Illinois Senate elections of Barack Obama

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Barack Obama won three Illinois Senate elections. The Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama began in 1997 after his first election in 1996 to a two-year term in the Illinois Senate representing Illinois' 13th Legislative District in Chicago. He was re-elected in 1998 to a four-year term and re-elected again in 2002 to another four-year term. He resigned from the Illinois Senate in 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate. He resigned from the U.S. Senate following his election in 2008 to become the 44th President of the United States in 2009.

First state Senate election, 1996[edit]

Palmer announces noncandidacy[edit]

In August 1994, Republican Cook County State's Attorney Jack O'Malley announced the indictment of first-term U.S. Rep. Mel Reynolds (D-2) of South Shore and newspapers reported that while Reynolds was unopposed on the general election ballot and would be re-elected in November 1994, state Sen. Alice Palmer (D-13) of South Shore would be the front runner for Reynolds' seat in 1996—or earlier if he was convicted and a special election was held.[1]

In October 1994, 29-year-old Jesse Jackson, Jr. of South Shore was reported to have moved a few blocks into the 2nd Congressional District and to be considering running for Reynolds' seat in 1996.[2] After re-election in November 1994 to a four-year state Senate term, state Senate minority leader Emil Jones, Jr. (D-14) of Morgan Park was reported to also be considering the possibility of running for Reynolds' seat in 1996.[3][4]

On November 21, 1994, Alice Palmer announced she was launching a campaign committee to raise funds to run for Reynolds' congressional seat in 1996, and suggested that Jesse Jackson, Jr. run for her state Senate seat in 1996 instead of running against her for Congress.[5]

On June 27, 1995, Palmer announced she was running for Congress and would be giving up her state Senate seat instead of running for re-election in 1996.[6] The following week newspapers reported that Palmer-supporter Barack Obama of Hyde Park—who had been announced as chairman of the $49.2 million Chicago Annenberg Challenge on June 22 and whose memoir Dreams from My Father would be published on July 18—would announce he was running and would be a front-runner for Palmer's state Senate seat; Obama began fundraising in July, created a campaign committee on August 7 and filed its statement of organization on September 5.[7] Before entering the race, Obama spoke to about 30 elected officials in the district.[8]

On September 11, 1995, Illinois Governor Jim Edgar set November 28 as the date for a special primary election to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Mel Reynolds following his August 1995 conviction.[9] The timing would allow state office holders whose terms expired in January 1997, like state Rep. Monique Davis (D-27) of Beverly, to run in the November 1995 special primary election, and if unsuccessful, still have time to file nominating petitions by the December 18 deadline for the March 1996 general primary election for re-election to their current state offices.[10]

The September 13, 1995 Hyde Park Herald reported that state Sen. Palmer, whose term also expired in January 1997, "may have the most to lose. If unsuccessful in the congressional race, any plans she makes to reclaim her senate seat are likely to be unpopular with her progressive constituents. ... Palmer is committed to the congressional race, according to sources close to her campaign, and has no plans to try and recapture her senate seat if her bid is unsuccessful. The chances of Palmer re-filing for her senate seat are further reduced by the fact that one of her supporters, Barack Obama, is expected to announce his candidacy for her senate post next week."[10]

Obama, Askia, Ewell announce candidacies[edit]

At 6 p.m. on September 19, 1995—the first day of the thirteen-week period in which candidates could circulate nominating petitions to earn a place on the ballot for the March 1996 primary—34-year-old Barack Obama announced his candidacy for Palmer's state Senate seat to a standing-room-only audience of 200 supporters at the Ramada Inn Lakeshore at 4900 S. Lake Shore Drive in Hyde Park-Kenwood, Chicago in the same room where thirteen years earlier Harold Washington had announced his successful run for Mayor of Chicago.[11] Palmer introduced and endorsed Obama as her successor to supporters that included 4th Ward Ald. Toni Preckwinkle of Hyde Park, newly elected 5th Ward Ald. Barbara Holt of Hyde Park, state Rep. Barbara Flynn Currie (D-25) of Hyde Park, Cook County Clerk David Orr of Rogers Park, and many other politicians.[11]

The October 25, 1995 Hyde Park Herald reported that two other first-time candidates, Gha-is Askia and Marc Ewell, had announced the previous week that they were also running for the state Senate seat Palmer was giving up.[12]

  • Gha-is F. Askia of South Shore was a 39-year-old Black Muslim assistant to W. Deen Mohammed and a close friend of Muhammad Ali (who would host a fundraiser for him in November) and had been a special assistant to Democratic Illinois Attorney General Roland Burris and was kept on as a community affairs liaison under Republican Illinois Attorney General Jim Ryan after campaigning for Ryan and Republican Illinois Governor Jim Edgar in 1994.[12][13] Askia had campaigned for the re-election of U.S. Sen. Alan Dixon of Belleville over Carol Moseley-Braun of South Shore in the 1992 Democratic primary, supported the appointment of Clarence Thomas to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1991, and had campaigned for the re-election of Chicago city treasurer Miriam Santos of Lake View over four-term 5th Ward Ald. Larry Bloom of Hyde Park in the 1995 Democratic primary.[12] Askia was endorsed by state Sen. Emil Jones, Jr. (D-14) of Morgan Park, state Rep. Connie Howard (D-32) of Chatham, Chicago city treasurer Miriam Santos of Lake View, and Harold Washington Party chairman David Reed of Hyde Park.[12]
  • Marc Ewell of Chatham was the 30-year-old youngest son of former eight-term state Rep. Raymond W. Ewell of Chatham—a regular Democrat who had represented part of the 13th District for sixteen years (1967–1983) until losing a close Democratic primary race in 1982 to state Rep. Barbara Flynn Currie of Hyde Park, an independent Democrat, after redistricting had thrown the two incumbents into the same representative district.[12][14] Ewell said he had been "born, raised, and educated in the 13th District" before going to Howard University in Washington, D.C., and had become a property inspector for a private real estate firm in 1995 after three years as a staff assistant to U.S. Sen. Carol Moseley-Braun.[12] Ewell had worked on the campaigns of his father and Carol Moseley-Braun as well as those of Cook County Board president John Stroger, the late state Sen. Charles Chew, state Rep. Charles Morrow (D-26), and 17th Ward Ald. Allan Streeter.[12]

