Ikshvaku dynasty

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This article is about the Puranic Indian dynasty. For the dynasty which ruled in ancient Andhra Pradesh, see Andhra Ikshvaku.

The Ikshvaku dynasty, in Puranic literature, was a mythical dynasty[1] founded by Ikshvaku, grandson of Vivasvan or Surya and son of Vaivasvata Manu. They ruled from the Kosala Kingdom with Ayodhya as their capital. The two Indian epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, have numerous mentions of this dynasty.

This dynasty is also known as Sūryavaṁśa (the Solar dynasty). The important personalities belonging to this royal house are Harishchandra, Dilīpa, Sagara,[2] Raghu, Rama and Prasenajit. Although, both the Hindu Puranas and the Buddhist texts include Shuddodhana, Gautama Buddha and Rahula in their accounts of the Ikshvaku dynasty, but according to the Buddhist texts, Mahasammata, an ancestor of Ikshvaku was the founder of this dynasty,[3] who was elected by the people as the first king of the present era. The Ikshvaku dynasty of Jaina literature includes 22 Jaina Tirthankaras. According to the Puranas, supreme preceptor of the Ikshvaku dynasty was sage Vashishta.

Ikshvaku dynasty lineage[edit]

The lists of kings of Ikṣvāku or Aikṣvāka dynasty are found in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Harivamsha and the Puranas. The Raghuvamsha of Kalidasa also mentions the names of the kings of this dynasty.[4][5]

To Kusha[edit]

The genealogy of the Ikshvaku dynasty to Rama is mentioned in the Ramayana in two lists (i.69.17-32 and ii.102.4-29). The only difference between the two lists is that, Kukshi is mentioned only in the second list (ii.102.4-29). In the first list (i.69.17-32), Vikukshi is mentioned as the son of Ikshvaku.[6] The genealogy is as follows:

  1. Brahma
  2. Marichi
  3. Kashyapa
  4. Vivasvan or Surya
  5. Vaivasvata Manu
  6. Ikshvaku
  7. Kukshi
  8. Vikukshi
  9. Bana
  10. Anaranya
  11. Prithu
  12. Trishanku
  13. Dhundhumara
  14. Yuvanashva
  15. Mandhata
  16. Susandhi
  17. Dhruvasandhi and Presenajit were the sons of Susandhi
  18. Bharata, son of Dhruvasandhi
  19. Bahu (Asita)
  20. Sagara
  21. Asamanja
  22. Amsumana
  23. Dileepa
  24. Bhagiratha
  25. Kakustha
  26. Raghu
  27. Kalmashapada
  28. Shankhana
  29. Sudarshana
  30. Agnivarna
  31. Shighra
  32. Maru
  33. Prashushruka
  34. Ambarisha
  35. Aja
  36. Dasharatha
  37. Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata and Shatrughna are the sons of Dasaratha

In the Ramayana, we find that, Lava and Kusha were the sons of Rama.

Kusha to Brihadbala[edit]

The Puranas provide a genealogical list from Kusha to Brihadbala, who was killed by Abhimanyu in the Mahabharata war. This list is corroborated by the Raghuvamsha till Agnivarna:[7]

  • Kusha
  • Atithi, the son of Kusha
  • Nishadha, the son of Atithi
  • Nala, the son of Nishadha
  • Nabhas, the son of Nala
  • Pundarika, the son Nabhas
  • Kshemadhanvan, the son of Pundarika
  • Devanika, the son of Kshemadhanvan
  • Ahinagu, the son of Davanika
  • Paripatra, the son of Ahinagu
  • Dala (or Bala), the son of Ahinagu
  • Uktha, the son of Dala
  • Vajranabha, the son of Uktha
  • Shankhana, the son of Vajranabha
  • Vyushitashva, the son of Shankhana
  • Vishvasaha, the son of Vyushitashva
  • Hiranyanabha, the son of Vishvasaha
  • Pushya, the son of Hiranyanabha
  • Dhruvasandhi, the son of Pushya
  • Agnivarna, the son of Dhruvasandhi
  • Shighra, the son of Agnivarna
  • Maru, the son of Shighra
  • Prasushruta, the son of Maru
  • Susandhi, the son of Prasushruta
  • Amarsha and Sahasvanta, the sons of Susandhi
  • Vishrutavanta, the son of Amarsha
  • Brihadbala, the son of Vishrutavanta.

