Iloilo City

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City of Iloilo
Syudad sang Iloilo
Lungsod ng Iloilo
Highly urbanized city
From top, left to right: Calle Real – Iloilo City's historic city center, The Aduana/Customs House of Iloilo and Muelle Loney, Saint Anne Church of Molo District, Smallville Commercial Complex in Mandurriao District, Nelly Garden, and the Arroyo Fountain and Casa Real/Old Iloilo Provincial Capitol
From top, left to right: Calle Real – Iloilo City's historic city center, The Aduana/Customs House of Iloilo and Muelle Loney, Saint Anne Church of Molo District, Smallville Commercial Complex in Mandurriao District, Nelly Garden, and the Arroyo Fountain and Casa Real/Old Iloilo Provincial Capitol
Official seal of City of Iloilo
Seal
Nickname(s): "Most Loyal and Noble City" (La Muy Leal y Noble Ciudad)
"City of Love"
"Emerging Museum City"
"Queen City of the South"
Map of Iloilo showing the location of Iloilo City
Map of Iloilo showing the location of Iloilo City
City of Iloilo is located in Philippines
City of Iloilo
City of Iloilo
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 10°43′N 122°34′E / 10.717°N 122.567°E / 10.717; 122.567Coordinates: 10°43′N 122°34′E / 10.717°N 122.567°E / 10.717; 122.567
Country Philippines
Region Western Visayas (Region VI)
Province Iloilo (geographically only)
Legislative district Lone district of Iloilo City
Founded 1581 (as La Villa Rica de Arevalo)[1]
Cityhood 5 October 1889
Reestablished July 16, 1937
Barangays 180
City districts
Government[2]
 • Mayor Jed Patrick E. Mabilog (Liberal)
 • Vice Mayor Jose S. Espinosa III (NUP)
 • City Representatives Geronimo "Jerry" P. Treñas (Liberal)
Area[3]
 • City 78.34 km2 (30.25 sq mi)
 • Metro 972.3 km2 (375.4 sq mi)
Elevation 2 m (7 ft)
Population (2010)[4]
 • City 424,619
 • Density 5,981/km2 (15,490/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 5000
Dialing code 33
Website www.iloilocity.gov.ph

The City of Iloilo (Hiligaynon: Syudad sang Iloilo or Dakbanwa sg Iloilo, Tagalog: Lungsod ng Iloilo, Spanish: Ciudad de Iloilo) is a highly urbanized city of Panay Island in the Philippines, and the capital city of the province of Iloilo. It is the regional center of the Western Visayas as well as the center of the Iloilo-Guimaras Metropolitan Area. In the 2010 census, Iloilo City had a population of 424,619 with a 1.8% population annual growth rate.[4]

It is bordered by the towns of Oton in the west, Pavia in the north, Leganes in the northeast and the Iloilo Strait in its eastern and southern coastline. The city was a conglomeration of former towns, which are now the geographical districts, consisting of: Jaro (an independent city-before), Molo, La Paz, Mandurriao, Villa Arevalo, and Iloilo City Proper. The district of Lapuz, a former part of La Paz, was declared a separate district in 2008.[5]

History[edit]

Period of Malay Mass Migration[edit]

Even before the Spanish colonizers came, Iloilo had a flourishing economy. Lore has it that in the 13th century, ten Bornean datus came to the island of Panay and gave a gold hat (salakot) and a long golden necklace as a peace offering and to the Ati natives of the island. It was said that it was also a way of the ten Bornean datus to barter the flat lands of Panay from the Ati. One datu, named Paiburong, was given the territory of Irong-Irong (cf. also Confederation of Madja-as).[6][7] The Confederation of Madja-as eventually grew a powerful and strong naval presence that it rivaled the nearby states of the Rajahnate of Cebu, The Kingdom of Tondo and the Sultanate of Sulu when it came to wealth and prestige.

