.|
The Igbo people (sometimes spelled Ibo) are an ethnic group of southeastern Nigeria. They speak Igbo, which includes various Igboid languages and dialects; a majority of them also speak Nigerian English. Igbo people are one of the largest ethnic groups in Nigeria.
In rural areas of Nigeria, Igbo people are mostly craftsmen, farmers and traders. The most important crop is the yam; celebrations are held annually to celebrate its harvesting. Other staple crops include cassava and taro.
Before British colonialism, the Igbo were a politically fragmented group. There were variations in culture such as in art styles, attire and religious practices. Various subgroups were organized by clan, lineage, village affiliation, and dialect. There were not many centralized chiefdoms, hereditary aristocracy, or kingship customs except in kingdoms such as those of the Nri, Arochukwu, Agbor and Onitsha. This political system changed significantly under British colonialism in the 19th century; Eze (kings) were introduced into most local communities by Frederick Lugard as "Warrant Chiefs". The Igbo became overwhelmingly Christian under colonization. Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart is one of the most popular novels to depict Igbo culture and changes under colonialism.
By the mid-20th century, the Igbo people developed a strong sense of ethnic identity. Certain conflicts with other Nigerian ethnicities led to the Igbo-dominant Eastern Nigeria seceding from Nigeria to create the independent state of Biafra. The Nigerian-Biafran war (6 July 1967 – 15 January 1970) broke out shortly after. With their defeat, the Republic of Biafra was reabsorbed into Nigeria. MASSOB, a sectarian organization formed in 1999, continues a non-violent struggle for an independent Igbo state.
Due to the effects of migration and the Atlantic slave trade, there are descendant ethnic Igbo populations in countries such as Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea, as well as outside Africa. Their exact population outside Africa is unknown, but today many African Americans and Afro Caribbeans are of Igbo descent. According to Liberian historians, the fifth president of that country was of "pure" Igbo descent, Edward James Roye.
- 1 Identity
- 2 History
- 3 Culture
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Organizations
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
|Part of a series on|
|Anioma · Aro · Edda · Ekpeye
Etche · Ezza · Ika · Ikwerre · Ikwo
Ishielu · Izzi · Mbaise · Mgbo · Ngwa
Nkalu · Nri-Igbo · Ogba · Ohafia
Ohuhu · Omuma · Onitsha
Oratta · Ubani · Ukwuani
List of Igbo people
|Art · Performing arts
Dress · Education · Flag
Calendar · Cuisine · Language
Literature · Music (Ogene, Highlife)
Odinani (mythology) · New Yam Festival
|United States · Jamaica
Canada · United Kingdom
|Languages and dialects|
|Igbo · Igboid · Delta Igbo
Enuani Igbo · Ika Igbo
Ikwerre · Ukwuani · names
|List of rulers of Nri · Biafra
MASSOB · Anti-Igbo sentiment
Eastern Nigeria · Nigeria
Onicha · Enugwu · Aba
Ugwu Ọcha · Owerre · Ahaba Abakiliki
The Igbo people have had heavily fragmented and politically independent communities. Before knowledge of Europeans and full exposure to other neighbouring ethnic groups, the Igbo did not have a strong identity as one people. As in the case of most ethnic groups, the British and fellow Europeans identified the Igbo as a tribe. Chinua Achebe, among other scholars, challenged this because of its negative connotations and possible wrong definition. He suggested defining the Igbo people as a nation similar to the Cherokee Native Americans or Japanese, although the Igbo do not have an officially recognized physical state of their own.
Due to the effects of migration and the Atlantic slave trade, there are descendant historical Igbo populations in countries such as Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea, as well as outside Africa; many African Americans and Afro Caribbeans are assumed to be partially of Igbo descent.
Pottery dated at around 4500 BCE showing similarities with later Igbo work was found at Nsukka, along with pottery and tools at nearby Ibagwa; the traditions of the Umueri clan have as their source the Anambra valley. In the 1970s the Owerri, Okigwe, Orlu, Awgu, Udi and Awka divisions were determined to constitute "an Igbo heartland" from the linguistic and cultural evidence.
The Nri people of Igbo land have a creation myth which is one of the many creation myths that exist in various parts of Igbo land. The Nri and Aguleri people are in the territory of the Umueri clan who trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. Eri's origins are unclear, though he has been described as a "sky being" sent by Chukwu (God). He has been characterized as having first given societal order to the people of Anambra. The historian Elizabeth Allo Isichei says "Nri and Aguleri and part of the Umueri clan, [are] a cluster of Igbo village groups which traces its origins to a sky being called Eri."
Archaeological evidence suggests that Nri hegemony in Igboland may go back as far as the 9th century, and royal burials have been unearthed dating to at least the 10th century. Eri, the god-like founder of Nri, is believed to have settled the region around 948 with other related Igbo cultures following after in the 13th century. The first Eze Nri (King of Nri) Ìfikuánim followed directly after him. According to Igbo oral tradition, his reign started in 1043. At least one historian puts Ìfikuánim's reign much later, around 1225 AD.
Each king traces his origin back to the founding ancestor, Eri. Each king is a ritual reproduction of Eri. The initiation rite of a new king shows that the ritual process of becoming Ezenri (Nri priest-king) follows closely the path traced by the hero in establishing the Nri kingdom.
E. Elochukwu Uzukwu
The Kingdom of Nri was a religio-polity, a sort of theocratic state, that developed in the central heartland of the Igbo region. The Nri had seven types of taboos which included human (such as the birth of twins), animal (such as killing or eating of pythons), object, temporal, behavioral, speech and place taboos. The rules regarding these taboos were used to educate and govern Nri's subjects. This meant that, while certain Igbo may have lived under different formal administration, all followers of the Igbo religion had to abide by the rules of the faith and obey its representative on earth, the Eze Nri.
Traditional Igbo political organization was based on a quasi-democratic republican system of government. In tight knit communities, this system guaranteed its citizens equality, as opposed to a feudalist system with a king ruling over subjects. This government system was witnessed by the Portuguese who first arrived and met with the Igbo people in the 15th century. With the exception of a few notable Igbo towns such as Onitsha, which had kings called Obi, and places like the Nri Kingdom and Arochukwu, which had priest kings; Igbo communities and area governments were overwhelmingly ruled solely by a republican consultative assembly of the common people. Communities were usually governed and administered by a council of elders.
Although title holders were respected because of their accomplishments and capabilities, they were never revered as kings, but often performed special functions given to them by such assemblies. This way of governing was immensely different from most other communities of Western Africa, and only shared by the Ewe of Ghana. Umunna are a form of patrilineage maintained by the Igbo. Law starts with the Umunna which is a male line of descent from a founding ancestor (who the line is sometimes named after) with groups of compounds containing closely related families headed by the eldest male member. The Umunna can be seen as the most important pillar of Igbo society.
Mathematics in traditional Igbo society is evident in their calendar, banking system and strategic betting game called Okwe. In their indigenous calendar, a week had four days, a month consisted of seven weeks and 13 months made a year. In the last month, an extra day was added. This calendar is still used in indigenous Igbo villages and towns to determine market days. They settled law matters via mediators, and their banking system for loans and savings, called Isusu, is also still used. The Igbo new year, starting with the month Ọ́nwạ́ M̀bụ́ (Igbo: First Moon) occurs on the third week of February, although the traditional start of the year for many Igbo communities is around springtime in Ọ́nwạ́ Ágwụ́ (June). Used as a ceremonial script by secret societies, the Igbo had a traditional ideographic set of symbols called Nsibidi, originating from the neighboring Ejagham people. Igbo people produced bronzes from as early as the 9th century, some of which have been found at the town of Igbo Ukwu, Anambra state.