An October 29, 1995 Sunday Chicago Sun-Times article about circulating nominating petitions—legally required to demonstrate a candidate has enough support from registered voters to be on the ballot with signatures that can withstand challenges by rival candidates—quoted Obama's campaign manager Carol Anne Harwell on the importance of volunteers, precinct captains, and campaign aides doing the thankless but essential job of circulating nominating petitions.[15]

By late October 1995—after five of the ten Democrats who had filed to run in the special primary election for Reynolds' vacated congressional seat had been eliminated following challenges to their nominating petitions—polls showed Alice Palmer had dropped to a distant third behind Jesse Jackson, Jr. and state Sen. Emil Jones, Jr., which caused Palmer's fundraising to dry up in the final month of the campaign after having raised over $200,000 during the preceding twelve months.[16]

On November 7, 1995, the condition of Obama's mother Ann Dunham—who had been diagnosed with metastatic uterine cancer and had undergone chemotherapy—acutely worsened and she was hospitalized in Honolulu and not able to respond when Obama's maternal half-sister Maya Soetoro arrived, and their mother died that night.[17] Obama arrived in his native Honolulu the following day and said a decade later that his mother's death at the age of 52 was the worst experience of his life and cited as his biggest mistake not getting to Honolulu in time to be at her bedside when she died.[17] Obama remained in Honolulu for his mother's private memorial service and returned to Chicago soon after.[17]

On November 28, 1995, after finishing a distant third in the 2nd Congressional District special primary election behind the winner, 30-year-old Jesse Jackson, Jr., and 60-year-old Emil Jones, Jr., and dismayed at receiving only 2,917 votes in Chicago and 3,426 votes in suburban Cook County, a disappointed 56-year-old Alice Palmer told a small gathering at a Harvey hotel that she wouldn't seek re-election to the state Senate and was undecided about entering the March 1996 primary for the 2nd Congressional District seat.[18]

Lynch, Palmer announce candidacies[edit]

On December 4, 1995, some Palmer supporters—led by Northwestern University professor Adolph L. Reed, Jr. who had recently moved to South Shore, Northeastern Illinois University associate professor Robert T. Starks of South Shore, and 77-year-old City Colleges of Chicago professor emeritus Timuel D. Black, Jr. of Grand Crossing—began a draft movement to persuade her to run again for her state Senate seat after learning she was keeping a promise to back "a relatively unknown African-American attorney."[19]

The December 8, 1995 Chicago Reader cover story was a laudatory eight-page profile of Obama that noted Palmer's endorsement of Obama and her promise not to run against him if she lost the November 28 special primary election for Reynolds' vacated congressional seat.[20]

On December 11, 1995—the first filing day for nominating petitions—Obama filed his nominating petitions with over 3,000 signatures; perennial unsuccessful candidate Ulmer D. Lynch, Jr. also filed nominating petitions for the 13th District state Senate seat.[21]

  • Ulmer D. Lynch, Jr. of Englewood was a 69-year-old former building manager, ex-city laborer, and former precinct captain in regular Democratic committeeman William Shannon's 17th Ward organization before he broke with Shannon and ran unsuccessfully against him for alderman in 1967 and subsequently regularly ran unsuccessfully for alderman and Democratic ward committeeman from the 17th Ward (and later the 16th Ward) and occasionally ran unsuccessfully for state representative.[22]

On December 18, 1995—the last filing day for nominating petitions—Palmer held a press conference at Harper's Banquet Hall in Woodlawn to announce she was running for re-election to the state Senate, accepting a draft by over 100 supporters including Mark S. Allen of Englewood (Jesse Jackson Jr.'s campaign strategist and his successor as Rainbow/Push Coalition national field director), journalist-activist Lu Palmer of Bronzeville, SEIU Local 73 president Tom Balanoff, state Sen. Emil Jones, Jr. (D-14) of Morgan Park, state Sen. Donne Trotter (D-15) of South Chicago, state Sen. Arthur Berman (D-9) of Edgewater, state Sen. Miguel del Valle (D-2) of Humboldt Park, state Rep. Lovana "Lou" Jones (D-5) of Douglas, and 5th Ward Ald. Barbara Holt of Hyde Park (the only local elected official reported to have switched their endorsement from Obama to Palmer).[23][24][25] Palmer then drove to Springfield to file nominating petitions with almost 1,600 signatures she said her supporters had gathered in ten days; also filing nominating petitions on the last filing day were Askia and Ewell.[23][24][25]