By 1612, this state had grown so powerful militarily and economically, their naval power regularly threatened Chinese Imperial shipping. So much so, that the Chuan-chou gazeeter specifically reported that the Pisheya (Bisaya) [Another term for people from Irong-Irong] consistently made devastating raids against the Empire's commerce [8]

Early Spanish colonial period[edit]

In 1566, as the Spanish conquest of the Philippines was underway and moving north toward Manila, the Spaniards under Miguel López de Legazpi came to Panay and established a settlement in Ogtong ( Oton ).[7]

Images from the Boxer Codex (c. 1595), illustrating an ancient Visayans of Panay during their first contact with the Spaniards. These richly clothed and noble Visayans from Panay stand in sharp contrast to the Loin-cloth wearing Cebuanos which the Spaniards called "Pintados" for the tattoos that adorned their exposed bodies.

In 1581 Ronquillo moved the town center approximately 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) east due to recurrent raids by Moro pirates and Dutch and English privateers, and renamed the area La Villa de Arevalo in honor of his hometown in Ávila, Spain.[1]

In 1700, due to ever-increasing raids especially from the Dutch and the Moros, the Spaniards again moved their seat of power some 25 kilometres (16 miles) eastward to the village of Irong-Irong, which had a natural and strategic defense against raids and where, at the mouth of the river that snakes through Panay, they built Fort San Pedro to better guard against the raids which were now the only threat to the Spaniards' hold on the islands. Irong-Irong or Ilong-Ilong was shortened to Iloilo and with its natural port quickly became the capital of the province.[1]

Sugar boom era and the late Spanish colonial period[edit]

Customs House of Iloilo City and Muelle Loney

After its establishment under Spanish rule, Iloilo received Chinese migrants from the west which worked among the city's industries (The Lopez, Lim and Sy families) and Latinos from across the Pacific (Viceroyalty of New Spain) to man its military fortifications (The Araneta, De Rama and Arroyo families). In the late 18th century, the development of large-scale weaving industry started the movement of Iloilo's surge in trade and economy in the Visayas. Sometimes referred to as the "Textile Capital of the Philippines",[citation needed] the products were exported to Manila and other foreign places. Sinamay, piña and jusi are examples of the products produced by the looms of Iloilo. Because of the rise of the textile industry, there was also a rise of the upper middle class. However, with the introduction of cheap textile from UK and the emergence of the sugar economy, the industry waned in the mid-19th century.

The waning textile industry was replaced, however, by the opening of Iloilo's port to the world market in 1855. Because of this, Iloilo's industry and agriculture was put on direct access to foreign markets. But what triggered the economic boom of Iloilo in the 19th century was the development of the sugar industry in Iloilo and its neighboring island of Negros. Sugar during the 19th century was of high demand. Nicholas Loney, the British vice-consul in Iloilo, developed the industry by giving loans, constructing warehouses in the port, and introducing new technologies in sugar farming. The rich families of Iloilo developed large areas of Negros, which were later called haciendas, because of sugar's high demand in the world market. Because of the increase in commercial activity, infrastructures, recreational facilities, educational institutions, banks, foreign consulates, commercial firms and much more sprouted in Iloilo.

On 5 October 1889, due to the economic development that was happening in Iloilo, the Queen Regent Maria Cristina of Spain raised the status of the town to a city through a Royal Decree,[9][10] and in 1890, the city government was established.[11]

The Revolutionary Period[edit]

The immediate reaction of Ilonggo elite to the outbreak of the 1896 Revolution in Manila was that of surprise. They immediately responded with protestations of outrage and affirmed their loyalty to Mother Spain. The Ilonggos themselves were united in their support of Spain during the first two years of the revolutionary period.[12]

Shortly after the Cry of Balintawak, the Jaro Ayuntamiento (another colonial Chartered City adjacent to Iloilo City), composed of native Ilongos,[13] convened a special session on September 1, 1996, where the Manila uprising was condemned as an unpatriotic act "that finds no echo in the noble hearts of Jareños, who do not forget the immense gratitude they owe Spain who, from nothing, raised us to a life of civilization and progress.[14]

The Ayuntamiento of Iloilo[15] also affirmed its allegiance and loyalty to Spain and made a similar protestation. Condemning the uprising, the City's letter to the Governor General says:

Portrait Queen Regent Maria Cristina of Spain, who raised the status of Iloilo as a Royal City, on 5 October 1889

"Those dark betrayals, the mere notion of which embarrasses good and loyal Filipinos, have produced a unanimous sentiment of protest and indignation among the Ilongo people, who engraves its most honorable blazon in the sacred and inextinguishable love that it professes to the glorious Spanish nationality that it legitimately feels proud of. The Ilongos are Spaniards, Your Excellency, and Spaniards will they be until death, because they do not want to live and die in another way than under the shadow of the august Castillan standard, to which they owe being dignified and free men now." [16]

