(10.1% of the Philippine population)
|Regions with significant populations|
(Cagayan Valley, Cordillera, Ilocos, Metro Manila, Central Luzon, Zambales, Mindoro, Palawan, Mindanao)
|Ilocano, Cebuano (in Mindanao), Filipino, English|
|Predominantly Roman Catholic,
Aglipayan minority, Protestantism
|Related ethnic groups|
|Ibanag, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Pangasinan,
other Filipino peoples,
other Austronesian peoples
The Ilocano or Ilokano people are the third largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Ethnic homeland
- 3 Demographics
- 4 History
- 5 Notable Ilocanos
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes and sources
- 8 External links
Aside from being referred to as Ilocanos (from "i" – 'from', and "looc" – 'bay'), they also refer to themselves as Samtoy, from the Ilocano phrase "sao mi ditoy", meaning 'our language origin'. The word "Ilocano" came from the word "Iloco" or "Yloco."
Ilocandia is the term given to the traditional homeland of the Ilocano people. From the original western strip of Northern Luzon, Ilocandia has spread throughout the Cagayan Valley and some parts of Central Luzon.
Ilocanos speak the Ilokano language (also called Iloko), which is part of the Northern Philippine subgroup of the Austronesian family of languages. They also speak Cebuano (in Mindanao), Tagalog, and English as second languages.
Many Filipino Americans are of Ilocano descent. They make up 85% of the Filipino-American population in Hawaii.
The Austronesian ancestors of the present-day Ilocanos came to the Philippines through bilogs, or outrigger boats during the Iron Age.
Spanish Era to the Philippine Republic
In 1572, Juan de Salcedo arrived to the town of Bauang.
The mounting population pressure due to the substantial population density during the mid-19th century caused the migration of the Ilocanos out of their historic homeland. By 1903, more than 290,000 Ilocanos migrated to Central Luzon, Cagayan Valley, and Metro Manila. More than 180,000 moved to Pangasinan, Tarlac, and Nueva Ecija. Almost 50,000 moved to Cagayan Valley; half of them resided in Isabela. Around 47,000 lived in Zambales.
The Ilocano Diaspora continued in 1906 when Ilocanos started to migrate to Hawaii and California. Ilocanos composed the largest number of expatriates in the United States, though most are bilingual with Tagalog. There is a significant Ilocano community in Hawaii, in which they make up more than 85% of the Filipino population there.
Ilocanos boast of a somewhat healthy diet heavy in boiled or steamed vegetables and freshwater fish, but are particularly fond of dishes flavored with bagoong, fermented fish that is often used instead of salt. Ilocanos often season boiled vegetables with bagoong monamon (fermented anchovy paste) to produce pinakbet. Local specialties include the "abuos," soft white larvae of ants, and "jumping salad" or tiny, live shrimp with kalamansi juice.
One of the most well-known Ilocano literary works written in Iloco is the Biag ni Lam-ang (The Life of Lam-Ang), an epic poem about the fantastic life and escapades of an Ilocano hero named Lam-ang. The ilocano writer Elizabeth Medina is probably the most remarkable living ilocano writer in Spanish language.
Philippine nationals of Ilocano ancestry
- Marilou Diaz-Abaya, Filipina Director, Her father is from Paoay, Ilocos Norte
- Mac Alejandre, Filipino Director,
- Gregorio Aglipay, founder of the Aglipayan Church.
- Pedro Almazan, leader from Laoag; proclaimed and crowned King of Ilocos; led the First Ilocos Revolt in January 1661.
- Magnolia Antonino (born December 14, 1915) was a Senator of the Philippines. She was married to Gaudencio Antonino, also a Senator.
- Antonino Barroga, founder and first mayor of Luna, Apayao.
- Janet Belarmino from Nueva Vizcaya, one of the trio of first Filipino women to scale Mount Everest.