Palmer had originally endorsed Obama to fill her seat, but changed her mind, she said, because of the tremendous support and draft by constituents.[25] "I had said I would help someone else and that is one of the reasons I was reluctant but the draft was so big," Palmer stated.[25]

Obama said he was disappointed that Palmer had decided to run for re-election because it was partly based on her endorsement that he had decided to run.[23] He said several months ago, Palmer asked him for his support of her congressional candidacy.[24] "Aware of her reputation for integrity and her progressive views on the issues, I wholeheartedly agreed," Obama said.[24] "On Sept. 19, based on Palmer's insistence that she was not running for state senator in the event she lost as well as her enthusiastic support, I announced that I would run for the Senate," Obama said.[24]

On December 20, 1995, after consulting with his supporters, Obama confirmed that he was staying in the race.[26] "I've made a commitment to a great number of volunteers ... people who've gone out on cold days and circulated petitions, raised funds on my behalf and after talking to them, they feel very strongly that we're talking about the right issues. We offer a vision for the future," Obama said.[26]

Nominating petition challenges[edit]

On December 26, 1995—the last day to file challenges—Barack Obama supporter Ron Davis filed objections to the legitimacy of the nominating petitions of state Sen. Palmer, and to those of Askia, Ewell and Lynch; a week later hearings began to determine whether their names would be on the ballot for the March 19 primary election.[27][28] The January 10, 1996 Hyde Park Herald reported that after conducting checks the previous week, the Chicago Board of Election Commissioners' initial findings indicated that all four would-be opponents of Obama, including incumbent state Sen. Palmer, may not have the required number of valid nominating petition signatures.[29] Obama was endorsed by the New Party—a small, progressive party that has since dissolved.[30] On January 13, Obama received the endorsement of the Independent Voters of Illinois-Independent Precinct Organization (IVI-IPO).[31] On January 17, 1996—thirty days after her surprise announcement that she was running for re-election—Palmer announced she was withdrawing her bid for re-election because she was left with only 561 valid signatures on her nominating petitions, 196 short of the required 757 valid signatures needed to earn a place on the ballot after almost two-thirds of the 1,580 signatures on her nominating petitions were found to be invalid.[28][32]

The Chicago Board of Election Commissioners had previously sustained an objection to the nominating petitions of Lynch because of insufficient valid signatures, and subsequently sustained objections to the nominating petitions of Askia—who was left with only 688 valid signatures on his nominating petitions, 69 short of the required 757 valid signatures after almost two-thirds of the 1,899 signatures on his nominating petitions were found to be invalid, and Ewell—who was left with only 671 valid signatures on his nominating petitions, 86 short of the required 757 valid signatures after almost half of the 1,286 signatures on his nominating petitions were found to be invalid.[28][32] Lynch and Ewell, in separate federal lawsuits, unsuccessfully sued the Chicago Board of Election Commissioners seeking to reverse its decision to remove their names from the ballot.[28][33]

Primary and general elections[edit]

In the March 19, 1996 primary election, Obama, running unopposed on the ballot, received 16,279 votes in winning the Democratic nomination for state Senator for the 13th District.[34] The citywide turnout of 35% was a then record low for a presidential primary election in Chicago and down from 56% in 1992.[35]

In September 1996, the Hyde Park Herald reported that, according to the Illinois State Board of Elections, Obama would face two challengers on the November general election ballot: Harold Washington Party candidate David Whitehead and Republican Party candidate Rosette Caldwell Peyton.[36]

  • David Whitehead of West Englewood was a 61-year-old perennial unsuccessful candidate who had been a homebuilder, real estate broker and salesman, and beginning in 1983 had run unsuccessfully five times for alderman from the 15th Ward, run unsuccessfully in the 1990 Democratic Party primary for state representative, and run unsuccessfully as a Harold Washington Party candidate for Cook County commissioner in 1994.
  • Rosette Caldwell Peyton of South Shore was a 67-year-old first-time candidate who had been a teacher at Kozminski Community Academy in Hyde Park.

In October 1996, the Chicago Tribune and the Chicago Sun-Times both endorsed Obama for state Senate.[37]

In the November 5, 1996 general election, Democratic Party candidate Obama was elected state Senator for the 13th District with 48,592 votes (82.15%); Harold Washington Party candidate David Whitehead received 7,461 votes (12.61%); and Republican Party candidate Rosette Caldwell Peyton received 3,091 votes (5.22%).[38] The citywide turnout of 63% was the record low for a presidential general election in Chicago and was down from 74.5% in 1992.[39] The 1996 election was the last in Illinois to allow straight-ticket voting.[40]

On January 8, 1997, Obama was sworn in for a two-year term as state Senator for the 13th District, which was then a T-shaped district that spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from 47th Street in Hyde Park-Kenwood south through South Shore to 81st Street and from the lakefront west through Chicago Lawn (on the north side of Marquette Park) to Central Park Avenue (3600 W).[41]

Second state Senate election, 1998[edit]

In the March 17, 1998 primary election, Obama, running unopposed on the ballot, received 16,792 votes in winning the Democratic nomination for state Senator for the 13th District, and Yesse B. Yehudah, also running unopposed on the ballot, received 401 votes in winning the Republican nomination.[42]

  • Yesse Ben Yehudah of South Shore was the 50-year-old founder and executive director of F.O.R.U.M (Fulfilling Our Responsibilities Unto Mankind).[43]

In October 1998, the Chicago Tribune and the Chicago Sun-Times again both endorsed Obama for state Senate.[44]

