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Kita Ikki (北 一輝 Kita Ikki )
|Born||Kita Terujirō (北 輝次郎)
April 3, 1883
Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture, Japan
|Died||August 19, 1937(aged 54)|
|Notable work(s)||An Outline Plan for the Reorganization of Japan (日本改造法案大綱 Nihon Kaizō Hōan Taikō ) 1919|
Born on Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture, Ikki Kita’s real name was Kita Terujirō (北 輝次郎). He audited lectures at Waseda University in Tokyo, and while a student, was attracted to socialist ideas, meeting with many influential figures in the early socialist movement in Japan. This movement was, however, full of "opportunist" and other statist currents.[nb 1] The Shakai seisaku gakkai, or Japanese social-policy school, followed their authoritarian and statist, Bismarckian and von Schmollerian German forebears in arguing for, as well as being very practical in, their implementation of extending state controls from above—including the social insurance policies that were adopted by Bismarck.
The socialism that Kita espoused in his early period was a nationalist brand of socialism (or right-wing Romantic anti-capitalism[clarification needed]) that had nothing in common with any Marxian notions of "socialism from below".[nb 2]
Kita was also attracted to the cause of the Chinese Revolution of 1911, and became a member of the Tongmenghui (United League) led by Song Jiaoren. He traveled to China to assist in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty.
However, Kita was also interested in the radical right wing. The right-wing, ultra-nationalist Kokuryukai (Amur River Association/Black Dragon Society), founded in 1901, was part of a current that has a history traceable back to the Genyosha (Deep Ocean Society/Genkai Straits Society) of 1881, founded by Tōyama Mitsuru. Tōyama, with many contacts in the Japanese establishment over a period of fully half a century, in turn claimed to be the rightful successor to Saigo Takamori, who pushed for Japanese expansion to the Asian mainland in the early Meiji era.
Kita—who held views on Russia and Korea from almost a decade earlier that were already remarkably similar to those espoused by the Kokuryukai—was sent by that organization as a special member, who would write for them from China and send reports on the ongoing situation at the time of the 1911 Xinhai revolution. In his book on Kita, George Wilson tries to play down or deemphasize all such matters.
Kita's article called "Tut-tut, those who oppose the war [with Russia]" showed he had little time for "those idiots" who opposed the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, Kita's first book, the Kokutairon book (the one purportedly on "pure socialism"), was banned upon publication. Some[who?] have argued from this to assert that Kita must have been deemed a radical threat from the left to the government. However, the case of Uchida Ryohei's anti-Russian book Roshiya bokoku ron (On Decaying Russia) was also subjected to a ban upon its appearance, five years prior to Kita's own suppression by the authoritarian Meiji state. The government had a predilection for banning books, irrespective of whether they stemmed from the right or from the left of the political spectrum.
By the time Kita returned to Japan in 1919, he had become very disillusioned with the Chinese Revolution, and the strategies offered by it for the changes he envisioned. He joined Okawa Shumei and others to form the Yuzonsha, an ultranationalist organization, and devoted his time to writing and political activism. He gradually became the leading theorist and philosopher of the right-wing movement in pre-World War II Japan.
His political proposal
Kita first outlined his philosophy of nationalistic socialism in his book The Theory of Japan's National Polity and Pure Socialism (国体論及び純正社会主義 Kokutairon oyobi Junsei Shakaishugi ), published in 1906, where he criticized Marxism and the Class conflict-oriented socialism as outdated. He instead emphasised on an exposition of the evolutionary theory in understanding the basic guidelines of the societies and the nations. In this book Kita explicitly promotes the platonic state authoritarianism emphasizing the close relationship between Confucianism and the "from above" concept of the national socialism stating that Mencius is the Plato of the East and that Plato's concept in organizing a society is far preferable than that of Marx's. Kita's second book is entitled A Private History of the Chinese Revolution (Shina Kakumei Gaishi and is a critical analysis of the Chinese Revolution of 1911.
His political views over the national and political future of Japan first appeared in various articles he penned from 1903 to 1906, while he was still based on Sado. It reappeared in his last major book on politics, An Outline Plan for the Reorganization of Japan (日本改造法案大綱 Nihon Kaizō Hōan Taikō ), first published in 1919, and republished in 1923. The common theme to his first and last political works is the notion of a national policy (Kokutai), through which Japan would lead a united and free Asia (see pan-Asianism). According to his political program, a coup d'état would be necessary as to impose a more-or-less totalitarian regime based on a direct rule by a powerful leader. Due to the unconditional respect that the Emperor enjoyed in the Japanese society, he identified him as the ideal person to play that role, suspending the Constitution and radically reorganize the Diet to be free of any "malign influence". The new "National Reorganization Diet" would nationalize certain strategic industries, impose limits on individual wealth and private property, enact a land reform to benefit the farmers, as to strengthen Japan enable it to liberate Asia from Western imperialism. This was termed the Showa Restoration.
