Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
|Ili (Yili) Prefecture
|Sub-Provincial Autonomous Prefecture|
ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ۋىلايىتى
ىله قازاق اۆتونومىيالى وبلىسى
|• Pinyin||Yīlí Hāsàkè Zìzhìzhōu|
|Gulja seat of Ili|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Prefecture seat||Yining (Gulja)|
|• Land||56,381.52 km2 (21,769.03 sq mi)|
|• including Altay & Tarbagatay||268,778.71 km2 (103,776.04 sq mi)|
|• including Altay & Tarbagatay||4,228,819|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture|
ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ۋىلايىتى
|Kazakh||ىله قازاق اۆتونومىيالى وبلىسى
Іле Қазақ аутономиялық облысы
Geography and coordinates
- Capital: Yining (Gulja)
- Geographic coordinates: 79º50'30″ – 84º56'50″ East, 42º14'16″ – 44º50'30″ North
The Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture is west of Mongolia, south of Russia and east of Kazakhstan. Its foreign boundary is 2,000 km (1,200 mi). (The Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture interrupts the border with Kazakhstan for several km.)
As a Sub-provincial Autonomous Prefecture, Ili's primary subdivisions include Tacheng (Qoqek, 塔城地区) and Altay (阿勒泰地区) Prefectures, both to the Northeast of the capital. Ili also directly controls 2 county-level cities, 7 counties, and 1 autonomous county. (see Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#Levels).
|#||Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Uyghur (UEY)||Uyghur Latin (ULY)||Kazakh (Arabic script)||Kazakh Latin transcription||Population (2003 est.)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|*||Altay Prefecture||阿勒泰地区||Ālètài Dìqū||تارباغاتاي ۋىلايىتى||Altay Wilayiti||ئالتاي ۋىلايىتى||Altay aymağı||561,667||117,800||5|
|Tacheng [Tarbagatay] Prefecture||塔城地区||Tǎchéng Dìqū||تارباغاتاي ۋىلايىتى||Tarbaghatay Wilayiti||تارباعاتاي ايماعى||Tarbağatay aymağı||892,397||104,546||16|
|1||Yining [Gulja]||伊宁市||Yīníng Shì||غۇلجا شەھىرى||Ghulja Shehiri||قۇلجا قالاسى||Qulja qalası||430,000||629||684|
|2||Kuytun||奎屯市||Kuítún Shì||كۈيتۇن شەھىرى||Küytun Shehiri||كۇيتۇن قالاسى||Küytün qalası||300,000||1,171||256|
|3||Yining [Gulja] County||伊宁县||Yīníng Xiàn||غۇلجا ناھىيىسى||Ghulja Nahiyisi||قۇلجا اۋدانى||Qulja awdanı||360,000||4,486||80|
|4||Huocheng County||霍城县||Huòchéng Xiàn||قورغاس ناھىيىسى||Qorghas Nahiyisi||قورعاس اۋدانى||Qorğas awdanı||360,000||5,466||66|
|5||Gongliu [Tokkuztara] County||巩留县||Gǒngliú Xiàn||توققۇزتارا ناھىيىسى||Toqquztara Nahiyisi||توعىزتاراۋ اۋدانى||Toğıztaraw awdanı||160,000||4,124||39|
|6||Xinyuan [Künes] County||新源县||Xīnyuán Xiàn||كۈنەس ناھىيىسى||Künes Nahiyisi||كۇنەس اۋدانى||Künes awdanı||300,000||7,583||40|
|7||Zhaosu [Mongolküre] County||昭苏县||Zhāosū Xiàn||موڭغۇلكۈرە ناھىيىسى||Mongghulküre Nahiyisi||موڭعۇلكۇرە اۋدانى||Moñğulküre awdanı||160,000||10,465||15|
|8||Tekes County||特克斯县||Tèkèsī Xiàn||تېكەس ناھىيىسى||Tëkes Nahiyisi||تەكەس اۋدانى||Tekes awdanı||160,000||8,080||20|
|9||Nilka County||尼勒克县||Nílèkè Xiàn||نىلقا ناھىيسى||Nilqa Nahiyisi||نىلقى اۋدانى||Nılqı awdanı||160,000||10,130||16|
|10||Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County||察布查尔锡伯自治县||Chábùchá'ěr Xībó Zìzhìxiàn||ئاپتونوم يېزىسى چاپچال شىبە||Chapchal Shibe Aptonom Nahiyisi||شاپشال سىبە اۆتونوميالى اۋدانى||Şapşal Sibe avtonomyalı awdanı||170,000||4,489||38|
Geographically, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture can be divided into two parts. Altay Prefecture and Tacheng Prefectures, together with the city of Kuitun, occupy most of the Dzungarian Basin in northern Xinjiang, north of the Borohoro Range. The rest of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture is located entirely within the Ili River Basin, between Borohoro and the main range of Tian Shan. This latter region is exactly coterminous with the historical area that in the past was often called by Russians and Westerners as Kulja or Kuldja (see, e.g. 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article on Kulja) or Ili.
Before the Qin Dynasty, Ili was occupied by the Ussuns, a tributary of the Hun. The Ussuns were driven away in the 6th century A.D. by the northern Xiongnu, who established Western Turk Khanate in 552. Later the Kulja territory became a dependency of Dzungaria. During the Tang Dynasty, the khanate was Anxi Daduhufu (安西大都护府) of the Tang Empire.
The Uyghur Khaganate, and in the 12th century the Kara-Khitai, took possession of it in turn. Genghis Khan conquered Kulja in the 13th century, and the Mongol Khans resided in the valley of the Ili. It is supposed that the Oirats conquered it at the end of the 16th or the beginning of the 17th century.