In the November 3, 1998 general election, Democratic Party candidate Obama was re-elected to a four-year term as state Senator for the 13th District with 45,486 votes (89.17%); Republican Party candidate Yesse Yehudah received 5,526 (10.83%).[45]

Third state Senate election, 2002[edit]

On September 5, 2001, Democrats won a lottery that added a tie-breaking ninth member (Michael Bilandic) to the bipartisan state Legislative Redistricting Commission, which on September 25, 2001 by a 5–4 party-line vote approved the Democratic map called "Currie II as amended by the Bilandic Amendment" after its Legislative Redistricting Commission member authors, state Rep. Barbara Flynn Currie (D-25) of Hyde Park and former Chicago Mayor Bilandic.[46][47]

After redistricting, the new 13th District spanned Chicago lakefront neighborhoods from Goethe Street (1300 N) in the Gold Coast south through South Chicago to 98th Street in the Vets Park neighborhood of South Deering; with a Census 2000 total population that was 66% black (voting age population 62% black), versus a Census 2000 total population that was 77% black in the old 13th District.[47][48]

In the March 19, 2002 primary election, Obama, running unopposed on the ballot, received 30,938 votes in winning the Democratic nomination for state Senator for the new 13th District.[49]

In the November 5, 2002 general election, Democratic Party candidate Obama, running unopposed on the ballot, was re-elected to a four-year term as state Senator for the new 13th District with 48,717 votes.[50]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Neal, Steve (1993-12-28). "Weak field puts Reynolds in front". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 17. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Elsner, David; Carlozo, Lou (1994-03-16). "Weller, Giglio win bids in 11th District; Democrat edges Balanoff by under 600 votes". Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Metro). Retrieved 2009-01-23. "In the 2nd Congressional District, which cuts through the South Side of Chicago and some south suburbs, incumbent U.S. Rep. Mel Reynolds won renomination on the Democratic ticket, easily beating back challenges from state Sen. William Shaw and Chicago Ald. Allan Streeter (17th)." 
    Fegelman, Andrew; Becker, Robert (1994-08-20). "Reynolds indicted in teen sex scandal". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Neal, Steve (1994-08-29). "Palmer could be contender in 2nd". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 23. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Sneed, Michael (1994-09-15). "Hmmm . . .". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 2. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  2. ^ Sneed, Michael (1994-10-16). "Tipsville . . .". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 2. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Talbott, Basil; Briggs, Michael (1994-11-07). "Jesse Jackson Jr. mulls run for Reynolds' seat". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 12. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Thomas, Jerry (1995-05-26). "Like his father, Jesse Jackson Jr. has his supporters and detractors, but all must admit: The son is rising". Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Tempo). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  3. ^ Neal, Steve (1994-12-12). "Emil Jones considers run for treasurer". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 23. Retrieved 2009-01-23. "Jones said that he has about $750,000 in his campaign fund. If Jones doesn't run for city treasurer, he's also evaluating a 1996 bid for Congress in the 2nd District. State Sen. Alice Palmer is viewed as the early favorite to oust the beleaguered Mel Reynolds in the '96 2nd District primary" 
  4. ^ State Sen. Emil Jones, Jr., state Democratic central committeeman for the 2nd Congressional District, had finished second to four-term incumbent U.S. Rep Gus Savage (D-2)—but ahead of third-place first-time candidate Mel Reynolds—in the 1988 Democratic primary.
  5. ^ Bey, Lee (1994-11-09). "Reynolds is sure he's the winner". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 5. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Davis, Robert (1994-11-15). "Once again, write-ins are paper tigers". Chicago Tribune. p. 6 (Chicagoland). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Kuczka, Susan (1994-11-22). "State Sen. Palmer ponders a bid for Reynolds' 2nd District post". Chicago Tribune. p. 2. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Neal, Steve (1994-11-25). "Palmer beats Jackson Jr. to punch". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 49. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Rhodes, Steve (May 2005). "What does Junior want?". Chicago Magazine: pp. 80–83, 102–109, 111–112. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Neal, Steve (1995-01-11). "Palmer clouds Reynolds' political future". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 29. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Fornek, Scott (1995-05-08). "Rivals targeting Reynolds' job; Huge field expected to enter race". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 6. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  6. ^ Hardy, Thomas (1995-06-28). "Palmer seeks to replace Reynolds; 'Pray for him, vote for me,' legislator says". Chicago Tribune. p. 3. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  7. ^ Knapp, Kevin (1995-07-05). "Alice Palmer to run for Reynolds' seat". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. "Talk of who might replace Palmer, assuming she wins the race, has already begun. One front-runner might be Palmer-supporter Barack Obama, an attorney with a background in community organization and voter registration efforts. Obama, who has lived 'in and out' of Hyde Park for 10 years, is currently serving as chairman of the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge. Obama said that even though the election would be years away, 'I am seriously exploring that campaign.'" 
    Hevrdejs, Judy; Conklin, Mike (1995-07-07). "Hevrdejs & Conklin INC. Something different, Democrats don't add a Senate candidate". Chicago Tribune. p. 20. Retrieved 2009-01-23. "Polpourri: . . . Barack Obama will announce he's running for the state Senate seat occupied by Alice Palmer, who's running for Reynolds' U.S. congressional seat. Obama, who has worked with Palmer, is an attorney at Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland and newly published author of Dreams from My Father." 