- Rodolfo "Pong" Gaspar Biazon (born April 14, 1935) is a politician in the Philippines. He is currently a Senator. He was elected Senator in the 1992 election for a term of 3 years. He was elected to his first six-year term in the 1998 election, and was re-elected in the 2004 election. Biazon was born in Batac City, Ilocos Norte.
- Gregorio C. Brillantes from Camiling, Tarlac, a multi-award-winning fiction writer and magazine editor, is one of the Philippines' greatest writers in English.
- Sixto Brillantes, Chairman of the Commission on election.
- Jose Burgos, Filipino priest and martyr during Spanish times.
- Noel Cabangon, Filipino Singer, his parents are from La Union
- Sonny Cabatu (born on October 10, 1960 in Cabugao, Ilocos Sur), is a retired Filipino professional basketball player in the Philippine Basketball Association and was the very first draft pick of the league in 1985. He is also the father of current Barangay Ginebra Kings player Junjun Cabatu.
- Antonio Carpio, Associate Justice, Ilocano father
- Conchita Carpio-Morales, Current Ombudsman of the Philippines.
- Jesson Ramil Cid, Filipino Decathlete, From Dingras, Ilocos Norte
- Nina Corpuz, Former Filipino Journalist
- Onofre Corpuz, from Camiling, Tarlac, writer and former secretary of the Department of Education; 13th president of the University of the Philippines; president of the Development Bank of the Philippines.
- Lilia Cuntapay, Filipina horror actress,
- Anne Curtis, Filipina actress, Her mother is Ilocana from Pangasinan.
- Robin Da Roza, Former Filipino actor, nephew of Gloria Diaz.
- Adolfo Dacanay, chair of the Theology Department at the Ateneo de Manila University; member of the Society of Jesus; officer of the Canon Law Society of the Philippines.
- Isabelle Daza, Daughter of Gloria Diaz.
- Gloria Diaz, Miss Universe 1969 from Aringay, La Union.
- Ces Drilon, Filipina News Anchor, Her father is Ilocano.
- Juan Ponce Enrile, a Senator. He served as Senate President from 2008 - 2013. He is currently the Senate Minority Leader. He is from Gonzaga, Cagayan.
- Josefa Llanes Escoda, women's rights activist, founder of the Girl Scouts of the Philippines.
- Erlinda Fadera-Basilio, ambassador and permanent representative of the Philippines to the United Nations and other international organizations in Geneva, Switzerland; the first woman Vice President of the UN Human Rights Council; founding member of the English Speaking Union (ESU), Philippines Chapter. She is from Bacnotan, La Union.
- Andrei Felix, Filipino TV host,
- Mark Anthony Fernandez, Filipino Actor, Son of Alma Moreno
- Leona Florentino, famous woman poet.
- Vivian Foz, actress from Rosales, Pangasinan.
- Coleen Garcia, Filipina actress, Her mother is Ilocana from La Union.
- Jhong Hilario, Filipino actor/host/dancer
- Danny Ildefonso a professional basketball player who played in San Miguel Beerman now Petron Blaze Boosters who won 8 PBA championships and 2 MVP's and rookie of the year award in 1998. He speaks fluent Iloko. He is from Urdaneta City, Pangasinan.
- Francisco Sionil José, prominent English-language novelist.
- Jugs Jugueta, Filipino Musician/TV Host,
- Bianca King, Filipina Actress, Her mother is Ilocana.
- Doug Kramer, Filipino Basketball Player, His Mother is Ilocana From La Union.
- Carlo Lacana, Filipino actor.
- Augusto Litonjua, founder and first Filipino president of Philippine Association for the Study of Overweight and Obesity (PASOO, 1994); he is known as the father of Philippine endocrinology.
- Japoy Lizardo, Filipino Actor/Athlete
- General Antonio Luna, general of Emilio Aguinaldo's era.
- Juan Luna, famous Filipino painter, older brother of Antonio.
- Guji Lorenzana, Filipino actor/singer,
- JB Magsaysay, Pinoy Big Brother (season 1) housemate and grandson of former President Ramon Magsaysay.