The Oirats, or more precisely Dzungars, controlled both Dzungaria and the Ili Basin it until 1755 as Zunghar Khanate, when the Manchu-ruled Qing Dynasty under Emperor Qianlong annexed it. Having defeated Dzungars in the Dzunagrian and Ili Basins, as well as the Ishāqī khojas in Kashgaria, the Qing court decided to make the Ili basin the main base of their control in Xinjiang.
In the 1760s, the Qing built nine fortified towns (九城) in the Ili Basin:
|Original Chinese name||Hanzi||Turki (Uyghur) name||Modern name of the location||Notes|
|Huiyuan Cheng||惠远城||Kürä Shahr||Huiyuan town (惠远镇)||Was the residence of the Ili Governor General until 1866, and also known as New Kulja, Manchu Kulja, or Ili at the time.|
|Ningyuan Cheng||宁远城||Kulja (Ghulja)||Yining City||Also was known as Old Kulja or Taranchi Kulja|
|Huining Cheng||惠宁城||Bayandai||Bayandai Township (巴彦岱镇) within Yining City, some 10 to 18  km to the west of the Yining center city|
|Taleqi Cheng||塔勒奇城||Tarchi||Within Huocheng County|
|Zhande Cheng||瞻德城||Chaghan Usu||Qingshuihe Town (清水河镇) in Huocheng County, some 60–70 km (37–43 mi) NW of Yining|
|Guangren Cheng||广仁城||Ukurborosuk||Lucaogou Town (芦草沟镇) in Huocheng County, NE of Qingshuihe|
|Gongchen Cheng||拱宸城||Khorgos||In Huocheng County; was county seat of Huocheng County until 1966|
|Xichun Cheng||熙春城||Khara Bulaq||Area commonly referred to as Chengpanzi (城盘子) in the Hanbin village (汉宾乡) within Yining City, a few km west of the city center|
|Suiding Cheng||绥定城||Ukharliq||County seat of Huocheng County since 1966, some 40 km (25 mi) NW of Yining. Renamed Shuiding Town (水定镇) in 1965||Governor's residence 1883–1912, when it became known as New/Manchu/Chinese Kulja|
Huiyuan Cheng, as the seat of the Ili Governor General (Chinese: 伊犁将军; pinyin: Yīlí Jiāngjūn), who was the chief commander of the Qing troops in entire Xinjiang, became the administrative capital of the region. It was provided with a large penal establishment and strong garrison. This city was called New Kulja, Manhcu Kulja, Chinese Kulja, or Ili by the Russians and Westerners, to distinguish it from Nigyuan/Yining, known as Old Kulja or Taranchi Kulja.
The first Ili Governor General was Ming Rui (明瑞). The Qing tradition, not broken until the days of Zuo Zongtang in the 1870s, was to only appoint Manchus as officials in Xinjiang.
During the insurrection of 1864 the Dungans and the Taranchis formed here the Taranchi Sultanate. Huiyuan (Manchu Kulja) was the last Qing fortress in the Ili Valley to fall to the rebels. The insurgent Dungans massacred most of Manchu Kulja's inhabitants; Governor General Mingsioi (Ming Xü) (明绪) assembled his family and staff in his mansion, and blew it up, dying under its ruins.
The sultanate led to the occupation of the Ili basin (Kulja, in contemporary Western terms) by the Russians in 1871. Ten years later the territory was restored to China, and its boundary with Russia was assigned in accordance to the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881).
On January 7, 1912, Yang Cuanxu (杨缵绪) of Ili occupied Huiyuan (惠远城) and shot the last Qing Governor General of Ili, Zhi Rui (志锐).
Republic of China
In 1949, Ili was made a special area (专区) of Xinjiang, with one city and nine counties, and was upgraded to a city in 1952. On November 27, 1954, the Ili Autonomous Prefecture was established to include the prefectures of Ili, Altay, and Tacheng. The Ili Prefecture was abolished in 1955. Its one city and nine counties are now under the direct control of the autonomous prefecture.
Ili Kazak's 8 functioning ports of entry are:
- With Kazakhstan
- Aqimbek (阿黑木别克) of Altay Prefecture
- Bakhtu (巴克图), 17 km (11 mi) from Tacheng; another primary point or port
- Dulat (都拉塔), in Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County: under Ili
- Jeminay (吉木乃) of Altay Prefecture；another primary point or port
- Khorgas (霍尔果斯), in Huocheng County; under Ili; a primary Chinese "national" border crossing point or port of entry
- Muzart (木扎尔特), in Zhaosu County: directly controlled by Ili; another primary point or port
- With Mongolia
- Henry Lansdell, "Russian Central Asia: Including Kuldja, Bokhara, Khiva and Merv". Full text available at Google Books; there is also a 2001 facsimile reprint of the 1885 edition, ISBN 1-4021-7762-3. (Chapters XIV-XVI describe Lansdell visit to the area in the early 1880s, soon after the Russian withdrawal). (English)
- As per Kim (2004), pp. 54, 229
- Info from Chinese wiki and Yining County Historical Development
- Direct distance from modern maps
- Road distance from Lansdell (1885), p. 190
- Official site (in Simplified Chinese)
- Subdivision info (in Simplified Chinese)
- A TALE OF TWO CITIES: NEW MUSEUMS FOR YINING AND URUMQI "CHINA HERITAGE NEWSLETTER", China Heritage Project, The Australian National University. ISSN 1833-8461. No. 3, September 2005. (Talks about Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture Museum in Yining).
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