    Mitchell, Monica (1995-08-23). "Son finds inspiration in the dreams of his father". Hyde Park Herald. p. 10. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Illinois State Board of Elections (2005). "Friends of Barack Obama - state political committee 6406". Illinois State Board of Elections. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  8. ^ Frolik, Joe (1996-08-03). "Chicago - A newcomer to the business of politics has seen enough to reach some conclusions about restoring voters' trust". The Plain Dealer. p. 1A. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  9. ^ O'Donnell, Maureen (1995-07-19). "Reynolds witness sticks to her denial". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 3. Retrieved 2009-01-23. "her attorney said today at the opening of Reynolds' trial." 
    Neal, Steve (1995-07-30). "2nd District race may get crowded". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 27. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Gibson, Ray (1995-08-03). "Reynolds' foe already has raised $51,000 toward her '96 campaign". Chicago Tribune. p. 3 (Metro). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Possley, Maurice; Kendall, Peter (1995-08-23). "Reynolds guilty on all counts; Mandatory prison term will be at least 4 years". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Hardy, Thomas (1995-08-23). "Candidates line up for Reynolds' spot". Chicago Tribune. p. 6. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Fornek, Scott (1995-08-27). "Crush of candidates keeps the 2nd hopping". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 20. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Hardy, Thomas; Becker, Robert (1995-09-02). "Reynolds on live TV: I quit; Congressman vents anger at Heard, media". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Callahan, Patricia; Haynes, V. Dion (1995-09-03). "Line to succeed Reynolds is running out the door". Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Chicagoland). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Hardy, Thomas (1995-09-09). "Reynolds gets around to making resignation official". Chicago Tribune. p. 5. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    O'Donnell, Maureen (1995-09-10). "Jackson Jr. rips O'Malley, launches bid for Congress". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 15. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Grumman, Cornelia (1995-09-10). "Jackson wears name proudly; Dad on hand to launch bid for Reynolds' seat". Chicago Tribune. p. 7 (Chicagoland). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Pearson, Rick; Locin, Mitchell (1995-09-12). "Voting set on successor to Reynolds; November 28 primary OKd; filing to begin October 2". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Fornek, Scott (1995-09-15). "Sen. Jones is joining the pack; Will bid for Reynolds’ House seat". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 6. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  10. ^ a b Knapp, Kevin (1995-09-13). "Politicians scramble in wake of Reynolds resignation". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  11. ^ a b Axelrod, David (1992-11-11). "Washington in race for mayor". Chicago Tribune. p. A1. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
    . (1990-11-16). "Hyde Park Hilton to be Ramada Inn". Chicago Tribune. p. 2 (Business). Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
    Strausberg, Chinta (1995-09-19). "Harvard lawyer eyes Palmer seat". Chicago Defender. p. 3. 
    Mitchell, Monica (1995-10-04). "Hyde Parker announces run for state senate seat". Hyde Park Herald. p. 3. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Knapp, Kevin (1995-10-25). "Local senate race heats up". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  13. ^ Neal, Steve (1992-02-05). "Black Muslim leader to endorse Dixon". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 29. Retrieved 2009-01-23.  Sneed, Michael (1993-01-17). "Sneed". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 2. Retrieved 2009-01-23. "Box 'em . . . An update on boxer Muhammad Ali, spotted by a Sneed source passing out Muslim religious literature outside a Las Vegas hotel—and unable to sign autographs. "Most of the time that's not the case," said Gha-is Askia, who says he's a close friend." 
    Hirsley, Michael (1994-05-20). "Islam pilgrimage goal of a lifetime". Chicago Tribune. p. 9 (Chicagoland). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Neal, Steve (1994-09-28). "Burris pals lining up for Edgar". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 49. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Hevrdejs, Judy; Conklin, Mike (1995-06-16). "Hevrdejs & Conklin INC. Changing Of guard in schools puts Daley staff at head of class". Chicago Tribune. p. 28. Retrieved 2009-01-23. "Groundbreaker: No one we talked to can remember a Muslim getting elected to the Illinois Senate, but that's the goal of Gha-is F. Askia, who's holding a funder Saturday in the American Islamic College here. Askia works in Atty. Gen. Jim Ryan's office, but will run as a Dem for Alice Palmer's seat in the 13th District. Palmer is challenging U.S. Rep. Mel Reynolds. An Askia rep was quick to tell us their man is not associated with Louis Farrakhan." 
  14. ^ . (1964-03-05). "Board upheld in cutting 2 from ballot". Chicago Tribune. p. C6. Retrieved 2009-01-23.  The Illinois Circuit Court of Cook County dismissed the suit of 17th Ward Democratic committeeman candidate Raymond W. Ewell seeking reinstatement to the ballot after the Chicago Board of Election Commissioners removed his name from the April 14, 1964 primary ballot due to insufficient valid signatures after a rival successfully challenged the legitimacy of his nominating petitions.
