(10.1% of the Philippine population)
|Regions with significant populations|
(Cagayan Valley, Cordillera, Ilocos, Metro Manila, Central Luzon, Zambales, Mindoro, Palawan, Mindanao)
Paget Road elsewhere
|Ilocano, Cebuano (in Mindanao), Filipino, English|
|Predominantly Roman Catholic,
Aglipayan minority, Protestantism
|Related ethnic groups|
|Ibanag, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Pangasinan,
other Filipino peoples,
other Austronesian peoples
The Ilocano or Ilokano people are the third largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group.
Aside from being referred to as Ilocanos (from "i" – 'from', and "looc" – 'bay'), they also refer to themselves as Samtoy, from the Ilocano phrase "sao mi ditoy", meaning 'our language origin'. The word "Ilocano" came from the word "Iloco" or "Yloco."
Ilocandia is the term given to the traditional homeland of the Ilocano people. From the original western strip of Northern Luzon, Ilocandia has spread throughout the Cagayan Valley and some parts of Central Luzon.
Ilocanos speak the Ilokano language (also called Iloko), which is part of the Northern Philippine subgroup of the Austronesian family of languages. They also speak Cebuano (in Mindanao), Tagalog, and English as second languages.
Many Filipino Americans are of Ilocano descent. They make up 85% of the Filipino-American population in Hawaii.
The Austronesian ancestors of the present-day Ilocanos came to the Philippines through bilogs, or outrigger boats during the Iron Age.
Spanish Era to the Philippine Republic
In 1572,Juan de Salcedo arrived to the town of Bauang.
The mounting population pressure due to the substantial population density during the mid-19th century caused the migration of the Ilocanos out of their historic homeland. By 1903, more than 290,000 Ilocanos migrated to Central Luzon, Cagayan Valley, and Metro Manila. More than 180,000 moved to Pangasinan, Tarlac, and Nueva Ecija. Almost 50,000 moved to Cagayan Valley; half of them resided in Isabela. Around 47,000 lived in Zambales.
The Ilocano Diaspora continued in 1906 when Ilocanos started to migrate to Hawaii and California. Ilocanos composed the largest number of expatriates in the United States, though most are bilingual with Tagalog. There is a significant Ilocano community in Hawaii, in which they make up more than 85% of the Filipino population there.
Ilocanos boast of a somewhat healthy diet heavy in boiled or steamed vegetables and freshwater fish, but are particularly fond of dishes flavored with bagoong, fermented fish that is often used instead of salt. Ilocanos often season boiled vegetables with bagoong monamon (fermented anchovy paste) to produce pinakbet. Local specialties include the "abuos," soft white larvae of ants, and "jumping salad" or tiny, live shrimp with kalamansi juice.
The ilocano writer Elizabeth Medina is probably the most remarkable living ilocano writer in Spanish language.
Philippine nationals of Ilocano ancestry
- Gregorio Aglipay, founder of the Aglipayan Church.
- Pedro Almazan, leader from Laoag; proclaimed and crowned King of Ilocos; led the First Ilocos Revolt in January 1661.
- Magnolia Antonino (born December 14, 1915) was a Senator of the Philippines. She was married to Gaudencio Antonino, also a Senator.
- Antonino Barroga, founder and first mayor of Luna, Apayao.
- Janet Belarmino from Nueva Vizcaya, one of the trio of first Filipino women to scale Mount Everest.
- Rodolfo "Pong" Gaspar Biazon (born April 14, 1935) is a politician in the Philippines. He is currently a Senator. He was elected Senator in the 1992 election for a term of 3 years. He was elected to his first six-year term in the 1998 election, and was re-elected in the 2004 election. Biazon was born in Batac City, Ilocos Norte.
- Gregorio C. Brillantes from Camiling, Tarlac, a multi-award-winning fiction writer and magazine editor, is one of the Philippines' greatest writers in English.
- Jose Burgos, Filipino priest and martyr during Spanish times.
- Sonny Cabatu (born on October 10, 1960 in Cabugao, Ilocos Sur), is a retired Filipino professional basketball player in the Philippine Basketball Association and was the very draft pick of the league in 1985. He is also the father of current Barangay Ginebra Kings player Junjun Cabatu.
- Onofre Corpuz, from Camiling, Tarlac, writer and former secretary of the Department of Education; 13th president of the University of the Philippines; president of the Development Bank of the Philippines.