- Ferdinand Marcos, 10th President of the Philippines (1965 – 1986). Known for widespread human rights violations and political killings and kleptocracy during his term. He is from Batac City, Ilocos Norte where his remains is frozen on a refrigerated crypt.
- Ferdinand Marcos, Jr., also known as BongBong Marcos, is the only son of former president Ferdinand Marcos. He served as governor of Ilocos Norte from 1998 - 2007. He also served as a representative of Ilocos Norte's 2nd District. He is currently a Senator of the Philippines.
- Maria Imelda Josefa Romualdez Marcos, also known as Imee Marcos, daughter of former president Ferdinand Marcos, is a former representative of the 2nd District of Ilocos Norte in the Philippine House of Representatives (1998 to 2007). She is the governor of Ilocos Norte since 2010. She belongs to the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan political party.
- Mariano Marcos, father of Ferdinand Marcos, was a lawyer and a politician.
- Martha Vanessa Antonio del Moral, better known by her screen name Vaness del Moral (born on May 23, 1988 in Baguio City, Benguet, Philippines), is a Filipina actress and a talent at one of the top management groups in the Philippines, the GMA Artist Center.
- Alma Moreno (born May 25, 1959 in Cervantes, Ilocos Sur) is a Filipina actress and politician.
- Bienvenido Nebres, the longest-serving university president of Ateneo de Manila University; member of the board of trustees of Georgetown University, Regis University, the Asian Institute of Management (where he sits as Vice-Chair), and other colleges and universities in the Philippines.
- Jane Oineza, Filipina actress,
- Camilo Osías (March 23, 1889 Balaoan, La Union - May 20, 1976 Manila) was a Filipino politician, twice for a short time President of the Senate of the Philippines.
- Orlando Quevedo, Archbishop Cardinal of Cotabato
- Bela Padilla Filipino actress, Her mother is ilocana and her grandmother is the sister of Eva Carino(mother of the Padilla siblings)
- Daniel Padilla, Filipino Actor, Nephew of Robin Padilla.
- Kylie Padilla, Filipina Actress, Daughter of Robin Padilla
- Robin Padilla, action star, His mother is Ilocana from North West Nueva Ecija.
- Jim Paredes, Filipino Musician, His father is Ilocano from Abra
- Quintín Paredes (September 9, 1884 - January 30, 1973), a Filipino lawyer, politician, and statesman. He was born in Bangued, Abra.
- Maribeth Pascua, international singer and mass communications lecturer in Indonesia.
- [Apolinario Querubin]-Revolutionary Officer
- [Ariel Querubin]- Member of PMA Class 1979 and Medal of Valor Recipient, said to be the most decorated officer in Philippine military history.
- [Dimas Querubin]- First Presidente Municipal of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur
- [Estrella "Star" Singson Querubin]- Lawyer, former councilor of Manila and former Binibining Pilipinas World
- [Francisca Querubin]- First female lawyer of Ilocos Sur
- [Perfecto Bello Querubin]- RTC Judge and State Prosecutor in the case against Harry Stonehill
- [Ramon Querubin]- a pioneer lawyer, one of the only 260 lawyers in the Philippines in 1899
- [Tomas Querubin]- 1830-1908, Gobernadorcillo of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur, cited in the book "Industrious Men" by Justice Ignacio Villamor
- Elpidio Quirino, 6th President of the Philippines (1948–1953) and native of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur.
- Nicanor Reyes, Sr., founder and first president of the Far Eastern University in Manila. He envisioned a school that would promote the teaching of accounting to Filipinos, a profession formerly available only to foreigners. His hometown was Paniqui, Tarlac.
- Artemio Ricarte (October 20, 1866 — July 31, 1945) was a Filipino general during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War. He is considered by the Armed Forces of the Philippines as the "Father of the Philippine Army". Ricarte is also notable for never having taken an oath of allegiance to the United States government, which occupied the Philippines from 1898 to 1946. Ricarte was born in Batac City, Ilocos Norte.