    Axelrod, David (1982-02-15). "Hyde Park is focus of key primary battle". Chicago Tribune. p. 11. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Locin, Mitchell; Egler, Daniel (1982-03-18). "2 in Senate, 12 in House ousted". Chicago Tribune. p. 15. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  15. ^ Fornek, Scott (1995-10-29). "Foot soldiers for the '96 elections". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 14. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  16. ^ Morales, Carlos (1995-10-08). "Petitions due to fill vacancy from Reynolds". Chicago Tribune. p. 2 (Metro). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Pearson, Rick (1995-10-10). "14 candidates petition to run for seat Reynolds vacated". Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Metro). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Fornek, Scott (1995-10-11). "Jones wins top ballot spot in special election". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 18. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    . (1995-10-17). "Petitions challenged in 2nd District race". Chicago Tribune. p. 3 (Metro). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Neal, Steve (1995-10-27). "Palmer drops to 3rd in 2nd District race". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 37. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Fornek, Scott (1995-11-01). "Palmer says she's not worried about polls". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 6. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Esters-Brown, Joanne (1995-11-22). "2nd District debate turns into mudslinger". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2011-11-28. "Palmer was the first to announce her bid for the seat, even before Reynolds' problems began to surface. Palmer, gambling her current political office, which she has to give up to run for the 2nd District, ..." 
    Briggs, Michael (1995-11-28). "Jones gets big boost of money at the end". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 9. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Knapp, Kevin (1995-11-29). "Another entry in state Senate race". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2011-11-28. "The 13th district will also be up for grabs in the November 1996 election. Current senator Alice Palmer, who is running for Congress, has said she not run for re-election to her state seat regardless of the result of the special congressional election on November 29. Three candidates have announced their intentions to run for Palmer's job: Hyde Parker Barack Obama, Marc Ewell and Gha-is Askia." 
  17. ^ a b c Maraniss, David (2008-08-22). "Though Obama had to leave it to find himself, it is Hawaii that made his rise possible". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Fornek, Scott (2004-03-01). "Barack Obama". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 6. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  18. ^ Hardy, Thomas; Rubin, Bonnie Miller (1995-11-29). "Jesse Jackson Jr. rolls over veteran opponents; Somer wins GOP primary". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. "A disappointed Palmer told a small gathering at a Harvey hotel that she wouldn't seek re-election to the state Senate and was undecided about entering the March primary for the 2nd District seat." 
  19. ^ Strausberg, Chinta (1995-12-05). "Draft Palmer campaign launched". Chicago Defender. p. 4. 
    Knapp, Kevin (1995-12-13). "Palmer may re-enter state Senate race". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  20. ^ De Zutter, Hank (1995-12-08). "What makes Obama run? Lawyer, teacher, philanthropist, and author Barack Obama doesn't need another career. But he's entering politics to get back to his true passion—community organization". Chicago Reader. pp. 1, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Askia, Gha-is (1995-12-15). "Letter to the editor: Up against Obama". Chicago Reader. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  21. ^ Knapp, Kevin (1995-12-13). "List of next year's candidates is sparse". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  22. ^ . (1963-07-31). "Murphy quits 17th Ward post of Democrats". Chicago Tribune. p. C11. "William T. Murphy, congressman for the southwest side 3rd District has resigned as 17th ward Democratic committeeman and will be succeeded by William H. Shannon, the ward organization secretary." 
    Kling, William (1967-01-15). "Lar Daly (0-26) files to run against Daley in Dem primary". Chicago Tribune. p. 10. Retrieved 2009-01-23. "Aldermanic candidates, by wards, whose nominating petitions have been challenged are: ... 17th, Bennie Guthrie, Oscar H. Haynes, John R. Porter, and Ulmer D. Lynch, Jr., ..." 
    Elmer, John (1967-02-05). "Expect Negro gains in Council races". Chicago Tribune. p. R1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. "In now state Sen. Chew's old ward, the 17th Democratic ward committeeman William H. Shannon is a heavy favorite. He faces four other candidates. They are ... and Ulmer D. Lynch Jr." 
    . (1967-03-01). "City Council winners named". Chicago Tribune. p. 2. Retrieved 2009-01-23. "17th Ward. William R. Shannon [D.], 6,369; John R. Porter, 1,090; Gertrude Jones, 853; Ulmer D. Lynch Jr., 678; Oscar H. Hayes, 226." 
    Zahour, Frank (1975-03-13). "Two long-time political rivals to meet in 17th Ward aldermanic runoff". Chicago Tribune. p. S1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. "Ald. William Shannon, 58, a real estate broker who was first elected to the City Council in 1967, is going for a third term. Ulmer Lynch, 48, a former building manager and ex-city employee, is out to stop him." 
    Fremon, David K. (1988). "17th Ward". Chicago politics, ward by ward. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 120–123. ISBN 0-253-31344-9. 
  23. ^ a b c Hardy, Thomas (1995-12-19). "Jackson foe now wants old job back; Palmer must now battle own endorsee". Chicago Tribune. p. 3 (Metro). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    . (1995-12-19). "State Senator Alice J. Palmer announces run for re-election". South Street Journal. p. 9. Retrieved 2009-01-23.  The Committee to Re-elect Alice Palmer also included: retired state Sen. Ethel Skyles Alexander, Dr. Sydney Bild, Bernice Bild, University of Chicago Assoc. Prof. Michael Dawson, UIC Prof. Cedric Herring, Frank Mason, Louis Pardo, Edna Pardo, UIC Prof. David Ranney, Olive-Harvey College Prof. Harold Rogers, Lois Anne Rosen, University of Chicago Prof. Kenneth Warren, and Betty Willhoite.