A system of Indentured servitude existed among the Igbo after and before the arrival and knowledge of Europeans. Indentured service in Igbo areas was described by Olaudah Equiano in his narrative. He describes the conditions of the slaves in his community of Essaka, and points out the difference between the treatment of slaves under the Igbo in Essaka, and those in the custody of Europeans in West Indies:
…but how different was their condition from that of the slaves in the West Indies! With us, they do no more work than other members of the community,… even their master;… (except that they were not permitted to eat with those… free-born;) and there was scarce any other difference between them,… Some of these slaves have… slaves under them as their own property… for their own use.
The Niger coast acted as a contact point between African and European traders from the years 1434–1807. This contact between the Africans and Europeans began with the Portuguese, then the Dutch and finally the British. Even prior to European contact, Igbo trade routes stretched as far as Mecca, Medina and Jeddah.
Transatlantic slave trade
The transatlantic slave trade which took place between the 16th and late 19th century affected the Igbo heavily. Most Igbo slaves were taken from the Bight of Biafra (also known as the Bight of Bonny). This area included modern day southeastern Nigeria, Western Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and parts of Northern Gabon. Major trade ports for goods and slaves in the area included Bonny and Calabar Town. A large number of slaves from the Bight of Biafra would have been Igbo. Slaves were usually sold to Europeans by the Aro Confederacy who kidnapped or bought slaves from Igbo villages in the hinterland. Most Igbo slaves, however, were not victims of slave raiding wars or expeditions, but were sometimes debtors and people who committed what their communities considered to be abominations or crimes. Igbo slaves were known for being rebellious and having a high rate of suicide in defiance of slavery. For still unknown reasons, Igbo women were highly sought after.
Contrary to common belief, European slave traders were fairly informed about various African ethnicities, leading to slavers' targeting certain ethnic groups which plantation owners preferred. Ethnic groups consequently became fairly saturated in certain parts of the Americas. The Igbo were dispersed to colonies such as Jamaica, Cuba, Haiti, Barbados, the United States, Belize and Trinidad and Tobago, among others.
Elements of Igbo culture can still be found in these places. For example, in Jamaican Patois the Igbo word unu, meaning "you" plural, is still used. "Red Ibo" (or "red eboe") describes a black person with fair or "yellowish" skin. This term had originated from the reported prevalence of these skin tones among the Igbo but eastern Nigerian influences may not be strictly Igbo. The word Bim, a colloquial term for Barbados, was commonly used among enslaved Barbadians (Bajans). This word is said to have derived from bi mu in the Igbo language (or bem, Ndi bem, Nwanyi ibem or Nwoke ibem, which means "My people"), but may have other origins (see: Barbados etymology). A section of Belize City was named Eboe Town after its Igbo inhabitants. In the United States the Igbo were found most commonly in the states of Maryland and Virginia, where they remained the largest single group of Africans. Recent Igbo-speaking immigrants have also settled in Maryland, attracted to its strong professional job market.
The arrival of the British in the 1870s and increased encounters between the Igbo and other ethnicities near the Niger River led to a deepening sense of a distinct Igbo ethnic identity. The Igbo proved remarkably decisive and enthusiastic in their embrace of Christianity and Western education. Due to the incompatibility of the Igbo decentralized style of government and the centralized system required for British indirect rule, British colonial rule was marked with open conflicts and much tension. Under British colonial rule, the diversity within each of Nigeria's major ethnic groups slowly decreased and distinctions between the Igbo and other large ethnic groups, such as the Hausa and the Yoruba, became sharper.
Colonial rule drastically transformed Igbo society as depicted in the book Things Fall Apart. British rule brought about changes in culture such as the introduction of Warrant Chiefs as Eze (traditional rulers) where there were no such monarchies. Christianity had played a great part in the introduction of European ideology into Igbo society and culture, sometimes shunning parts of the culture. The rumours that the Igbo women were being assessed for taxation sparked off the 1929 Igbo Women's War in Aba (also known as the 1929 Aba Riots), a massive revolt of women never encountered before in Igbo history.
Living conditions changed under colonial rule. The tradition of building houses out of mud walls and thatched roofs died while houses started being built with cement blocks and zinc roofs. Roads for vehicles were built. Buildings such as hospitals and schools were erected in many parts of Igboland. Along with this change came electricity and running water in the early 20th century. Electricity brought new devices such as radios and televisions which are now common place in most Igbo households.
A series of ethnic clashes between Northern Muslims and the Igbo, Ibibio, Efik and other ethnic groups of Eastern Nigeria Region living in Northern Nigeria took place between 1966 and 1967. Elements in the army had assassinated the Nigerian military head of state General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi (29 July 1966) and peace negotiations between the military government that deposed Ironsi and the regional government of Eastern Nigeria at the Aburi Talks in Ghana in 1967 failed. These events led to a regional council of the peoples of Eastern Nigeria deciding that the region should secede and proclaim the Republic of Biafra on May 30, 1967. General Emeka Odumegwu-Ojukwu made this declaration and became the Head of state of the new republic. The resultant war, which became known as the Nigerian Civil War or the Nigerian-Biafran War, lasted from July 6, 1967 until January 15, 1970, after which the federal government re-absorbed Biafra into Nigeria. Several million Eastern Nigerians, especially Igbo, are believed[by whom?] to have died between the pogroms and the end of the civil war. In their brief struggle for self-determination, the people of Biafra earned the respect of figures such as Jean-Paul Sartre and John Lennon, who returned his British honor, MBE, partly in protest against British collusion in the Nigeria-Biafra war.
In July 2007 the former President of Biafra, General Emeka Odumegwu-Ojukwu, renewed calls for the secession of the Biafran state as a sovereign entity. "The only alternative is a separate existence...What upsets the Igbo population is we are not equally Nigerian as the others".
Recent history (1970 to present)
After the Nigerian–Biafran War, Igboland was devastated. Many hospitals, schools, and homes were completely destroyed in the war. In addition to the loss of their savings, many Igbo people found themselves discriminated against by other ethnic groups and the new non-Igbo federal government. Some Igbo subgroups, such as the Ikwerre, started disassociating themselves with the larger Igbo population after the war. The post-war era saw the changing of names of both people and places to non-Igbo sounding words such as the changing of the name of the town of Igbuzo to the Anglicized Ibusa. Due to the discrimination, many Igbo had trouble finding employment, and the Igbo became one of the poorest ethnic groups in Nigeria during the early 1970s. Igboland was gradually rebuilt over a period of twenty years and the economy was again prospering due to the rise of the petroleum industry in the adjacent Niger Delta region. This led to new factories being set up in southern Nigeria. Many Igbo people eventually took government positions, although many were engaged in private business and constituted and still constitute the bulk of Nigerian informal economy. Recently, there has been a wave of Igbo immigration to other African countries, Europe, and the Americas.
Igbo culture includes the various customs, practices and traditions of the Igbo people. It comprises archaic practices as well as new concepts added into the Igbo culture either through evolution or outside influences. These customs and traditions include the Igbo people's visual art, music and dance forms, as well as their attire, cuisine and language dialects. Because of their various subgroups, the variety of their culture is heightened further.
