|Star anise fruits and seeds (Illicium verum)|
Illicium verum, commonly called star anise, star aniseed, or Chinese star anise is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a medium-sized native evergreen tree of northeast Vietnam and southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening.
Nomenclature and taxonomy
'Illicium' from Latin 'Illicio'=entice. In Persian, star anise is called بادیان bādiyān, hence its French name badiane. In northern India it is called badian khatai. It is said[who?] that its origin is a place called Khata in China.
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient that gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe. Star anise enhances the flavour of meat. It is used as a spice in preparation of biryani and masala chai all over the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, and in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay and Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup.
Star anise has been used in a tea as a traditional remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, star anise is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to Traditional Chinese medicine.
Star anise is the major source of the chemical compound shikimic acid, a primary precursor in the pharmaceutical synthesis of anti-influenza drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu). Shikimic acid is produced by most autotrophic organisms and whilst it can be obtained in commercial quantities from elsewhere, star anise remains the usual industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in the production of Tamiflu. Later that year, a method for the production of shikimic acid using bacteria was discovered. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from the fermentation of E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.
Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. It is also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan.
Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is highly toxic and inedible; in Japan it has instead been burned as incense. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs.The toxicity of Illicium anisatum, also known as Shikimi, is caused by its containing potent neurotoxins (anisatin, neoanisatin, and pseudoanisatin), due to their activity as non-competitive antagonists of GABA receptors.
Standardization of its products and services
- Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia .
Differentiation with other species
Joshi et al. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography to distinguished the species, while Lederer et al. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS.
- ISO 11178:1995 - a specification for its dried fruits
- GB/T 7652:2006 - a Chinese standard of the product
- "Spaghetti Bolognese". In Search of Perfection. BBC Two.
- Wang, G. W.; Hu, W. T.; Huang, B. K.; Qin, L. P. (2011). "Illicium verum: A review on its botany, traditional use, chemistry and pharmacology". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 136 (1): 10–20. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.051. PMID 21549817.
- Bradley, D. . (Dec 2005). "Star role for bacteria in controlling flu pandemic?". Nature reviews. Drug discovery 4 (12): 945–946. doi:10.1038/nrd1917. ISSN 1474-1776. PMID 16370070.
- Krämer, M.; Bongaerts, J.; Bovenberg, R.; Kremer, S.; Müller, U.; Orf, S.; Wubbolts, M.; Raeven, L. (2003). "Metabolic engineering for microbial production of shikimic acid". Metabolic Engineering 5 (4): 277–283. doi:10.1016/j.ymben.2003.09.001. PMID 14642355.
- Johansson, L.; Lindskog, A.; Silfversparre, G.; Cimander, C.; Nielsen, K. F.; Lidén, G. (Dec 2005). "Shikimic acid production by a modified strain of E. Coli (W3110.shik1) under phosphate-limited and carbon-limited conditions". Biotechnology and Bioengineering 92 (5): 541–552. doi:10.1002/bit.20546. ISSN 0006-3592. PMID 16240440.
- Louisa Lim (18 May 2009). "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". NPR.
- Perret, C.; Tabin, R.; Marcoz, J. -P.; Llor, J.; Cheseaux, J. -J. (2011). "Malaise du nourrisson pensez à une intoxication à l'anis étoilé". Archives de Pédiatrie 18 (7): 750–753. doi:10.1016/j.arcped.2011.03.024. PMID 21652187. ("Apparent life-threatening event in infants: think about star anise intoxication!")
- International Organization for Standardization. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -- Botanical nomenclature". Retrieved 8 June 2009.
- Joshi, Vaishali C.; Ragone, S; Bruck, IS; Bernstein, JN; Duchowny, M; Peña, BM (2005). "Rapid and easy identification of Illicium verum Hook. f. and its adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. by fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography". Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. PMID 16001842. Retrieved 10 November 2007.
- Lederer, Ines; Schulzki, G; Gross, J; Steffen, JP (2006). "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS methods. Approach to a rational quality control of Chinese star anise". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970–1974. doi:10.1021/jf058156b. PMID 16536563.
- International Organization for Standardization. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. f.) -- Specification". Retrieved 8 June 2009.
- 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". Retrieved 8 June 2009.
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