Ikarbus

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Ikarbus a.d.
Native name Ikarbus a.d./
Икарбус а.д.
Type Public limited company
Industry Manufacturing
Founded Zemun, Belgrade, Serbia (June 28, 1991 (1991-06-28))
First founded 1923
Headquarters Belgrade, Serbia
Area served Serbia
Key people Aleksandar Vićentić (General director)
Products Buses
Production output 1,000 buses per year
Revenue Decrease 8.69 million (2013) [1]
Net income Increase -€0.84 million (2013)[1]
Total assets Decrease €24.51 million (2013)[1]
Total equity Steady €0 (2013)[1]
Employees 321[1]
Website www.ikarbus.rs

Ikarbus a.d. (Ikarbus - Fabrika autobusa i specijanih vozila a.d.) is a Serbian bus manufacturer based in the Belgrade urban municipality of Zemun. The company was originally established as an aircraft manufacturer in 1923, under the name Ikarus – the first Serbian airplane, car and engine industry Kovačević and Co in Novi Sad by Dimitrije Konjović, brothers Dušan and Milivoj Kovačević, Đoka Radulović and Josif Mikl.

The company changed its name to Ikarbus in 1992 due to name usage conflicts with the Hungarian bus manufacturer with the same name.

History[edit]

Ikarus S-49C fighter plane on display at Belgrade Aviation Museum.
Ikarus Aero 2 primary trainer plane on display at Belgrade Aviation Museum.
Yugoslavian glider Ikarus Meteor 57 (YU-4103), probably, at Jeżów Sudecki airstrip (Poland).
Old Ikarus IK-4 bus in Bucharest.

The first Serbian industry of airplanes, cars and machinery, IKARUS AD was established in Novi Sad in 1923.[2] The firm manufactured a number of foreign designs under licence, such as the French Potez 25, Czechoslovakian Avia BH-33 and English Hawker Fury; Bristol Blenheim as well as the locally-designed Ikarus ŠM; Ikarus IO; SIM-VIII; Ikarus IK-2; Ikarus Orkan. All the company's production facilities were destroyed during World War II, but rebuilt in 1946 and nationalised soon thereafter. Significant post-war aircraft included the Ikarus 451M, Yugoslavia's first domestically-designed and built jet plane (1952), the Ikarus S-451MM that set a world airspeed record in 1957, and the Ikarus S-451M that set one in 1960. After that, aircraft production was relocated to a new aircraft factory SOKO at Mostar, SR Bosnia and Herzegovina.

From 1954 onwards, Ikarus commenced bus production, originally of Sauer and MAN designs under licence, but eventually the company's own designs. In 1992, the company was privatised, and the following year changed its name to Ikarbus.

Timeline[edit]

13 October 1923 - the founding meeting of the limited parntership “Ikarus – the first Serbian airplane, car and engine industry Kovacevic and Co”. 20 November 1923 - “Ikarus” starts official business – Dimitrije Konjovic, brothers Dusan and Milivoj Kovacevic, Djoka Radulovic and Josif Mikl registered the company in the Novi Sad District Court. The date is today observed as the founding date.

3 March 1924 - the first school type airplane “Brandenburg” was manufactured

1927 - The Air Command decided that “Ikarus” should start the production of military planes; the factory for the production of military planes was built in Zemun

20 June 1927 - “Ikarus” and the Military and Navy Ministry concluded an agreement to build a new factory of airplane engines in Rakovica

1928 - Sports Club “Ikarus” was established, the first company to build gliders in the country

December 1932 – the company from Novi Sad totally relocated to Zemun

April 1935 - the first model of war airplane of domestic design was completed – a single-seat glider IK-1, designed by engineers Ljubomir Ilic and Kosta Sivcev

January 1936 – Air Command and Ikarus signed an agreement for the manufacturing of British “Hawker Fury” fighter plane, all- metal construction.

Spring of 1938 – Air Command and the company concluded an agreement on the supply of twin-engine bombers “Blenheim”, under the British license

1938 – Administration building of “Ikarus” in Zemun was built

17 April 1941 – Nazi Germany occupation authorities confiscated the company

17 and 25 April 1944 - the factory was heavily damaged in the Allied air-strikes

Early November 1944 - the factory restarted operations

12 August 1945 - the first emergency Assembly of share-holders in the socialist Yugoslavia was held.

27 March 1946 – “Ikarus” was sequestered by the decision of the District Court of Zemun

23 August 1946 – the District Court for the city of Belgrade adjudicated that Konjovic, Lukac and Curcin were guilty of “business collaboration with the occupier”; their shares were confiscated.