    Knapp, Kevin (1995-12-20). "Palmer caught in campaign draft". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Knapp, Kevin (1995-12-20). "Candidates file petitions for local political offices". Hyde Park Herald. p. 2. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Hevrdejs, Judy; Conklin, Mike (1995-12-25). "Hevrdejs & Conklin INC. Early Christmas for Bill Melton: the gift of life". Chicago Tribune. p. 2. Retrieved 2009-01-23. "Reverse play: Now that state Sen. Alice Palmer has flip-flopped and decided to run for her old job after losing to Jesse Jackson Jr. in a congressional race, she has given Barack Obama a perfect rallying cry. Obama is the highly qualified Chicago lawyer Palmer had endorsed for the Senate seat. "Since she endorsed me, I can always use, `Even my opponent wants me' as a campaign slogan," Obama said." 
  24. ^ a b c d e Strausberg, Chinta (1995-12-19). "Palmer OKs draft to run for re-election". Chicago Defender. p. 3. 
  25. ^ a b c d Walls, Sunya (1995-12-25). "Alice Palmer decides to run for re-election". Chicago Weekend. p. 2. 
  26. ^ a b Strausberg, Chinta (1995-12-21). "Palmer challenger says he won't step aside in race". Chicago Defender. p. 3. 
  27. ^ Morales, Carlos (1995-12-24). "Candidates prepare to wage battles over nominating petitions". Chicago Tribune. p. 2 (Metro). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Knapp, Kevin (1996-01-03). "Candidates face petition challenges". Hyde Park Herald. p. 3. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  28. ^ a b c d Castillo, Ruben (U.S. District Judge) (1996-03-04). Marc Ewell, Plaintiff, v. Board of Election Commissioners, Michael J. Hamblet, Chairman, Defendants. v. Barack Obama and Ronald Davis, Intervening Defendants. No. 96 C 823. U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division. 
  29. ^ Knapp, Kevin (1996-01-10). "Petition challenges shape political ballot". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Sneed, Michael (1996-01-11). "Sneed". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 4. Retrieved 2009-01-23. "Scoopsville . . . It's a shocker: Watch for state Sen. Alice Palmer to be knocked off the ballot in her re-election bid. Why? Palmer, who just lost a bid to capture former U.S. Rep. Mel Reynolds' seat to Jesse Jackson Jr., did not have enough valid signatures on her nominating petition. (She needed 757 valid signatures and sources say she is going to be a couple of hundred short.) Unbelievable." 
  30. ^ New Party (March 1996). "March update". Brooklyn, N.Y.: New Party. Archived from the original on 1997-07-09. Retrieved 2012-07-08. "We're also backing Danny Davis in a Congressional race, Barack Obama for state representative, and judicial candidate Patricia Martin." 
    Nichols, John (January 2009). "How to push Obama". The Progressive 73 (1): 20–23. ISSN 0033-0736. Retrieved 2012-07-08. "I first covered Obama a dozen years ago, when he was running for the Illinois state senate as a candidate endorsed by the New Party, the labor-left movement of the mid-1990s that declared "the social, economic, and political progress of the United States requires a democratic revolution in America-the return of power to the people." When we spoke together at New Party events in those days, he was blunt about his desire to move the Democratic Party off the cautious center where Bill Clinton had wedged it." 
  31. ^ Oclander, Jorge (1995-04-02). "Loss of clout dims IVI-IPO's fate". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 22. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    . (1995-11-08). "IVI-IPO endorses Palmer for 2nd District seat". Hyde Park Herald. p. 3. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Knapp, Kevin (1996-01-17). "Primary ballot gets face-lift from board". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Knapp, Kevin (1996-01-31). "Local independent voters still divided". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2011-11-28. "Palmer's decision to seek reelection split the small army of Hyde Park's independent voters into two camps. While a few IVI/IPO stalwarts, including Ald. Barbara Holt (5th) chose to back Palmer's rushed reelection campaign, many chose instead to support candidate Barack Obama—just as Palmer had urged them to do last September when Obama first announced he was seeking Palmer's job." 
    Mendelson, Saul; Friedberg-Dobry, Louise (1996-02-07). "Letters to the editor: Independents defend their pre-election work". Hyde Park Herald. p. 4. Retrieved 2011-11-28. 
  32. ^ a b Ryan, Nancy; Hardy, Thomas (1996-01-18). "Sen. Palmer ends bid for re-election". Chicago Tribune. p. 6 (Metro). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    . (1996-01-18). "Area Briefs". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 14. Retrieved 2009-01-23. "Palmer out again. State Sen. Alice J. Palmer (D-Chicago) did another political about-face Wednesday, canceling her on-again, off-again re-election plans. The South Shore Democrat said she was withdrawing to avoid losing a legal challenge to the nominating petitions she filed with the state Board of Elections. In a surprise move, Palmer, 56, announced last month that she would seek re-election, a reversal of an earlier decision to step down after she lost the election for the congressional seat vacated by Mel Reynolds. Her re-entry prompted supporters of rival Democrat Barack Obama, 34, whom Palmer had previously endorsed, to file the objection to her petitions." 
    Strausberg, Chinta (1996-01-18). "Palmer throws in the towel; Lack of signatures forcing State Senator not to seek re-election". Chicago Defender. p. 3. 
    Walls, Sunya (1996-01-21). "Alice Palmer withdraws from race for re-election". Chicago Weekend. p. 3. 
    Knapp, Kevin (1996-01-24). "Final primary ballot takes shape". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Jackson, David; Long, Ray (2007-04-03). "Obama knows his way around a ballot". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  33. ^ Knapp, Kevin (1996-02-21). "Ex-candidates sue election board". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Knapp, Kevin (1996-02-28). "Court rules candidate off ballot". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  34. ^ . (1996-03-21). "Illinois Senate". Chicago Tribune. p. 4 (Metro). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Knapp, Kevin (1996-03-27). "Election day yields a few surprises". Hyde Park Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Illinois State Board of Elections (1996). State of Illinois Official Vote Cast at the Primary Election, General Primary, March 19, 1996. Springfield: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 109. OCLC 4960540. 