In its historical prospect Kita's political program was for creating a state socialism in a rather fascistic oriented "socialism from above", as a tool to unite and strengthen the Japanese society in order to materialize the core element of his program, the unification of all Yellow peoples in a common empire, under common spiritual values. To this end, according to his view both agrarianism, social justice (socialism) and militarism had by necessity to implemented as the only way to win the people's support as well as the reaction of the major Western Imperialistic Powers. In short, although he called for overseas expansion as, among other reasons, a way to relieve the increasing population pressures in the Japanese mainland, he had seen this in an harmonized with the other Yellow People nations' interests program, in a racist-oriented way of liberation and unification of the Asian people rather than a nationalistic way of occupation in a Western-like colonial fashion.
This eclectic blend of racism, socialism and spiritual principles[nb 3]is one of the reasons why Kita's motion has been hard to be understood under the specific historical circumstances of the interwar Japan. Some[who?] have argued that this is also one of the reasons why it is hard for the historians to agree on Kita’s political stance, though Nik Howard takes the view that Kita's ideas are actually highly consistent ideologically throughout his career, with relatively small shifts in response to the changing reality he faced at any given time.
Arrest and execution
Kita’s Outline Plan, his last book, exerted a major influence on a part of the Japanese military—especially in the Imperial Japanese Army factions who participated in the failed coup of 1936. After the coup attempt, Kita was arrested by the Kempeitai for complicity, tried by a closed military court, and executed.
- Ikki Kita is a major character in the historical fantasy novel Teito Monogatari by Hiroshi Aramata. In the novel, he is also a Buddhist shaman who is deeply devoted to the Kegon Sutras.
- Kita appears in manga artist Motoka Murakami's Showa-era epic Ron.
- Kita is a secondary character in Osamu Tezuka's Ikki Mandara.
- From the ideas of Abe Isō through Yano Fumio's Shin shakai (or 'New Society', a Utopian novel that is claimed to be socialist[by whom?]) to even the waverings of Katayama Sen, who wobbled over who he wished to win the Russo-Japanese War, plumping at times for an opportunist stance: in short, for the Japanese state to win it.
- As analysed by, for example, Hal Draper, who contrasts this current to its opposite, "socialism from above"; however, Japanese labor historian Stephen Large also employs this conceptual couplet of "socialism from above and from below" in a book on the inter-war Japanese socialist movement. John Crump's research on the origins of Japanese socialism essentially argues that none of the early Japanese socialists of the late Meiji period consistently broke with capitalist socioeconomic and political relations in theory or in practice.
- Masking a deeper consistency from the time of his early articles: he calls for Japanese expansion to Korea and Manchuria, as well as for militant war with Russia and Britain—whom he dubs "landlord nations", with Japan a so-called "proletarian nation".
- Young, Arthur Morgan (1921). The Socialist and Labour Movement in Japan. Chronicle reprints (2). The Japan Chronicle. OCLC 18208556.
- Draper, Hal (1963). The Two Souls of Socialism: socialism from below v. socialism from above. New York: Young People's Socialist League. OCLC 9434175.
- Large, Stephen S. (1981). Organized Workers and Socialist Politics in Interwar Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23675-1. OCLC 185302691.
- Crump, John (1983). The Origins of Socialist Thought in Japan. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-58872-4. OCLC 9066549.
- Wilson, George Macklin (1969). Radical Nationalist in Japan: Kita Ikki, 1883–1937. Harvard East Asian Series 37. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. OCLC 11889.
- James L. McClain, Japan: A Modern History p 438 ISBN 0-393-04156-5
- James L. McClain, Japan: A Modern History p 437 ISBN 0-393-04156-5
- Howard, Nik (Summer 2004). "Was Kita Ikki a Socialist?". The London Socialist Historians Group Newsletter (21) (London: London Socialist Historians Group). Archived from the original on 2008-04-24. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- James L. McClain, Japan: A Modern History p 439 ISBN 0-393-04156-5
- Tankha, Brij (2006). Kita Ikki And the Making of Modern Japan: A vision of empire. Folkestone, Kent: Global Oriental. ISBN 978-1-901903-99-7. OCLC 255304652.
- Kamal, Niraj (2003). Arise, Asia! Respond to white peril. Delhi: Wordsmiths. ISBN 978-81-87412-08-3. OCLC 51586701.
- Martial Law —a movie about the life and death of Kita Ikki