|• Hebrew||אִכְּסָל, אכסאל, כִּסְלוֹת תָּבוֹר|
|• ISO 259||ʔikksal, Ksalot Tabor|
|• Type||Local council|
|• Total||9,000 dunams (9 km2 or 3 sq mi)|
مدرسة إكسال الثانوية
مدرسة إكسال الإعدادية
Iksal (Arabic: إكسال, Iksal; Hebrew: אִכְּסָאל, כִּסְלוֹת תָּבוֹר, Kislot Tavor) is an Arab local council in northern Israel, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) southeast of Nazareth. It has an area of 9,000 dunams and a population of 11,700 primarily Muslim inhabitants. The name of town is believed to derive from that of Chesulloth (Chisloth-Tabor), a biblical town mentioned in the Book of Joshua (Joshua 19:12).
In 536 a Council was held in Jerusalem to condemn the heresiarch Severus and his followers. Present at that Council were 45 bishops from Palestine, including one Parthenius, bishop of Exalus, which is identified with Iksal. Thus we know the town had enough Christians in the 6th Century to warrant a bishop.
Like many other Arab towns and villages in the Galilee that were left standing after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Iksal surrendered to Israeli forces without putting up a fight. Individuals who had collaborated with Zionist officials prior to Israel's establishment, negotiated the terms of surrender and transition to rule under the new military government.
Archaeological excavations in Iksal revealed artifacts from the period of Roman and Byzantine rule in Palestine. A ring decorated with the image of a lion was found and dates to one of these time periods. In burial caves carved into the rock, sarcophagi and ossuaries containing pottery, glass vessels, and jewelry were found. Also dated to the Byzantine period are agricultural installations, carved into the rock and plastered, inside of which were found part of a winepress. Building remains from the Mamluk period have also been excavated.
According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, the town had a low ranking (3 out of 10) on the country's socioeconomic index (December 2001). Only 65.3% of students are entitled to a matriculation certificate after Grade 12 (2000). The average salary that year was NIS 3,640 per month, whereas the national average was NIS 6,835. Its population has grown at an annual rate of 2.8%.
In Iksal, about 60 percent of the inhabitants are family relations of one another.
- HaReuveni, Immanuel (1999). Lexicon of the Land of Israel. Miskal - Yedioth Ahronoth Books and Chemed Books. p. 37. ISBN 965-448-413-7. (Hebrew)
- Freedman et al, 2000, p. 236.
- Aharoni, 1979, pp. 120, 257.
- Armstrong, 2009, p. 42.
- Bagatti, Bellarmino (2001). Ancient Christian Villages of Galilee. Jerusalem: Franiscan press. p. 217.
- Gil, 1997, pp. 319-320.
- Yardenna Alexandre (September 26, 2008). "Iksal: Final Report". Hadashot Arkheologiyot: Excavations and Surveys in Israel (Israel Antiquities Authority) (Journal 120).
- Cohen, 2010, p. 17.
- Chancey, 2005, p. 216.
- Cushner, 2004, p. 86.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Iksal.|
- Aharoni, Yohanan (1979). The land of the Bible: a historical geography (2nd, illustrated, revised ed.). Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-24266-9.
- Alexandre, Yardenna (2008-03-26), Iksal Preliminary Report (123), Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel
- Alexandre, Yardenna (2011-08-29), Iksal Preliminary Report (120), Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel
- Armstrong, George (2009). Names and Places in the Old Testament and Apocrypha. BiblioBazaar, LLC. ISBN 1-103-29324-9.
- Chancey, Mark A. (2005). Greco-Roman culture and the Galilee of Jesus (Illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84647-1.
- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, Herbert H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology 1. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. p. 363. 366, 385
- Cohen, Hillel (2010). Good Arabs: The Israeli Security Agencies and the Israeli Arabs, 1948-1967. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-25767-7.
- Cushner, Kenneth (2004). Beyond tourism: a practical guide to meaningful educational travel. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 1-57886-154-3.
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- Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. (2000). Eerdmans dictionary of the Bible (Illustrated ed.). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-2400-5.
- Gil, Moshe (1997). A history of Palestine, 634-1099. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59984-9.
- Guérin, Victor (1880). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine. Vol 3; Galilee, pt. 1. p.108-109
- Hadawi, Sami (1970), Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine, Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center p.62
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. p.187
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Mokary, Abdalla (2011-06-23), Iksal Preliminary Report (123), Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Tristram, H. B. (1865): The land of Israel: Travels in Palestine. p. 124