    Chicago Democracy Project (2005). "Election Results for 1996 Primary Election, Illinois Senate, District 13 (Democratic Party)". Chicago Democracy Project. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  35. ^ O'Connor, Phillip J.; Gerber, Tim (1992-03-18). "City turnout leads way as 56% make it to polls". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 22. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Heard, Jacquelyn (1996-03-22). "City voter turnout blows to a low". Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Metro). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Spielman, Fran (2000-03-22). "Voter turnout for primary hits record low in Chicago". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 28. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  36. ^ . (1996-09-25). "Two candidates to challenge Obama for state senate seat". Hyde Park Herald. p. 2. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Knapp, Kevin (1996-10-23). "Two 'stealth candidates' on ballot in state senate race". Hyde Park Herald. p. 3. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  37. ^ editorial (1996-10-16). "Illinois Senate endorsements". Chicago Tribune. p. 22. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    editorial (1996-10-27). "Our endorsements for Illinois Senate". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 39. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  38. ^ . (1996-11-07). "Illinois Senate". Chicago Tribune. p. 7 (Metro). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Knapp, Kevin (1996-11-13). "Election holds no surprises for local candidates". Hyde Park Herald. p. 2. Retrieved 2011-11-28. 
    Illinois State Board of Elections (1996). State of Illinois Official Vote Cast at the General Election, November 5, 1996. Springfield: Illinois State Board of Elections. p. 32. OCLC 4960532. 
    Chicago Democracy Project (2005). "Election Results for 1996 General Election, Illinois Senate, District 13". Chicago Democracy Project. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  39. ^ Wisby, Gary; O'Connor, Phillip J. (1996-11-06). "Low voter turnout sets city record". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 3. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Washburn, Gary (2000-11-07). "Turnout high in Chicago". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  40. ^ Davis, Robert; Christian, Sue Ellen (1997-01-09). "New session, familiar rivals in Springfield; Straight-ticket voting took one last gasp November 5". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    Neal, Steve (1997-01-10). "Lame ducks get revenge for wounds". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 39. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  41. ^ Finke, Doug; Bush, Bill (1997-01-09). "Power sharing begins; Madigan urges school reform as Democrats take over House". The State Journal-Register. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    White, Jesse (2001). "Legislative Districts of Cook County, 1991 Reapportionment". Illinois Blue Book 2001–2002. Springfield: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 65. Retrieved 2009-01-23.  State Sen. District 13 = State Rep. Districts 25 & 26.
  42. ^ Illinois State Board of Elections (1998). "Ballots Cast - General Primary - 3/17/1998". Illinois State Board of Elections. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  43. ^ F.O.R.U.M. (2007). "Fulfilling Our Responsibilities Unto Mankind". ForumDigital.org. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    GuideStar (2009). "Fulfilling Our Responsibilities Unto Mankind". GuideStar.org. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  44. ^ editorial (1998-10-12). "Endorsements for the Illinois Senate". Chicago Tribune. p. 14. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    editorial (1998-10-29). "State Senate picks". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 29. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  45. ^ Illinois State Board of Elections (1998). "Ballots Cast - General Election - 11/3/1998". Illinois State Board of Elections. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  46. ^ Finke, Doug (2001-07-11). "Newly formed panel to begin district mapping". The State Journal-Register. p. 12. Retrieved 2009-01-18. The 8-member state Legislative Redistricting Commission included former state Rep. Raymond W. Ewell (appointed by Illinois Senate Minority Leader Emil Jones, Jr.).
    Pearson, Rick (2001-09-06). "Democrats win lottery for remap; Bilandic to break deadlock on state redistricting". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-18. 
    Finke, Doug (2001-09-18). "Legislative map unveiled; Districts must be OK'd by panel". The State Journal-Register. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-01-18.  The remap was called "the Currie plan" after its author.
    Ramsey, Mike (2001-09-25). "Democrats' new redistricting plan kinder to Republicans". The State Journal-Register. p. 9. Retrieved 2009-01-18. 
    Pearson, Rick (2001-09-26). "Democrat remap clears panel over GOP protests". Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Metro). Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
    White, Jesse (2003). "Congressional apportionment and redistricting". Illinois Handbook of Government 2003-2004. Springfield: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 3. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  47. ^ a b Illinois Speaker of the House (2002). "Illinois Redistricting Web Site". Illinois Speaker of the House. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  48. ^ White, Jesse (2005). "Legislative Districts of Northeastern Illinois, 2001 Reapportionment". Illinois Blue Book 2005–2006. Springfield: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 64. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  49. ^ Illinois State Board of Elections (2002). "Ballots Cast - General Primary - 3/19/2002". Illinois State Board of Elections. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  50. ^ Illinois State Board of Elections (2002). "Ballots Cast - General Election - 11/5/2002". Illinois State Board of Elections. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
Political offices
Preceded by
Alice J. Palmer
Illinois State Senator from 13th district
January 8, 1997 - November 4, 2004
Succeeded by
Kwame Raoul