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Ii Naotora (井伊直虎) was a female clan head of the Sengoku period. She was the daughter of Ii Naomori, the eighteenth clan head of Ii. After the death of her father in Okehazama, her cousin Ii Naochika was about to marry her so he can inherit the clan. Due to a slander from one of Imagawa retainers, Naochika was forced to commit suicide but he chose to flee to Shinano instead. Later he went back to Imagawa but he had already married to another woman while in fleeing.
Naochika momentarily ruled the clan until another slander came again, which caused him to be executed by Imagawa Ujizane. After his death and facing a lot of obstacles, Naotora became the head of the Ii clan. Naochika's son whom she adopted, the famed Ii Naomasa, became the clan head after her death in 1582.
Because of such history, Ii Naotora is known as a female daimyo although there are some argued accounts of her activities during her rule as the clan head.