Language and literature
The Igbo language was used by John Goldsmith as an example to justify deviating from the classical linear model of phonology as laid out in The Sound Pattern of English. It is written in the Roman script as well as the Nsibidi formalized ideograms which is used by the Ekpe society and Okonko fraternity, but is no longer widely used. Nsibidi ideography existed among the Igbo before the 16th century, but died out after it became popular among secret societies, who then made Nsibidi a secret form of communication. Igbo is a tonal language and there are hundreds of different Igbo dialects and Igboid languages such as the Ikwerre and Ekpeye languages. In 1939, Dr. Ida C. Ward led a research expedition on Igbo dialects which could possibly be used as a basis of a standard Igbo dialect, also known as Central Igbo. This dialect included that of the Owerri and Umuahia groups, including the Ohuhu dialect. This proposed dialect was gradually accepted by missionaries, writers, publishers, and Cambridge University.
In 1789, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano was published in London, England, written by Olaudah Equiano, a former slave. The book featured 79 Igbo words. In the first and second chapter, the book illustrates various aspects of Igbo life based on Olaudah Equiano's life in his hometown of Essaka. Although the book was one of the first books published to include Igbo material, Geschichte der Mission der evangelischen Brüder auf den caraibischen Inseln St. Thomas, St. Croix und S. Jan (German: History of the Evangelical Brothers' Mission in the Caribbean Islands St. Thomas, St. Croix and St. John), published in 1777, written by the German missionary C. G. A. Oldendorp, was the first book to publish any Igbo material. Perhaps the most popular and renowned novel that deals with the Igbo and their traditional life was the 1959 book by Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart. The novel concerns influences of British colonialism and Christian missionaries on a traditional Igbo community during an unspecified time in the late nineteenth or early 20th century. The bulk of the novel takes place in Umuofia, one of nine villages on the lower Niger.
The Igbo people have a musical style into which they incorporate various percussion instruments: the udu, which is essentially designed from a clay jug; an ekwe, which is formed from a hollowed log; and the ogene, a hand bell designed from forged iron. Other instruments include opi, a wind instrument similar to the flute, igba, and ichaka. Another popular musical form among the Igbo is Highlife. A widely popular musical genre in West Africa, Highlife is a fusion of jazz and traditional music. The modern Igbo Highlife is seen in the works of Dr Sir Warrior, Oliver De Coque, Bright Chimezie, and Chief Osita Osadebe, who were among the most popular Igbo Highlife musicians of the 20th century.
Masking is one of the most common art styles in Igboland and is linked strongly with Igbo traditional music. A mask can be made of wood or fabric, along with other materials including iron and vegetation. Masks have a variety of uses, mainly in social satires, religious rituals, secret society initiations (such as the Ekpe society) and public festivals, which now include Christmas time celebrations. Best known are the Agbogho Mmuo (Igbo: Maiden spirit) masks of the Northern Igbo which represent the spirits of deceased maidens and their mothers with masks symbolizing beauty.
Other impressive masks include Northern Igbo Ijele masks. At 12 feet (3.7 m) high, Ijele masks consist of platforms 6 feet (1.8 m) in diameter, supporting figures made of colored cloth and representing everyday scenes with objects such as leopards. Ijele masks are used for honoring the dead to ensure the continuity and well-being of the community and are only seen on rare occasions such as the death of a prominent figure in the community.
There are many Igbo dance styles, but perhaps, Igbo dance is best known for its Atilogwu dance troops. These performances include acrobatic stunts such as high kicks and cartwheels, with each rhythm from the traditional instruments indicating a movement to the dancer.
Visual art and architecture
It is near impossible to describe a general Igbo art style because the Igbo are heavily fragmented. This has added to the development of a great variety of art styles and cultural practices. Igbo art is generally known for various types of masquerade, masks and outfits symbolising people animals or abstract conceptions. Bronze castings found in the town of Igbo Ukwu from the 9th century, constitute the earliest sculptures discovered in Igboland. Here, the grave of a well established man of distinction and a ritual store, dating from the 9th century AD, contained both chased copper objects and elaborate castings of leaded bronze. Along with these bronzes were 165,000 glass beads said to have originated in Egypt, Venice and India. Some popular Igbo art styles include Uli designs. The majority of the Igbo carve and use masks, although the function of masks vary from community to community. Igbo art is also famous for Mbari architecture.
Mbari houses of the Owerri-Igbo, which are large opened-sided square planned shelters, are examples of Igbo architecture. They house many life-sized, painted figures (sculpted in mud to appease the Alusi (deity) and Ala, the earth goddess, with other deities of thunder and water). Other sculptures are of officials, craftsmen, foreigners (mainly Europeans), animals, legendary creatures and ancestors. Mbari houses take years to build and building them is regarded as sacred, therefore new ones are constructed and old ones are left to decay. Everyday houses were made of mud and thatched roofs with bare earth floors with carved design doors. Some houses had elaborate designs both in the interior and exterior. These designs could include Uli art designed by Igbo women.
One of the unique structures of Igbo culture was the Nsude Pyramids, at the Nigerian town of Nsude, in Abaja, northern Igboland. Ten pyramidal structures were built of clay/mud. The first base section was 60 ft. in circumference and 3 ft. in height. The next stack was 45 ft. in circumference. Circular stacks continued, till it reached the top. The structures were temples for the god Ala/Uto, who was believed to reside at the top. A stick was placed at the top to represent the god's residence. The structures were laid in groups of five parallel to each other. Because it was built of clay/mud like the Deffufa of Nubia, time has taken its toll requiring periodic reconstruction.
Religion and rites of passage
Today, the majority of the Igbo people are Christian, well over half of whom are Roman Catholics. There are a small population of Igbo Jews. The ancient Igbo religion and traditions are known as Odinani. In Igbo mythology, which is part of their ancient religion, the supreme God is called Chukwu ("great spirit"); Chukwu created the world and everything in it and is associated with all things on Earth. Chukwu is a solar deity. To the ancient Igbo, the Cosmos was divided into four complex parts: creation, known as Okike; supernatural forces or deities called Alusi; Mmuo, which are spirits; and Uwa, the world.
Chukwu is the supreme deity in Odinani as he is the creator in their pantheon and the Igbo people believe that all things come from him and that everything on earth, heaven and the rest of the spiritual world is under his control. Linguistic studies of the Igbo language suggests the name Chukwu is a portmanteau of the Igbo words: Chi (spiritual being) and Ukwu (great in size). Alusi, alternatively known as Arusi or Arushi (depending on dialect), are minor deities that are worshiped and served in Odinani. There are a list of many different Alusi and each has its own purpose. When an individual deity is no longer needed, or becomes too violent, it is discarded.
The Igbo believe in reincarnation. People are believed to reincarnate into families that they were part of while alive. Before a relative dies, it is said that the soon to be deceased relative sometimes give clues of who they will reincarnate as in the family. Once a child is born, he or she is believed to give signs of who they have reincarnated from. This can be through behavior, physical traits and statements by the child. A diviner can help in detecting who the child has reincarnated from. It is considered an insult if a male is said to have reincarnated as a female.
Children are not allowed to call elders by their names without using an honorific (as this is considered disrespectful). Children are required to greet elders when seeing them for the first time in the day as a sign of respect. Children usually add the Igbo honorifics Mazi or Dede before an elder's name when addressing them.
After a death, the body of a prominent member of society is placed on a stool in a sitting posture and is clothed in the deceased's finest garments. Animal sacrifices may be offered to them and they can be well perfumed. Burial usually follows within 24 hours of death. The head of a home is usually buried beneath the floor of his house. Different types of deaths warrant different types of burials. This is affected by an individual's age, gender and status in society. For example, children are buried in hiding and out of sight, their burials usually take place in the early mornings and late nights. A simple untitled man is buried in front of his house and a simple mother is buried in her place of origin in a garden or a farm-area that belonged to her father. Presently, a majority of the Igbo bury their dead in the western way, although it is not uncommon for burials to be practiced in the traditional Igbo ways.