The foreign community in the City also asked its reprenstatives to visit local authorities and to elevate their protests against the revolt. And so did the Filipino Parish priests of Jaro, Molo, Mandurriao, and Arévalo. [17]

Iloilo towns also condemned the Manila uprising, and those of the neighboring provinces of Antique, Cápiz and Negros Island followed suit, giving an outpouring of manifestation of love and loyalty toward Spain. This emboldened the Ilongo elite to initiate the organization of loyal volunteers in the region to be sent to quell the Tagalog rebellion. The move was backed by the Spanish and foreign communities of Iloilo. [18]

A contingent of five hundred native volunteers was organized to form an Ilongo Battalion, which was divided into two companies and which was placed under the cadre of mostly Spanish Officers. [19] These volunteers arrived in Manila on 16 January 1897.[20] They were one of the largest native contingent to serve the government forces against the insurgent soldiers of General Emilio Aguinaldo in the battlegrounds of Cavite province. [21]

The Ilongo Volunteers established for themselves a distinguished combat record in the battles of Cavite. Once the Pact of Biak-na-Bato was signed, the Battalion returned to Iloilo. In April 1898 their homecoming, just like their departure, meet the enthusiasm of their fellow Ilongos. It galvanized the people evermore into more public outpourings and manifestations of pro-Spanish loyalty and patriotism. [22]

The loyalty and patriotism of Ilongos moved the Queen Regent Maria Cristina to honor the City (in the name of her son King Alfonso III) with the title La Muy Noble, in appreciation of the most noble virtue of Ilonggo chivalry. The Royal Decree granting the Iloilo City the perpetual [23] title La Muy Noble was signed on 1 March 1898 by the Queen Regent Maria Cristina.[24][25] Over time, this title earned for Iloilo City the reputation of it being "The Queen's Favored City in the South" or simply "Queen's City in the South" (A title Iloilo legally holds because of the chivalry and loyalty of its people, but is mistakenly attributed to Cebu for reason of economic progress, after that city eclipsed the economy of Iloilo during the aftermath of its economic decline).

Due to the Spanish blow-by-blow defeat by, at first, the Katipunan, and later by the Americans, the Spaniards left Manila and established the last Spanish Capital in the Orient in Iloilo City. Sooner, however, through the leadership of General Martin Delgado, the towns of Iloilo got involved in the struggle for independence, except for Iloilo City, Molo, and Jaro.[26] on December 25 of that same year, the Spanish government surrendered to the Ilonggo revolutionaries in Plaza Alfonso XIII (Plaza Libertad today). In the name of the last Spanish Governor General, Don Diego de los Ríos, Brig. General and Military Provincial Governor Ricardo Monet, together with Lt. Col. Agustín Solís, formally handed over Plaza Alfonso XIII to the Republic of the Philippines through the person of the Filipino General Martin Delgado, who represented President Emilio Aguinaldo in Iloilo. Martin Delgado was named Governor of the Province afterwards.

The newly-found freedom of the Ilonggos was short-lived. The American forces arrived in Iloilo in late December 1898. By February 1899, the North Americans had started mobilizing to colonize anew the City and Province. Resistance was the reaction of Ilonggos upon the invasion which lasted up to 1901.[6][27]

American colonial Era[edit]

Old Spanish structure of Collegio de San Agustin in Iloilo City. The institution, owned and managed by the first Christian missionaries in the Philippines and in the island of Panay, became the first University in Western Visayas (Region VI).

In 1900, the Americans reverted the city's status into a township again. Later, they initiated the construction of the Baluarte and Arroyo streets, extension of Delgado Street to Valeria and from Fuentes and Jalandoni streets up to the present-day U.P. in the Visayas. Quezon and Mabini streets were asphalted while their sidewalks were also constructed. More significant was the installation of streetlights all throughout the city in 1921. in 1926, the widening of important streets, like General Luna, J.M. Basa and Ledesma was started. In 1927, an improved street, Valeria-Ledesma (formerly known as Weyler) was inaugurated (David 1937).[28]

Iloilo Mission Hospital is the first Protestant hospital in the country and the first American hospital in Asia. Originally founded by the Presbyterians, it is subsequently affiliated under the Baptist church in the Philippines.

