First page of Il manifesto the day after the election of Pope Benedict XVI.
|Owner(s)||Coop. Editoriale il manifesto|
|Political alignment||Leftist, Communist|
History and profile
Il manifesto was founded as a monthly review in 1969 by a collective of left-wing journalists engaged in the wave of critical thought and activity on the Italian left in that period. Its founders included Luigi Pintor, Valentino Parlato, Lucio Magri, and Rossana Rossanda. In April 1971 it became a daily. Although critical of the Italian Communist Party (PCI), it was popular with many party supporters who saw it as more lively and independent than the party newspaper L'Unità.
The 1991 PCI dissolution that gave birth to the social democratic Democratic Party of the Left was not followed by Il manifesto, a paper which maintains positions closer to those of robustly left wing parties, such as Communist Refoundation Party, while remaining independent.
Il manifesto is known in Italy for its bitter and sarcastic headlines, puns, and clever choice of photographs. For example, the day of the election of Pope Benedict XVI, the first page of Il manifesto featured a large photo of the newly elected pope, along with the title The German shepherd. It has included the satirical drawings of Vauro.
Its co-directors are Norma Rangeri and Tommaso di Francesco.
One of its reporters, Giuliana Sgrena, was kidnapped by Iraqi insurgents in February 2005 and released on March 4. A controversy erupted when her rescue vehicle was shot by American troops, killing an Italian security agent.
By the late 2000s, state aid to media in Italy was dropping, and il manifesto began to operate at a loss. It was owned by a cooperative of journalists until entering legal liquidation in February 2012. However, as of November 2014 has continued to publish. The liquidators have announced that they will sell the title by the end of 2014; the cooperative has announced a subscription campaign to buy back the brand.
Il manifesto had a circulation of 24,728 copies in 2008, 22,140 copies in 2009, 18,978 copies in 2010, and 10,516 by 2014.Diffusione stampa: quotidiani e settimanali a febbraio, mensili a gennaio (Ads, gennaio e febbraio 2014)
- Dominique Vidal (December 2014). "Buying back ‘il manifesto’". Le Monde diplomatique. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- Gino Moliterno, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Italian Culture (PDF). London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-203-74849-2. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Il collettivo del manifesto". Il manifesto. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Bush repeats Italian death regret". CNN. 7 April 2005. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- Data for average newspaper circulation in 2008. Accertamenti Diffusione Stampa.
- "National Newspapers". International Federation of Audit Bureaux of Circulations. Retrieved 6 March 2015.