Brihadbala to Sumitra[edit]

The Puranas also provide the list of the kings from Brihadbala to the last ruler Sumitra. But these lists mention Shakya as an individual, and incorporate the names of Shakya, Shuddodhana, Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha) and Rahula between Sanjaya and Prasenajit. The names of the kings are:[8]

  • Birhadbala
  • Brihatkshaya
  • Urukshaya
  • Vatsavyuha
  • Prativyoma
  • Divakara
  • Sahadeva
  • Brihadashva
  • Bhanuratha
  • Pratitashva
  • Supratika
  • Marudeva
  • Sunakshatra
  • Kinnara
  • Antariksha
  • Suvarna
  • Sumitra Amitrajit
  • Dharmin
  • Kritanjaya
  • Sanjaya Mahakoshala
  • Prasenajit (c. 6th century BCE)
  • Kshudraka
  • Kulaka
  • Suratha
  • Sumitra, defeated by Mahapadma Nanda

However, the Nepalese and Buddhists continue the dynasty further.

Ikshvaku dynasty in Buddhist tradition[edit]

The Buddhist text, Mahavamsa (II, 1-24) traces the origin of the Shakyas to king Okkaka (Pali equivalent to Sanskrit Ikshvaku) and gives their genealogy from Mahasammata, an ancestor of Okkaka. This list comprises the names of a number of prominent kings of the Ikshvaku dynasty, namely, Mandhata and Sagara.[9] The genealogy according to the Mahavamsa is as follows:[10][11]

  1. Okkaka
  2. Okkamukha
  3. Sivisamjaya
  4. Sihassara
  5. Jayasena
  6. Sihahanu
  7. Suddhodana
  8. Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha)
  9. Rahula

Ikshvaku dynasty in Jaina tradition[edit]

The Ikshvaku dynasty has a significant place in Jaina tradition, as all Tirthankaras except Munisuvrata and Neminatha were born in this royal house.[12] The first Tirthankara Rishavadeva was son of Ikshvaku King Nabhi. The second Tirthankara, Ajitanatha, son of Ikshvaku King Jitashatru was cousin of Sagara.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Geography of Rgvedic India, M.L. Bhargava, Lucknow 1964, pp. 15-18, 46-49, 92-98, 100-/1, 136
  2. ^ Ikshaku tribe The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883 -1896), Book 3: Vana Parva: Tirtha-yatra Parva: Section CVI, p. 228 'There was born in the family of the Ikshaku, a ruler of the earth named Sagara, endued with beauty, and strength...".
  3. ^ Malalasekera, G. P. (2007) [1937]. Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names: A-Dh. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 461–2. ISBN 978-81-208-3021-9. 
  4. ^ Pargiter, F.E. (1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass. pp. 90–91. 
  5. ^ The Ramayana. New Delhi: Penguin Books. 1996. ISBN 0-14-029866-5. 
  6. ^ Vyas, R.T. (ed.) (1992). Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Text as Constituted in its Critical Edition. Vadodara: Oriental Institute, Vadodara. pp. 91–2, 255–56. 
  7. ^ Pargiter, F.E. (1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass. p. 149. 
  8. ^ Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, pp.283-8, 384
  9. ^ Law, B.C. (1973). Tribes in Ancient India, Bhandarkar Oriental Series No.4, Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, p.246
  10. ^ Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, p.286
  11. ^ Geiger, Wilhelm (tr.) (1912). "Mahavamsa, Chapter II". Ceylon Government Information Dept.,Colombo (in lakdvia.org website). Retrieved 2009-10-26. 
  12. ^ Jain, Kailash Chand (1991). Lord Mahāvīra and His Times. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 2. ISBN 81-208-0805-3.