The process of marrying usually involves asking the young woman's consent, introducing the woman to the man's family and the same for the man to the woman's family, testing the bride's character, checking the woman's family background and paying the brides wealth. Sometimes marriages had been arranged from birth through negotiation of the two families.
In the past, many Igbo men practiced polygamy. The polygamous family is made up of a man and his wives and all their children. Men sometimes married multiple wives for economic reasons so as to have more people in the family, including children, to help on farms. Christian and civil marriages have changed the Igbo family since colonization. Igbo people now tend to enter monogamous courtships and create nuclear families, mainly because of Western influence. Some Western marriage customs, such as weddings in a church, are adopted after the lgbo cultural traditional Marriage.
Traditionally, the attire of the Igbo generally consisted of little clothing as the purpose of clothing originally was to conceal private parts, although elders were fully clothed. Children were usually nude from birth until they reach puberty status (the time when they were considered to have something to hide) but sometimes ornaments such as beads were worn around the waist for spiritual reasons. Uli body art was used to decorate both men and women in the form of lines forming patterns and shapes on the body.
Women traditionally carry their babies on their backs with a strip of clothing binding the two with a knot at her chest, a practice used by many ethnic groups across Africa. This method has been modernized in the form of the child carrier. In most cases Igbo women did not cover their breast areas. Maidens usually wore a short wrapper with beads around their waist and other ornaments such as necklaces and beads. Both men and women wore wrappers. Men would wear loin cloths that wrapped round their waist and between their legs to be fastened at their back, the type of clothing appropriate for the intense heat as well as jobs such as farming.
In Olaudah Equiano's narrative, Equiano describes fragrances that were used by the Igbo in the community of Essaka;
"Our principal luxury is in perfumes; one sort of these is an odoriferous wood of delicious fragrance: the other a kind of earth; a small portion of which thrown into the fire diffuses a most powerful odor. We beat this wood into powder, and mix it with palm oil; with which both men and women perfume themselves."
In the same era as the rise of colonial forces in Nigeria, the way the Igbo dressed changed. Clothing worn before colonialism became "traditional" and worn on special occasions. Modern Igbo traditional attire, for men, is generally made up of the Isiagu top which resembles the Dashiki worn by other African groups. Isiagu (or Ishi agu) is usually patterned with lions heads embroidered over the clothing and can be a plain color. It is worn with trousers and can be worn with either a traditional title holders hat or with the traditional Igbo striped men's hat known as Okpu Agwu. For women, a puffed sleeve blouse along with two wrappers and a head tie are worn.
The yam is very important to the Igbo as it is their staple crop. There are celebrations such as the New yam festival (Igbo: Iwaji) which are held for the harvesting of the yam. During the festival yam is eaten throughout the communities as celebration. Yam tubers are shown off by individuals as a sign of success and wealth. Rice has replaced yam for ceremonial occasions. Other foods include cassava, garri, maize and plantains. Soups or stews are included in a typical meal, prepared with a vegetable (such as okra, of which the word derives from the Igbo language, Okwuru) to which pieces of fish, chicken, beef, or goat meat are added. Jollof rice is popular throughout West Africa. Palm wine is a popular alcoholic beverage among the Igbo.
The Igbo in Nigeria are found in Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, Imo, Delta and Rivers State. The Igbo language is predominant throughout these areas, although Nigerian English (the national language) is spoken as well. Prominent towns and cities in Igboland include Aba, Owerri, Enugu (considered the 'Igbo capital'), Onitsha, Abakaliki, Afikpo, Agbor, Nsukka, Orlu, Okigwe, Umuahia, Asaba and Port Harcourt among others. There is a significant number of Igbo people found in other parts of Nigeria by migration, such as in the city of Lagos.
The official population count of ethnic groups in Nigeria has remained controversial as a majority of these groups have claimed that the government deliberately deflates the official population of one group, to give the other numerical superiority. The 2010 edition of the CIA World Factbook put the Igbo population (including the various subgroups of the Igbo) at 18% of a total population of 152 million, or approximately 27 million. The 2012 edition retained the "18%" figure, but now gives the total population of Nigeria as 170 million, so that (if the 18% is still accurate) the Igbo population of Nigeria would be roughly 30 million as of 2012.
Southeastern Nigeria, which is inhabited primarily by the Igbo, is the most densely populated area in Nigeria, and possibly in all of Africa. Most ethnicities that inhabit southeastern Nigeria, such as the closely related Efik and Ibibio people, are sometimes regarded as Igbo by other Nigerians and ethnographers who are not well informed about the southeast.
After the Nigerian-Biafran War, many Igbo people emigrated out of the traditional Igbo homeland in southeastern Nigeria due to an absence of federal presence, lack of jobs, and poor infrastructure. In recent decades the Igbo region of Nigeria has suffered from frequent environmental damage mainly related to the oil industry. Igbo people have moved to both Nigerian cities such as Lagos and Abuja, and other countries such as Gabon, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Prominent Igbo communities outside Africa include those of London in the United Kingdom and Houston, Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, Atlanta, and Washington, D.C. in the United States.
Small numbers live in Japan making up the majority of the Nigerian immigrant population based in Tokyo. Other Igbo immigrants are found in the Americas (Igbo Canadian, Igbo American, Igbo Jamaican) and elsewhere.
Population genetics and the African diaspora
With genealogy tracing by means of DNA testing, the roots of the African diaspora is being uncovered by descendants of the victims of the Atlantic slave trade who are researching their family history. In the 2003 PBS program African American Lives, Bishop T.D. Jakes had his DNA analyzed; his Y chromosome showed that he is descended from the Igbo. American actors Forest Whitaker, Paul Robeson, and Blair Underwood have traced their genealogy back to the Igbo people.
The 1930s saw the rise of Igbo unions in the cities of Lagos and Port Harcourt. Later, the Ibo Federal Union (renamed the Ibo State Union in 1948) emerged as an umbrella pan-ethnic organization. Headed by Nnamdi Azikiwe, it was closely associated with the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC), which he co-founded with Herbert Macaulay. The aim of the organization was the improvement and advancement (such as in education) of the Igbo and their indigenous land and included an Igbo "national anthem" with a plan for an Igbo bank.
In 1978 after Olusegun Obasanjo's military regime lifted the ban on independent political activity, the Ohaneze Ndi Igbo organization was formed, an elite umbrella organization which speaks on behalf of the Igbo people. Their main concerns are the marginalization of the Igbo people in Nigerian politics and the neglect of indigenous Igbo territory in social amenities and development of infrastructure. Other groups which protest the perceived marginalization of the Igbo people are the Igbo Peoples Congress (IPC). Even before the 20th century there were numerous Igbo unions and organizations existing around the world, such as the Igbo union in Bathurst, Gambia in 1842, founded by a prominent Igbo trader and ex-soldier named Thomas Refell. Another was the union founded by the Igbo community in Freetown, Sierra Leone by 1860, of which Africanus Horton, a surgeon, scientist and soldier, was an active member.
Decades after the Nigerian-Biafran war, the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), a secessionist group, was founded in September 1999 by Ralph Uwazurike for the goal of an independent Igbo state. Since its creation, there have been several conflicts between its members and the Nigerian government, resulting in the death of members. For the promotion of the Igbo language and culture, the Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture (SPILC) was founded in 1949 by Frederick Chidozie Ogbalu, and has since created a standard dialect for Igbo.