- Jake Cuenca, young Filipino actor who starred in the ABS-CBN television series Rubi, Tayong Dalawa and Palos. His father is a Spanish-American from San Francisco, California and his mother is an Ilocana from Batac City, Ilocos Norte.
- Adolfo Dacanay, chair of the Theology Department at the Ateneo de Manila University; member of the Society of Jesus; officer of the Canon Law Society of the Philippines.
- Gloria Diaz, Miss Universe 1969 from Aringay, La Union.
- Juan Ponce Enrile, a Senator. He served as Senate President from 2008 - 2013. He is currently the Senate Minority Leader. He is from Gonzaga, Cagayan.
- Josefa Llanes Escoda, women's rights activist, founder of the Girl Scouts of the Philippines.
- Erlinda Fadera-Basilio, ambassador and permanent representative of the Philippines to the United Nations and other international organizations in Geneva, Switzerland; the first woman Vice President of the UN Human Rights Council; founding member of the English Speaking Union (ESU), Philippines Chapter. She is from Bacnotan, La Union.
- Cristinelli "Cristy" Fermin (born 1958, Nueva Ecija) is a controversial Filipino talk show host and showbiz reporter.
- Leona Florentino, famous woman poet.
- Vivian Foz, actress from Rosales, Pangasinan.
- Francisco Sionil José, prominent English-language novelist.
- Augusto Litonjua, founder and first Filipino president of Philippine Association for the Study of Overweight and Obesity (PASOO, 1994); he is known as the father of Philippine endocrinology.
- General Antonio Luna, general of Emilio Aguinaldo's era.
- Juan Luna, famous Filipino painter, older brother of Antonio.
- JB Magsaysay, Pinoy Big Brother (season 1) housemate and grandson of former President Ramon Magsaysay.
- Ferdinand Marcos, 10th President of the Philippines (1965 – 1986). Also considered as the best President of the Philippines. He is from Batac City, Ilocos Norte where his remains is frozen on a refrigerated crypt.
- Ferdinand Marcos, Jr., also known as BongBong Marcos, is the only son of former president Ferdinand Marcos. He served as governor of Ilocos Norte from 1998 - 2007. He also served as a representative of Ilocos Norte's 2nd District. He is currently a Senator of the Philippines.
- Maria Imelda Josefa Romualdez Marcos, also known as Imee Marcos, daughter of former president Ferdinand Marcos, is a former representative of the 2nd District of Ilocos Norte in the Philippine House of Representatives (1998 to 2007). She is the governor of Ilocos Norte since 2010. She belongs to the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan political party.
- Mariano Marcos, father of Ferdinand Marcos, was a lawyer and a politician.
- Liza Maza (born 8 September 1957) is a Filipino activist and development worker. She represents the Gabriela Women's Party in the 13th Congress of the Philippines.
- Martha Vanessa Antonio del Moral, better known by her screen name Vaness del Moral (born on May 23, 1988 in Baguio City, Benguet, Philippines), is a Filipina actress and a talent at one of the top management groups in the Philippines, the GMA Artist Center.
- Alma Moreno (born May 25, 1959 in Cervantes, Ilocos Sur) is a Filipina actress and politician.
- Bienvenido Nebres, the longest-serving university president of Ateneo de Manila University; member of the board of trustees of Georgetown University, Regis University, the Asian Institute of Management (where he sits as Vice-Chair), and other colleges and universities in the Philippines.
- Camilo Osías (March 23, 1889 Balaoan, La Union - May 20, 1976 Manila) was a Filipino politician, twice for a short time President of the Senate of the Philippines.
- Robin Padilla, action star from the Northern Province, Baguio.
- Quintín Paredes (September 9, 1884 - January 30, 1973), a Filipino lawyer, politician, and statesman. He was born in Bangued, Abra.
- Maribeth Pascua, international singer and mass communications lecturer in Indonesia.
- Elpidio Quirino, 6th President of the Philippines (1948–1953) and native of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur.
- Coney Reyes (born May 27, 1954) is a film/television actress, television host and producer.
- Nicanor Reyes, Sr., founder and first president of the Far Eastern University in Manila. He envisioned a school that would promote the teaching of accounting to Filipinos, a profession formerly available only to foreigners. His hometown was Paniqui, Tarlac.