- Ruby Rodriguez from San Marcelino, Zambales is a Filipina actress and a co-host of the television variety show Eat Bulaga! in the Philippines.
- Carmen Rosales, actress Pangasinan
- Jericho Rosales, actor born in Quezon City. His father is Ilocano from Bucay, Abra.
- Maja Salvador, actress from Abulug, Cagayan
- Paulino Santos from Camiling, Tarlac, a former chief of staff of the Philippine Army during the time of Philippine President Manuel Luis Quezon; founder of Penal Colonies and a Philippine Constabulary Second Lieutenant.
- Gabriela Silang, wife of Diego, revolutionist.
- Luis "Chavit" Singson (born June 21, 1941), better known as Chavit Singson, is a Filipino politician. He was a former Governor of the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines since 1998. He is the owner of the Partas Bus Company. He is from Vigan, Ilocos Sur
- Jessica Soho (born March 27, 1964) is Filipino broadcast journalist, documentarian and news director who received a George Foster Peabody Award and was the first Filipino to win the British Fleet Journalism Award in 1998. She is from San Juan, La Union
- Benito Soliven, studied law at the University of the Philippines, graduated summa cum laude, placed third in the 1921 Bar Examinations, the first lawyer of Santo Domingo, Ilocos Sur, an intellectual, a linguist, a successful political leader, an Outstanding Congressman, a three-termer in the House of Representatives acclaimed as "Valedictorian" in congress having the greatest number of bills most of which were passed/approved by his Colleagues, a hero of World War II, and most of all a very saintly and charitable man, ready to help the needy and his clients free of charge to those who didn't have the money. He is the father of the late Maximo Villaflor Soliven, a prominent Filipino journalist and newspaper publisher and Realtor Victorio V. Soliven. A school and a town are also named after him, the Benito Soliven Academy, located in Santo Domingo, Ilocos Sur and Benito Soliven in the province of Isabela.
- Máximo Villaflor Solivén (September 4, 1929 – November 24, 2006) was a prominent Filipino journalist and newspaper publisher. In a career that spanned six decades, he attained his greatest peak and influence with the Philippine Star, which he co-founded in 1986, and where he served as publisher until his death. His daily column published in the Star, titled "By The Way", was one of the most widely read newspaper columns in the Philippines
- Shamcey Supsup, Filipino Beauty Queen, Her Father is Ilocano.
- Bryan Termulo, Filipino Singer, His mother is Ilocana from La Union
- Fabian Ver, former General and Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
- Nova Villa, Filipino Actress.
- Georgina Wilson, Niece of Gloria Diaz.
- Ignacio B. Villamor, the first Filipino to serve as President of the University of the Philippines (from Abra).
- Teófilo Yldefonso, "the Ilocano Shark" (February 9, 1903 – July 19, 1943), was a Filipino swimmer who specialized in the breaststroke. He was the first Filipino to win an Olympic medal, and the only Filipino to win multiple medals. He was born in Piddig, Ilocos Norte.
- Vandolph, Filipino Actor, Son of Alma Moreno
- Vice Ganda Filipino Comedian, His Mother is Ilocana from La Union
- Althea Vega, Filipina Indie Actress, Ilocana from Pangasinan
Foreign nationals of Ilocano ancestry
- Benny Agbayani, professional baseball player.
- Rolando B. Almazan, President and CEO of one of the largest chemical plants in Canada; included in the international roster of Who's Who.
- Anjelo Baligad, aka Lil Demon, bboy/breakdancer featured on The Ellen DeGeneres Show on April 21, 2009.
- Charlene Barroga, cancer research scientist.
- Thelma Buchholdt, J.D., elected member, Alaska State House of Representatives (1974–1982).
- Carlos Bulosan, writer from Binalonan, Pangasinan.
- David Bunevacz, athlete.
- Mikey Bustos, YouTube star and Canadian Idol finalist.
- Ben Cayetano, 5th Governor of Hawaii (1994–2002).
- Philip Vera Cruz, labor union leader.
