His groups included Ikey Robinson and his Band (w/ Jabbo Smith), The Hokum Trio, The Pods of Pepper, Windy City Five, and Sloke & Ike.
His jazz style influenced many subsequent players, and his 1929 recording "Rock MeMama" is often cited as an early use of the term "rock" as it evolved from black gospel into rock and roll.
Robinson reunited in the 1970s with Smith for a global tour.
Robinson appeared in the 1985 film Louie Bluie, directed by Terry Zwigoff, a documentary about fellow musician Howard Armstrong. As recounted by Zwigoff, Robinson had not known Armstrong previously and was initially hesitant to meet him because of their differing musical styles. However, the two got on well and perform together in the documentary.