22 October 1946 – the first plane “Aero-2B” flew for the first time, the first prototype made by the air industry in new Yugoslavia

23 November 1946 – the District Court for the city of Zemun adjudicated that the entire assets of “Ikarus” be confiscated

23 January 1948 - the Government of the FPRY made a decision to establish the State Enterprise “Ikarus”

1948 – Sports Club “Naša krila” was established

1949 – the prototype of a light multi-purpose bomber “214” was completed, designed by Professor Sima Milutinović

1950 – single-seat fighter plane S-49 was built by engineers Ilic, Sivcev, Zrnic and Popovic

1950 – “Ikarus” manufactured the first gliders in the socialist Yugoslavia; single-seat glider “Hawk 1” was awarded the third prize at the International Championship in Sweden

End of October 1952 – the first Yugoslav jet plane “451 M” took off

1954 – “Kosava” twin-seat glider received the first prize at the International Championship in England

1954 - “Ikarus” manufactured its first bus, under the Austrian license “Sauer”

1957 Airplane S-451MM Matica set the world speed record flying at 750.34 km/hour

1960 – S-451M Zolja, ultra light jet plane set the world speed record, flying at 500.2 km/hour

14 November 1961 – by the official act of the Administration for military industry affairs, “Ikarus” ceased to be a military company. Most of the personal and equipement from the aircraft section of Ikarus had been relocated during the previous decade to a new aircraft factory SOKO.

Products[edit]

Ikarus IK-160 articulated bus in Skopje.
Yellow Ikarbus in Belgrade.
Ikarbus at Studentski Trg.
Ikarbus on line to Dorćol.
Ikarbus IK218N in Belgrade.
Ikarbus IK-201 in Novi Sad.
195 new Ikarbus buses delivery in Belgrade.

Every vehicle made by Ikarbus has a name starting with 'IK', followed by a hyphen and then the vehicle's code: IK-1xxs are solo city buses, IK-2xxs are articulated city buses and IK-3xxs and IK-4xxs are coaches. Earlier IK 160(P)/161/166 models are also articulated buses.

Historical models under Ikarus brand

  • IK-4 - solo bus based on Leyland chassis, produced in early 1970s
  • IK-5A/5B - solo on MAN license, produced in early 1980s
  • IK-83 (solo, FAP chassis, FAMOS 2 F-207 engine, manual transmission) - produced in 1970s
  • IK-61 (solo, Raba D2156 engine, manual transmission) - produced in 1970s
  • IK-105/108/110(B)/115 (solo, Raba D2156 engine, manual transmission) - produced until 1988
  • IK-160(B)/180 (articulated, Raba D2156 engine, manual transmission) - produced until 1988
  • IK-160P (articulated, "P" stands for Poland, SW680 engine ) - produced until 1989
  • IK-102 (solo, MAN D2866 engine, automatic VOITH transmission) - produced until 1996
  • IK-111(B) (solo, MAN D2866 engine, manual transmission) - produced until 1996
  • IK-161(B) (articulated, MAN D2866 engine, manual transmission) - produced until 1996
  • IK-161R (articulated, Raba D2156 engine, manual transmission) - produced until 1996
  • IK-166 (articulated, MAN D2866 engine, automatic VOITH transmission) - produced until 1996

Contemporary models under Ikarbus brand

  • IK-101 solo, MAN engine
  • IK-102 solo, RABA engine
  • IK-103 solo, MAN or Mercedes engine - currently offered
  • IK-103 CNG (meets EURO-5 standards) - currently offered
  • IK-112(N) solo low floor, MAN engine - currently offered
  • IK-112LE
  • IK-107 minibus, Cummins engine - currently offered
  • IK-201 articulated, horizontal MAN engine
  • IK-202 articulated, horizontal RABA engine
  • IK-203 articulated, horizontal Mercedes engine
  • IK-206 articulated, vertical MAN engine - currently offered
  • IK-218(N) articulated low floor, MAN engine - currently offered
  • IK-218M articulated low floor, MAN engine and self-supporting chassis - currently offered
  • IK-308, midibus coach - currently offered
  • IK-312, regional coach - currently offered
  • IK-412, long distance coach - currently offered
  • IK-415, three-axle coach - currently offered

Aircraft[edit]

In 1927 an aeronautical section of the factory was found in Zemun where numerous planes were designed and manufactured, as well as under license. The factory included its own airfield. After the end of the World War II, in 1946, another two aeronautical companies, Zmaj and Rogožarski joined Ikarus as a wholly nationalised state aircraft industry. The Ikarus factory had manufactured in its workshops 475 aircraft up until 1962, when it stopped working for the aviation industry.[2]

References[edit]

  • Gunston, Bill (1993). World Encyclopedia of Aircraft Manufacturers. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 154. 

External links[edit]