- Rt. Honourable Joseph Raymundo-Adolfo Domingo, British Labour Party politician.
- Erlinda Dominguez, C.E.O. of Dominguez Law Offices Honolulu, Hawaii.
- Emil Guillermo, journalist and 2000 American Book Award winner.
- Danny Inosanto, martial artist, Bruce Lee's assistant.
- Ana "The Hurricane" Julaton (from Pozorrubio, Pangasinan) is a boxer. She won the San Francisco Golden Gloves, the California State Championships, was a Diamond Belt champion, and closed out her amateur career by winning the silver medal in the United States Amateur Championships. As a professional boxer, Julation is close to the top in winning world titles with the fewest professional bouts. As of 2010[update], she is a world-title holder of the International Boxing Association and the World Boxing Organization.
- Angelita Albano Castro Kelly, first Fil-Am to become a space mission engineer at the National Administration of Space and Aeronautics.
- Christopher Derige Malano, 19th Secretary General of Pax Romana (organization)
- Ramiele Malubay, American Idol Season 7 Top 12 contestant.
- Rhoda Montemayor, Europe actress and model.
- George Quibuyen, MC of Blue Scholars
- Gloria Romero is a multi-award-winning Filipino actress whose career spans 60 years. She was ranked 6th among the 15 Best Philippine Actresses of All Time by S Magazine.
- Lt. Gen. Edward Soriano, first Fil-Am General of the US Army (ret).
- Maj. Gen. Antonio Taguba, second Fil-Am General of the US Army.
- Gregory Galgana Villar III, NASA engineer for the Mars Curiosity Rover mission
- Donita Rose Villarama is an actress, TV host and former MTV Asia VJ. In 2001 she was selected by FHM as Sexiest Woman in the Philippines.
- Brian Viloria, light flyweight boxing champion.
- Engr. Reynante Tolentino, OFW Engineer - "Awardee of Best Filipino Employee" .
Notes and sources
- "Ilocanos." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. The Gale Group, Inc. 1999. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- "UCLA Language Materials Project". Retrieved 2012-09-28.
- Uhm Center For Philippine Studies
- Belarde, Sonia; Ronald Ocampo (2010-02-05). "Municipal Background of Luna, The Show Window of Apayao". d' lunanians: The Official Site of the Municipality of Luna Apayao. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- "Featuring 7-Year-Old Break Dancer Anjelo Lil' Demon Baligad! - The Ellen DeGeneres Show"
- Lauren Smiley. "The Eyes of the Hurricane". SF Weekly. March 10, 2010.
- "Ana Julaton: Her Side of the Ring". Mightygloves.com. November 28, 2009.
- "Famous Ilocanos and Ilocanas"
- Official Bacarra Site Trivia
- THE A-TRAIN: NASA'S EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM (EOS) SATELLITES AND OTHER EARTH OBSERVATION SATELLITES, dlr.de
- Aura Science Team Meeting : Boulder, Colorado : September 11 -15, 2006, avdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
- Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft : Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring, National Academies Press, p. 25 (online page 36)
- "Munting Nayon News Magazine"
- Tarabay iti Ortograpia ti Pagsasao nga Ilokano - A free ebook version of the Guide on the Ortography of the Ilokano Language developed by the Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino (KWF) in consultation with various stakeholders in Ilokano language and culture. Developed back in 2012 as a resource material for the implementation of the Department of Education’s K-12 curriculum with the integration of MTB-MLE or Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education.
- Ilokano Wikipedia
- Most Popular Ilocano Website
- World's Most Famous Ilocanos
- Ilocano: Ti Pagsasao ti Amianan
- NAKEM Centennial Conference
- Tawid News Magasin Ilokano News and Literature Portal
- dadapilan.com - Iloko literature portal featuring original Iloko works by Ilokano writers and a forum for Iloko literary study, criticism and online workshop.
- Ilocano.org - An online community for Ilocanos.
- Quirino Province - An online community for Quirinians.
- your online portal for "HOMETOWN NEWS" of Northern Luzon