- The most recent estimate is from the CIA 2012 World Factbook (entry for Nigeria), which gives "Igbo (Ibo) 18%" out of a Nigerian population of 170 million, corresponding to about 30 million. Nigeria is experiencing a population explosion with a doubling time of about 30 years, and older estimates are correspondingly lower: Nzewi 1997 (quoted in Agawu 2003), p. 31, says "about 15 million"; Okafor, p. 86, says "about twenty-five million"; Okpala 2003, p. 21, says "around 30 million"; and Smith 2004, p. 508, says "approximately 20 million".
- Fardon, Richard; Furniss, Graham (1994). African languages, development and the state. Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 0-415-09476-3. Retrieved 2009-04-12.
- Ogbaa, Kalu (1999). "Cultural Harmony I: Igboland – the World of Man and the World of Spirits". Understanding Things Fall Apart. Greenwood Publishing. p. 106. ISBN 0-313-30294-4.
- Williams, Lizzie (2008). Nigeria: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 32. ISBN 1-84162-239-7.
- Agwu, Kene. "Yam and the Igbos". BBC Birmingham. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
- "Igbo". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-02-01.
- Miers, Suzanne; Roberts, Richard L. (1988). The End of slavery in Africa. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 437. ISBN 0-299-11554-2.
- Falola, Toyin (2003). Adebayo Oyebade, ed. The foundations of Nigeria: essays in honor of Toyin Falola. Africa World Press. p. 476. ISBN 1-59221-120-8. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- Forsythe, Frederick (2006). Shadows: Airlift and Airwar in Biafra and Nigeria 1967–1970. p. 1. ISBN 1-902109-63-5.
- Adekson, Adedayo Oluwakayode (2004). The "civil society" problematique: deconstructing civility and southern Nigeria's ethnic radicalization. Routledge. pp. 87, 96. ISBN 0-415-94785-5.
- Forrest, Tom (1994). The Advance of African Capital: The Growth of Nigerian Private Enterprise (illustrated ed.). Edinburgh University Press. p. 272. ISBN 0-7486-0492-8.
- Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2006). African Countries: An Introduction with Maps. Pan-African Books: Continental Press. p. 86. ISBN 0-620-34815-1.
- "E.J. Roye Death and Succession". Liberiapastandpresent.org. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- Levinson, David; Timothy J O'Leary (1995). Encyclopedia of World Cultures. G.K. Hall. p. 120. ISBN 0-8161-1815-9.
- Achebe, Chinua (2000). Home and Exile. Oxford University Press US. p. 4. ISBN 0-19-513506-7. "...Igbo people might score poorly on the Oxford dictionary test for tribe... Now, to call them a nation... This may not be perfect for the Igbo, but it is close."
- Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 762. ISBN 0-313-32384-4.
- Lovejoy, Paul (2000). Identity in the Shadow of Slavery. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 58. ISBN 0-8264-4725-2.
- Floyd, E. Randall (2002). In the Realm of Ghosts and Hauntings. Harbor House. p. 51. ISBN 1-891799-06-1.
- Cassidy, Frederic Gomes; Robert Brock Le Page (2002). A Dictionary of Jamaican English (2nd ed.). University of the West Indies Press. p. 168. ISBN 976-640-127-6.
- Equiano, Olaudah (1837). The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. I. Knapp. p. 27.
- Obichere, Boniface I. (1982). Studies in Southern Nigerian History: A Festschrift for Joseph Christopher Okwudili Anene 1918–68. Routledge. p. 207. ISBN 0-7146-3106-X.
- Elizabeth, Isichei (1976). A History of the Igbo People. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-18556-0.; excerpted in "Cultural Harmony I: Igboland — the World of Man and the World of Spirits", section 4 of Kalu Ogbaa, ed., Understanding Things Fall Apart (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999; ISBN 0-313-30294-4), pp. 83–85.
- Apley, Apley. "Igbo-Ukwu (ca. 9th century)". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Isichei, Elizabeth Allo (1997). A History of African Societies to 1870. Cambridge University Press Cambridge, UK. p. 512. ISBN 0-521-45599-5.
- Uzukwu, E. Elochukwu (1997). Worship as Body Language. Liturgical Press. p. 93. ISBN 0-8146-6151-3.
- Isichei, Elizabeth Allo (1997). A History of African Societies to 1870. Cambridge University Press. p. 246. ISBN 0-521-45599-5. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
- Hrbek, Ivan; Fāsī, Muḥammad (1988). Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century. London: Unesco. p. 254. ISBN 92-3-101709-8.
- Lovejoy, Paul (2000). Identity in the Shadow of Slavery. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 62. ISBN 0-8264-4725-2.
- Onwuejeogwu, M. Angulu (1981). Igbo Civilization: Nri Kingdom & Hegemony. Ethnographica. ISBN 0-905788-08-7.
- Chambers, Douglas B. (2005). Murder at Montpelier: Igbo Africans in Virginia (illustrated ed.). Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 33. ISBN 1-57806-706-5.
- Uzukwu, E. Elochukwu (1997). Worship as Body Language. Liturgical Press. p. 93. ISBN 0-8146-6151-3.
- Basden, George Thomas (1921). Among the Ibos of Nigeria: An Account of the Curious & Interesting Habits, Customs & Beliefs of a Little Known African People, by One who Has for Many Years Lived Amongst Them on Close & Intimate Terms. Seeley, Service. p. 184.
- Hodder, Ian (1987). The Archaeology of Contextual Meanings (illustrated ed.). CUP Archive. p. 72. ISBN 0-521-32924-8.
- Nyang, Sulayman; Olupona, Jacob K. (1995). Religious Plurality in Africa: Essays in Honour of John S. Mbiti. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. p. 118. ISBN 3-11-014789-0.
- Hodder, Ian (1987). The Archaeology of Contextual Meanings (illustrated ed.). CUP Archive. p. 72. ISBN 0-521-32924-8.
- Furniss, Graham; Elizabeth Gunner, Liz Gunner (1995). Power, Marginality and African Oral Literature. Cambridge University Press. p. 65. ISBN 0-521-48061-2.
- Chigere, Nkem Hyginus M. V. (2001). Foreign Missionary Background and Indigenous Evangelization in Igboland (illustrated ed.). LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. p. 113. ISBN 3-8258-4964-3.
- Gordon, April A. (2003). Nigeria's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook (illustrated, annotated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 37. ISBN 1-57607-682-2.
- Basden, George Thomas (1921). Among the Ibos of Nigeria: An Account of the Curious & Interesting Habits, Customs & Beliefs of a Little Known African People, by One who Has for Many Years Lived Amongst Them on Close & Intimate Terms. Seeley, Service. p. 96.
- Ilogu, Edmund (1974). Christianity and Ibo culture. Brill Archive. p. 11. ISBN 90-04-04021-8.
- Ndukaihe, Vernantius Emeka; Fonk, Peter (2006). Achievement as Value in the Igbo/African Identity: The Ethics. LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. p. 204. ISBN 3-8258-9929-2.
- Agbasiere, Joseph Thérèse (2000). Women in Igbo Life and Thought. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 0-415-22703-8. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
- Chambers, Douglas B. (2005). Murder at Montpelier: Igbo Africans in Virginia (illustrated ed.). Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 183. ISBN 1-57806-706-5.
- Liamputtong, Pranee (2007). Childrearing and Infant Care Issues: A Cross-cultural Perspective. Nova Publishers. p. 155. ISBN 1-60021-610-2.
- Holbrook, Jarita C.; R. Thebe Medupe, Johnson O. Urama. African Cultural Astronomy: Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy Research in Africa. Springer, 2007. p. 235. ISBN 1-4020-6638-4.