Protestant American Missionaries came to Iloilo, initiating large-scale enterprises in the predominantly Catholic province. The first Protestants to come were the Presbyterians and they established the first Protestant and American hospital in the country, Iloilo Mission Hospital; and supposedly it came also that Silliman University (the first Protestant and American university in the country and in Asia) was originally a location for its foundation, but due to Catholic opposition, the founder, David S, Hibbard moved to Dumaguete City, where the university is now presently found.[29] Along with the Presbyterians, Baptists came and established Central Philippine University (the first Baptist university in Asia), Jaro Evangelical Church (the first Baptist church in the Philippines), and the Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches (the oldest Baptist organizational body in the Philippines)[30]

St. Vincent Ferrer Seminary in Jaro, Iloilo City - the first Institution of Higher Learning in Western Visayas.

During this period, American Bishops, like Frederick Rooker, Dennis Joseph Dougherty, and James McCloskey, were named for the Roman Catholic See of Jaro in Iloilo City. These Catholic Bishops sustained the educational achievements of the Spanish Friars by bringing in American and European Catholic missionaries, among whom were the Sisters of Charity of St. Paul, and Augustinian missionary priests. The Augustinians, who were the first to bring the Christian faith in the Philippines as well as in the Island of Panay and who built the centuries-old heritage Churches in this island,[31] established an institution of higher education in the City in 1904 - the Collegio de San Agustin. During the American regime, their confreres from the United States developed evermore this institution, which later became the first University in Iloilo and in Region VI. The American Catholic Bishops also maintained and upgraded the St. Vincent Ferrer Seminary (established in 1869 as the Collegio-Seminario de San Vicente Ferrer), which is the Region's first institution of higher learning.

Central Philippine University founded by Protestant American Baptists is the second American university in Asia.
St. Paul Hospital c. 1920.

The St. Paul Sisters, took charge of St. Paul Hospital that was originally owned by the Catholic Church in the Diocese of Jaro. Bishop Dougherty, who later became Cardinal Archbishop of Philadelphia, gave the medical facilities to the Sisters. Now St. Paul Hospital is the largest and most advanced hospital in the Region. To commemorate the generosity of the American Bishop, the hospital named a more recent section of the facilities after him - the CADMA (Cardinal Dougherty Medical Annex).

Because of the growing needs to provide nurses for the hospital, St. Paul Sisters also opened a Nursing School. Today, this institution has also become a University (St. Paul University Iloilo), and has ever since supplied high quality healthcare professionals known worldwide for their skills and dedication to work.

Iloilo regained the cityhood status on July 16, 1937, through Commonwealth Act 158. Incorporated as part of Iloilo City were the towns of Molo, Jaro, Mandurriao, La Paz and Villa de Arevalo and inaugurated in August 15, 1937 .[32] Sugar's demand was declining, labor unrests were happening in the port area that scared the investors away and the opening of the sub-port of Pulupandan in Negros Occidental, has moved the sugar importation closer to the sugar farms.

1942-1945 Japanese Period[edit]

By 1942, the Japanese invaded Panay and the economy moved into a standstill. During World War II, Iloilo was controlled by several Japanese Battalions, Japan's ultimate goal was to entrench itself deeply into the Philippines so that at the close of the war they could occupy it just as the Spanish and the Americans had years before. However, when Filipino and American forces liberated Iloilo from Japanese military occupation on March 25, 1945, the remnants of these battalions were held in Jaro Plaza as a makeshift detention facility.[6]

1950s-1960s - Post-War Decline and Recovery[edit]

The aftermath of war have heavily damaged infrastructure in Iloilo. However, the continuing conflict between the labor unions in the port area, declining sugar economy and the deteriorating peace and order situation in the countryside, the exodus of Ilonggos to other cities and islands that offered better opportunities and businessmen moved to other cities such as Bacolod and Cebu led to Iloilo's demise in economic importance in southern Philippines. Rural agricultural areas continued to pump the local economy . Iloilo's economy progressed in a moderate pace[33] The construction of the fish port, international seaport and other commercial firms that invested in Iloilo marked the movement of the city to its eventual recovery.