- Artemio Ricarte (October 20, 1866 — July 31, 1945) was a Filipino general during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War. He is considered by the Armed Forces of the Philippines as the "Father of the Philippine Army". Ricarte is also notable for never having taken an oath of allegiance to the United States government, which occupied the Philippines from 1898 to 1946. Ricarte was born in Batac City, Ilocos Norte.
- Ruby Rodriguez from San Marcelino, Zambales is a Filipina actress and a co-host of the television variety show Eat Bulaga! in the Philippines.
- Carmen Rosales, actress Pangasinan
- Jericho Rosales, actor born in Quezon City whose Ilocano roots were traced back to Bucay, Abra.
- Maja Salvador, actress from Abulug, Cagayan
- Paulino Santos from Camiling, Tarlac, a former chief of staff of the Philippine Army during the time of Philippine President Manuel Luis Quezon; founder of Penal Colonies and a Philippine Constabulary Second Lieutenant.
- Gabriela Silang, wife of Diego, revolutionist.
- Luis "Chavit" Singson (born June 21, 1941), better known as Chavit Singson, is a Filipino politician. He was a former Governor of the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines since 1998. He is the owner of the Partas Bus Company. He is from Vigan, Ilocos Sur.
- Benito Soliven, studied law at the University of the Philippines, graduated summa cum laude, placed third in the 1921 Bar Examinations, the first lawyer of Santo Domingo, Ilocos Sur, an intellectual, a linguist, a successful political leader, an Outstanding Congressman, a three-termer in the House of Representatives acclaimed as "Valedictorian" in congress having the greatest number of bills most of which were passed/approved by his Colleagues, a hero of World War II, and most of all a very saintly and charitable man, ready to help the needy and his clients free of charge to those who didn't have the money. He is the father of the late Maximo Villaflor Soliven, a prominent Filipino journalist and newspaper publisher and Realtor Victorio V. Soliven. A school and a town are also named after him, the Benito Soliven Academy, located in Santo Domingo, Ilocos Sur and Benito Soliven in the province of Isabela.
- Máximo Villaflor Solivén (September 4, 1929 – November 24, 2006) was a prominent Filipino journalist and newspaper publisher. In a career that spanned six decades, he attained his greatest peak and influence with the Philippine Star, which he co-founded in 1986, and where he served as publisher until his death. His daily column published in the Star, titled "By The Way", was one of the most widely read newspaper columns in the Philippines.
- Fabian Ver, former General and Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
- Phil Villas (born January 30, 1993), is an ilocano rap artist, and founder of the record label Homemade music ent. He is from Roxas, Isabela
- Ignacio B. Villamor, the first Filipino to serve as President of the University of the Philippines (from Abra).
- Teófilo Yldefonso, "the Ilocano Shark" (February 9, 1903 – July 19, 1943), was a Filipino swimmer who specialized in the breaststroke. He was the first Filipino to win an Olympic medal, and the only Filipino to win multiple medals. He was born in Piddig, Ilocos Norte.
- Jessica Soho (born March 27, 1964) is Filipino broadcast journalist, documentarian and news director who received a George Foster Peabody Award and was the first Filipino to win the British Fleet Journalism Award in 1998. She is from San Juan, La Union
- Danny Ildefonso a professional basketball player who played in San Miguel Beerman now Petron Blaze Boosters who won 8 PBA championships and 2 MVP's and rookie of the year award in 1998. He speaks fluent Iloko. He is from Urdaneta City, Pangasinan.
Notes and sources
- "Ilocanos." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. The Gale Group, Inc. 1999. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- "UCLA Language Materials Project". Retrieved 2012-09-28.
- Uhm Center For Philippine Studies
- Belarde, Sonia; Ronald Ocampo (2010-02-05). "Municipal Background of Luna, The Show Window of Apayao". d' lunanians: The Official Site of the Municipality of Luna Apayao. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- Ilokano Wikipedia
- Most Popular Ilocano Website
- World's Most Famous Ilocanos
- Ilocano: Ti Pagsasao ti Amianan
- NAKEM Centennial Conference
- Tawid News Magasin Ilokano News and Literature Portal
- dadapilan.com - Iloko literature portal featuring original Iloko works by Ilokano writers and a forum for Iloko literary study, criticism and online workshop.
- Ilocano.org - An online community for Ilocanos.
- Quirino Province - An online community for Quirinians.
- your online portal for "HOMETOWN NEWS" of Northern Luzon