- Holbrook, Jarita C. (2007). African Cultural Astronomy: Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy Research in Africa. Springer. p. 35. ISBN 1-4020-6638-4. Retrieved 2008-01-10.
- Njoku, Onwuka N. (2002). Pre-colonial economic history of Nigeria. Ethiope Publishing Corporation, Benin City, Nigeria. ISBN 978-2979-36-8.
- Onwuejeogwu, M. Angulu (1981). An Igbo civilization: Nri kingdom & hegemony. Ethnographica. ISBN 978-123-105-X.
- Aguwa, Jude C. U. (1995). The Agwu deity in Igbo religion. Fourth Dimension Publishing Co., Ltd. p. 29. ISBN 978-156-399-0.
- Hammer, Jill (2006). The Jewish book of days: a companion for all seasons. Jewish Publication Society. p. 224. ISBN 0-8276-0831-4.
- Peek, Philip M.; Kwesi Yankah (2004). African Folklore: An Encyclopedia (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 299. ISBN 0-415-93933-X.
- Shillington, Kevin (2005). Encyclopedia of African History. CRC Press. p. 674. ISBN 1-57958-245-1.
- Equiano, Olaudah (1837). The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. I. Knapp. pp. 20–21.
- Uchendu, Victor Chikezie (1965). The Igbo of southeast Nigeria (illustrated ed.). Holt, Rinehart and Winston. p. 4. ISBN 0-03-052475-X.
- Glenny, Misha (2008). McMafia Seriously Organised Crime. Random House. p. 200. ISBN 0-09-948125-1.
- Robeson II, Paul (2001). The Undiscovered Paul Robeson: An Artist’s Journey, 1898–1939 (PDF). Wiley. p. 3. ISBN 0-471-24265-9. Retrieved 2008-12-27. "A dark-skinned man descended from the Ibo tribe of Nigeria, Reverend Robeson was of medium height with broad shoulders, andhad an air of surpassing dignity."
- Guo, Rongxing (2006). Territorial Disputes and Resource Management: A Global Handbook. Nova Publishers. p. 130. ISBN 1-60021-445-2.
- "Bight of Biafra". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
- Chambers, D.B. "REJOINDER – The Significance of Igbo in the Bight of Biafra Slave". Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group. Retrieved 2009-01-23.
- "Bonny". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-12-27.
- Douglas, Chambers B. (2005). Murder at Montpelier: Igbo Africans in Virginia. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 25. ISBN 1-57806-706-5.
- Talbot, Percy Amaury; Mulhall, H. (1962). The physical anthropology of Southern Nigeria. Cambridge University Press. p. 5.
- Lovejoy, Paul E. (2003). Trans-Atlantic Dimensions of Ethnicity in the African Diaspora. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 92–93. ISBN 0-8264-4907-7.
- Isichei, Elizabeth Allo (2002). Voices of the Poor in Africa. Boydell & Brewer. p. 81.
- Rucker, Walter C. (2006). The River Flows on: Black Resistance, Culture, and Identity Formation in Early America. LSU Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-8071-3109-1.
- Holloway, Joseph E. (2005). Africanisms in American Culture. bottom of 3rd paragraph: Indiana University Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-253-21749-0. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
- Philips, John Edward (2005). Writing African History. Boydell & Brewer. p. 412. ISBN 1-58046-164-6.
- Berlin, Ira. "African Immigration to Colonial America". History Now. "(paragraph 11) Preferences on both side of the Atlantic determined, to a considerable degree, which enslaved Africans went where and when, populating the mainland with unique combinations of African peoples and creating distinctive regional variations in the Americas."
- Morgan, Philip D.; Sean Hawkins (2004). Black Experience and the Empire. Oxford University Press. p. 82. ISBN 0-19-926029-X.
- "Ethnic Identity in the Diaspora and the Nigerian Hinterland". Toronto, Canada: York university. Retrieved 2008-11-23. "As is now widely known, enslaved Africans were often concentrated in specific places in the diaspora...USA (Igbo)"
- Appiah, Anthony; Henry Louis Gates. Africana. p. 212. ISBN 0-465-00071-1.
- Craton, Michael. Roots and Branches. University of Waterloo Dept. of History. p. 125. ISBN 0-08-025367-9.
- McWhorter, John H. (2005). Defining Creole. Oxford University Press US. p. 217. ISBN 0-19-516670-1. Retrieved 2009-01-10.
- Robotham, Don (January 13, 2008). "Jamaica and Africa (Part II)". Gleaner Company. Retrieved 2008-11-23. "...It is not possible to declare that the Eastern Nigerian influence in Jamaica – apparent in expressions such as 'red ibo' – is Igbo."
- Allsopp, Richard; Jeannette Allsopp (2003). Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage. Contributor Richard Allsopp. University of the West Indies Press. p. 101. ISBN 976-640-145-4.
- Carrington, Sean (2007). A~Z of Barbados Heritage. Macmillan Caribbean Publishers Limited. p. 25. ISBN 0-333-92068-6.
- Gibbs, Archibald Robertson (1883). British Honduras: an historical and descriptive account of the colony from its settlement, 1670. S. Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington. "Eboe Town, a section of the town of Belize reserved for that African tribe, was destroyed by fire"
- Fischer, David Hackett; Kelly, James C. (2000). Bound away: Virginia and the westward movement. University of Virginia Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-8139-1774-3.
- Opie, Frederick Douglass (2008). Hog and Hominy: Soul Food from Africa to America. Columbia University Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-231-14638-8.
- "list of languages #25 along with Kru and Yoruba" (PDF). U.S. ENGLISH Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2009-01-10.
- Ekechi, Felix K. (1972). Missionary Enterprise and Rivalry in Igboland, 1857–1914 (illustrated ed.). last paragraph on page 146: by Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 0-7146-2778-X.
- Chuku, Gloria (2005). Igbo Women and Economic Transformation in Southeastern Nigeria, 1900–1960: 1900–1960 (illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 145. ISBN 0-415-97210-8.
- Afigbo, A. E. (1992). Groundwork of Igbo history. Lagos: Vista Books. pp. 522–541. ISBN 978-134-400-8.
- Furniss, Graham; Elizabeth Gunner, Liz Gunner (1995). Power, Marginality and African Oral Literature. Cambridge University Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-521-48061-2.
- Ilogu, Edmund (1974). Christianity and Ibo Culture. Brill Archive. p. 63. ISBN 90-04-04021-8.
- Sanday, Peggy Reeves (1981). Female Power and Male Dominance: On the Origins of Sexual Inequality (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 136. ISBN 0-521-28075-3.
- Gordon, April A. (2003). Nigeria's Diverse Peoples. ABC-CLIO. p. 87. ISBN 1-57607-682-2. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
- Rubin, Neville. Annual Survey of African Law. Routledge, 1970. p. 20. ISBN 0-7146-2601-5.
- Fielding, Steven; John W. Young (2003). The Labour Governments 1964–1970: International Policy. Manchester University Press. p. 197. ISBN 0-7190-4365-4.
- Mathews, Martin P. (2002). Nigeria: Current Issues and Historical Background. Nova Publishers. p. 38. ISBN 1-59033-316-0.
- Minogue, Martin; Judith Molloy (1974). African Aims & Attitudes: Selected Documents. General C. O. Ojukwu: CUP Archive. p. 393. ISBN 0-521-20426-7.
- Bocquené, Henri; Oumarou Ndoudi, Gordeen Gorder (2002). Memoirs of a Mbororo: The Life of Ndudi Umaru, Fulani Nomad of Cameroon. Berghahn Books. p. 285. ISBN 1-57181-844-8.
- "John Lennon". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame + Museum. 2007. Retrieved 2008-11-24. "September 1, 1969: John Lennon returns his MBE. He says it is to protest the British government's involvement in Biafra, its support of the U.S. in Vietnam and the poor chart performance of his latest single, 'Cold Turkey'."
- "Call for Biafra to leave Nigeria". BBC. 6 July 2007. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Howard-Hassmann, Rhoda E. (1986). Human Rights in Commonwealth Africa. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 95. ISBN 0-8476-7433-9. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- Ihemere, Kelechukwu U. (2007). A Tri-Generational Study of Language Choice & Shift in Port Harcourt. Universal-Publishers. p. 26. ISBN 1-58112-958-0.
- Emenanjọ, Nọlue (1985). Auxiliaries in Igbo Syntax: A Comparative Study. Indiana University Linguistics Club. p. 64.
- Udogu, Emmanuel Ike (2005). Nigeria in the Twenty-first Century: Strategies for Political Stability and Peaceful Coexistence. Africa World Press. p. 51. ISBN 1-59221-320-0. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- Nwachuku, Levi Akalazu (2004). Troubled Journey: Nigeria Since the Civil War. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 59. ISBN 0-7618-2712-9. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- Groundwork of Igbo history. Vista Books, Lagos,. 1992. pp. 161–177. ISBN 978-134-400-8.
- Amadiume, Ifi (2000). The Politics of Memory: Truth, Healing and Social Justice. Zed Books. pp. 104–106. ISBN 1-85649-843-3.
- Odi, Amusi. "Igbo in Diaspora: The Binding Force of Information" (PDF). University of Texas. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- "Discomfort of fashion". Antique images and videos of Alaigbo/Ala Igbo (Igboland) posted at Ukpuru blog. Retrieved 2013-09-29. "Photograph of dancer wearing anklets - Thomas Whitridge Northcote (pre 1913)"
- "Willing Submission to Life Sentence to the Stocks". Antique images and videos of Alaigbo/Ala Igbo (Igboland) posted at Ukpuru blog. Retrieved 2013-09-29. "Photograph of female sitting wearing anklets - Thomas Whitridge Northcote (pre 1913)"
- "Nsibidi". National Museum of African Art. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2010-02-25. "Nsibidi is an ancient system of graphic communication indigenous to the Ejagham peoples of southeastern Nigeria and the southwestern Cameroon in the Cross River region. It is also used by neighboring Ibibio, Efik and Igbo peoples."
- Oraka, L. N. (1983). The foundations of Igbo studies. University Publishing Co. pp. 17, 13. ISBN 978-160-264-3.
- Oraka, L. N. (1983). The foundations of Igbo studies. University Publishing Co. p. 35. ISBN 978-160-264-3.
- Oraka, L. N. (1983). The foundations of Igbo studies. University Publishing Co. p. 21. ISBN 978-160-264-3.
- Equiano, Olaudah (1789). The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. I. Knapp. p. 9. ISBN 1-4250-4524-3.
- "Geschichte der Mission der evangelischen Brüder auf den caraibischen Inseln ... - Christian Georg Andreas Oldendorp, Johann Jakob Bossart - Google Boeken". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- Achebe, Chinua (1994.). Things fall apart. Anchor. p. 11. ISBN 0-385-47454-7.
- Grove, George; Stanley Sadie (1980). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (6 ed.). Macmillan Publishers. p. 239. ISBN 0-333-23111-2.
- Falola, Toyin (2001). Culture and Customs of Nigeria. Greenwood Press. pp. 174–183. ISBN 0-313-31338-5.
- Picton, John (2008). "art, African". West Africa, Igbo,: Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Eltis, David; David Richardson (1997). Routes to Slavery: Direction, Ethnicity, and Mortality in the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Routledge. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-7146-4820-0. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
- Harper, Peggy (2008). "African dance". 18th paragraph under 'Dance style': Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-01-12.
- Chuku, Gloria (2005). Igbo women and economic transformation in southeastern Nigeria, 1900–1960. Routledge. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-415-97210-9.
- Gikandi, Simon (1991). Reading Chinua Achebe: Language & Ideology in Fiction. James Currey Publishers. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-85255-527-9. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
- Oliver, Paul (2008). "African architecture". Geographic influences, Palaces and shrines, last paragraph: Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- "The Poetics of Line". National Museum of African Art. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
- Basden, G. S(1966). Among the Ibos of Nigeria, 1912. Psychology Press: p. 109, ISBN 0-7146-1633-8
- Greenaway, Theresa; Rolf E. Johnson, Nathan E. Kraucunas (2002). Rain Forests of the World. Marshall Cavendish. p. 292. ISBN 0-7614-7254-1.
- Onwuejeogwu, M. Angulu (1975). The Social Anthropology of Africa: An Introduction (illustrated ed.). Heinemann. p. 179. ISBN 0-435-89701-2.
- Basden, G.T.; John Ralph Willis (1912). Among the Ibos of Nigeria. Seeley, Service. p. 216.
- Elechi, O. Oko (2006). Doing Justice Without the State: The Afikpo (Ehugbo) Nigeria Model. CRC Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-415-97729-0.
- Sucher, Sandra J (2007). The Moral Leader: Challenges, Tools and Insights. Routledge. p. 63. ISBN 0-415-40064-3.
- Kirch, Patrick Vinton (1986). Island Societies: Archaeological Approaches to Evolution and Transformation (illustrated ed.). CUP Archive. p. 71. ISBN 0-521-30189-0.
- Newell, William Hare (1976). "Ancestoride! Are African Ancestors Dead?". Ancestors. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 293–294. ISBN 90-279-7859-X.
- Oluikpe, Benson Omenihu A. (1979). Igbo Transformational Syntax: The Ngwa Dialect Example. Africana Publishers. p. 182.
- Njoku, John E. Eberegbulam (1990). The Igbos of Nigeria: Ancient Rites, Changes, and Survival. E. Mellen Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-88946-173-2.
- Equiano, Olaudah (1837). The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. I. Knapp. p. 24.
- Chigere, Nkem Hyginus M. V. (2001). Foreign Missionary Background and Indigenous Evangelization in Igboland. LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. p. 97. ISBN 3-8258-4964-3. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
- Agbasiere, Joseph Thérèse (2000). Women in Igbo Life and Thought. Routledge. p. 143. ISBN 0-415-22703-8. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
- Agbasiere, Joseph Thérèse; Shirley Ardener (2000). Women in Igbo Life and Thought. Routledge. p. 114. ISBN 0-415-22703-8. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
- Ritzer, George (2004). Handbook of Social Problems: A Comparative International Perspective. Contributor George Ritzer. SAGE. p. 248. ISBN 0-7619-2610-0. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
- Uchendu, Patrick Kenechukwu (1995, Digitized July 24, 2008). Education and the Changing Economic Role of Nigerian Women. Fourth Dimension Publishing. p. 114. ISBN 978-156-403-2. "Formerly, there were many polygamous marriages because of the need for many hands to work in the farm."
- Okeke-Ihejirika, Philomina Ezeagbor (2004). Negotiating Power and Privilege: Igbo Career Women in Contemporary Nigeria. Ohio University Press. p. 34. ISBN 0-89680-241-8. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
- Oheneba-Sakyi, Yaw (2006). African families at the turn of the 21st century. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 161. ISBN 0-275-97274-7.
- Masquelier, Adeline Marie (2005). Dirt, Undress, and Difference: Critical Perspectives on the Body's Surface. Indiana University Press. pp. 38–45. ISBN 0-253-34628-2. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- Chuku, Gloria (2005). Igbo Women and Economic Transformation in Southeastern Nigeria, 1900–1960: 1900–1960. Routledge. p. 135. ISBN 0-415-97210-8. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- Equiano, Olaudah (1837). The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. I. Knapp. p. 14.
- Isichei, Elizabeth Allo (1977, Digitized September 15, 2008). Igbo Worlds: An Anthology of Oral Histories and Historical Descriptions. Macmillan. p. 113. ISBN 0-333-19836-0. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- McCall, John Christensen (2000). Dancing histories: heuristic ethnography with the Ohafia Igbo. University of Michigan Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-472-11070-5.
- Emenanjọ, E. Nọlue (1978). Elements of modern Igbo grammar: a descriptive approach. Oxford University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-154-078-8.
- Glasgow, Jacqueline; Linda J. Rice (2007). Exploring African Life and Literature: Novel Guides to Promote Socially Responsive Learning. International Reading Assoc. p. 335. ISBN 0-87207-609-1. Retrieved 2009-01-10.
- McWhorter, John H. (2000). The Missing Spanish Creoles: Recovering the Birth of Plantation Contact Languages. University of California Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-520-21999-6. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
- O'Halloran, Kate (1997). Hands-on Culture of West Africa. Walch Publishing. p. 63. ISBN 0-8251-3087-5.
- Blacking, John; Joann W. Kealiinohomoku (1979). The Performing Arts: Music and Dance. 4th paragraph: Walter de Gruyter. p. 265. ISBN 90-279-7870-0. Retrieved 2009-01-10.
- Uchem, Rose N. (2001). Overcoming Women's Subordination in the Igbo African Culture and in the Catholic Church: Envisioning an Inclusive Theology with Reference to Women. Universal-Publishers. p. 36. ISBN 1-58112-133-4.
- Williams, Lizzie (2008). Nigeria: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 196. ISBN 1-84162-239-7.
- Nwachuku, Levi Akalazu; G. N. Uzoigwe (2004). Troubled Journey: Nigeria Since the Civil War. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 0-7618-2712-9. Retrieved 2009-01-10.
- Onuah, Felix (29 December 2006). "Nigeria gives census result, avoids risky details". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Lewis, Peter (2007). Growing Apart: Oil, Politics, and Economic Change in Indonesia and Nigeria. University of Michigan Press. p. 132. ISBN 0-472-06980-2. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Suberu, Rotimi T. (2001). Federalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria. US Institute of Peace Press. p. 154. ISBN 1-929223-28-5. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- "Nigeria". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2010-08-24. "Calculation from percentage and overall population count of Nigeria"
- IITA Annual Report. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. 1988. p. 8. ISBN 978-978-131-048-5. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- Jarmon, Charles (1988). Nigeria. BRILL. p. 113. ISBN 90-04-08340-5. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- Udeani, Chibueze (2007). Inculturation as Dialogue: Igbo Culture and the Message of Christ. Rodopi. p. 7. ISBN 90-420-2229-9.
- Taylor, William H. (1996). Mission to Educate: A History of the Educational Work of the Scottish Presbyterian Mission in East Nigeria, 1846–1960. BRILL. p. 31. ISBN 90-04-10713-4. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- Pojmann, Wendy Ann (2006). Immigrant Women and Feminism in Italy. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 35–36. ISBN 0-7546-4674-2.
- "World Igbo Environmental Federation" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Falola, Toyin; Niyi Afolabi (2008). Trans-Atlantic Migration: The Paradoxes of Exile. Routledge. p. 35. ISBN 0-415-96091-6.
- Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2004). Africa Is In A Mess What Went Wrong And What Should Be Done. Fultus Corporation. p. 82. ISBN 0-9744339-7-7.
- Ciment, James (2001). Encyclopedia of American Immigration. M.E. Sharpe. p. 1075. ISBN 0-7656-8028-9.
- Farr, Marcia (2004). Ethnolinguistic Chicago: Language and Literacy in the City's Neighborhoods. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 182. ISBN 0-8058-4345-0.
- Dresser, Norine (2005). Multicultural Manners: Essential Rules of Etiquette for the 21st Century (revised, illustrated ed.). John Wiley and Sons. p. 212. ISBN 0-471-68428-7.
- Eades, Jeremy Seymour (1993). Strangers and Traders: Yoruba Migrants, Markets and the State in Northern Ghana (illustrated ed.). Edinburgh University Press. p. 200. ISBN 0-7486-0386-7.
- Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 330. ISBN 0-313-32384-4.
- Richard, Dreux (July 19, 2011). "Japan's Nigerians pay price for prosperity". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2012-03-31.
- Richard, Dreux (June 11, 2013). "Japan’s Nigerians see symbol of change in masquerade". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories". bottom: Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2010-04-04.. 19,520 identify as Nigerian, 61,430 identify as black.
- Crews, Chip (February 1, 2006). "'Lives' Makes a Present of Black Americans' Past". The Washington Post Company. Retrieved 2009-01-10.
- James Lipton (Himself – Host), Forest Whitaker (Himself) (2006-12-11). "Inside the Actors Studio: Forest Whitaker (2006)". Inside the Actors Studio. Season 13. Bravomedia. Bravotv. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1013110/.
- Garner, Jack (October 10, 2006). "Movies: Forest Whitaker takes viewer inside Idi Amin". Gannett News Service. ninth paragraph. Retrieved 2008-11-23. ""I wanted to understand what it was like to be Ugandan, even though my roots are in Nigeria and other parts of West Africa.”"
- Underwood, Blair. "Testimonials". Africanancestry.com. Retrieved 2008-11-23. "A welcome surprise that my people are from Nigeria & Ibo people"
- Bah, Abu Bakarr (2005). Breakdown and reconstitution: democracy, the nation-state, and ethnicity in Nigeria. Lexington Books. pp. 23–24. ISBN 0-7391-0954-5.
- Uwazie, Ernest E.; Albert, Isaac Olawale (1999). Inter-ethnic and religious conflict resolution in Nigeria. Lexington Books. pp. 11–12. ISBN 0-7391-0033-5.
- Nwogu, Nneoma V. (2007). Shaping truth, reshaping justice: sectarian politics and the Nigerian truth commission. Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-2249-5.
- Parijs, Philippe van (2004). Cultural Diversity Versus Economic Solidarity. De Boeck Université. p. 122. ISBN 2-8041-4660-X.
- Agbu, Osita (2004). Ethnic militias and the threat to democracy in post-transition Nigeria. Nordic Africa Institute. p. 23. ISBN 91-7106-525-3.
- Obichere, Boniface I. (1982). Studies in Southern Nigerian history. Routledge. p. 173. ISBN 0-7146-3106-X.
- Smith, Daniel Jordan (2006). A culture of corruption: everyday deception and popular discontent in Nigeria. Princeton University Press. pp. 193–194. ISBN 0-691-12722-0.
- Adekson, Adedayo Oluwakayode (2004). The "civil society" problematique: deconstructing civility and southern Nigeria's ethnic radicalization. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 0-415-94785-5.
- Gikandi, Simon (2003). Encyclopedia of African literature. Taylor & Francis. p. 328. ISBN 0-415-23019-5.
- Zabus, Chantal (2007). The African palimpsest: indigenization of language in the West African europhone novel. Rodopi. p. 33. ISBN 90-420-2224-8.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Igbo.|
- GI Jones Photographic Archive of southeastern Nigeria
- Igboguide.org - Insight into Igbo Culture and Language