Iloilo was declared into a highly urbanized city by the virtue of Batas Pambansa Blg. 51. their residents effectively lost their eligibility to vote for provincial officials because of this new status[34]

Geography[edit]

Iloilo City is located in the southern shores of Panay Island. The city faces Iloilo Strait and Guimaras Island across it, making it a natural harbor and a safe anchorage for ships. The city lies on a flat alluvial plain, reclaimed mostly from the swampy areas due to urbanization and industrialization in the late 19th century until the present. Traversing the city are the rivers of Iloilo, Batiano, Jaro and Dungon Creek. Iloilo River is an estuary that separates the districts of City Proper, Molo and Villa Arevalo from the rest of the city. On the other hand, Jaro River is fed by its tributary rivers, Aganan and Tigum and passes by the flood plains of the Jaro and La Paz districts. Iloilo City is 337.6 nautical miles from Manila. The city has a total land area of 70.3 square kilometres (27.1 sq mi) and is divided into 180 barangays with seven aggregate districts.[35]

Climate[edit]

Iloilo City has a tropical wet and dry climate as according to the Köppen climate classification system, with pronounced wet season from June throughout November; then dry season from December to May.[35]

Climate data for Iloilo, Philippines — NOAA Station Id: PH98637
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.7
(85.5)
30.2
(86.4)
31.7
(89.1)
33.1
(91.6)
33.1
(91.6)
31.6
(88.9)
30.7
(87.3)
30.4
(86.7)
30.8
(87.4)
31.1
(88)
30.9
(87.6)
30.2
(86.4)
31.12
(88.02)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.1
(79)
26.5
(79.7)
27.6
(81.7)
28.9
(84)
29.1
(84.4)
28.1
(82.6)
27.6
(81.7)
27.5
(81.5)
27.6
(81.7)
27.7
(81.9)
27.5
(81.5)
26.8
(80.2)
27.59
(81.66)
Average low °C (°F) 22.7
(72.9)
22.7
(72.9)
23.5
(74.3)
24.6
(76.3)
25.1
(77.2)
24.7
(76.5)
24.4
(75.9)
24.5
(76.1)
24.4
(75.9)
24.2
(75.6)
24.0
(75.2)
23.4
(74.1)
24.02
(75.24)
Rainfall mm (inches) 39.9
(1.571)
19.1
(0.752)
27.1
(1.067)
47.7
(1.878)
117.9
(4.642)
255.2
(10.047)
313.2
(12.331)
363.7
(14.319)
266.8
(10.504)
264.1
(10.398)
174.8
(6.882)
64.2
(2.528)
1,953.7
(76.917)
 % humidity 82 80 75 73 77 82 85 85 85 84 84 83 81.25
Source: "Climate (Average Weather) Data". climate-charts.com. Retrieved March 13, 2011. 

Political subdivisions[edit]

About this image

Iloilo City is politically subdivided into 180 barangays, which are grouped into seven geographical districts.[37]

All of the geographical districts of Iloilo City were once individual towns, excluding Lapuz, which was a sub-district of La Paz until 2008. They were incorporated into one city when Iloilo gained cityhood status and was inaugurated as a charter city on August 25, 1937. All districts have their own churches, which are subordinate to the Archdiocese of Jaro. The districts of Jaro, Mandurriao and Molo are considered commercial areas, while Arevalo and La Paz are residential areas. Molo was once a residential district, while Mandurriao is home to the old Iloilo Airport (Mandurriao Airport) as well as the city's largest shopping mall, SM City Iloilo. City Proper is also a commercial area and the political center of the city and of Iloilo province. It is also home to the Iloilo's domestic seaport and river wharf. The newly formed geographic district of Lapuz is primarily an industrial and residential area, with shipping companies, oil depots and a milling factory are located.

The city of Iloilo has only one legislative district.

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Iloilo City
Year Pop.   ±% p.a.  
1990 309,505 —    
1995 334,539 +1.57%
2000 366,391 +1.84%
2007 418,710 +1.93%
2010 424,619 +0.47%
Source: National Statistics Office[4]

Economy[edit]

Iloilo City is a hub for trade, commerce, education, and industry in the Western Visayas region. Major industries in the city include management of port facilities, telecommunications infrastructure and utilities, banking and finance, retail trading, and business process outsourcing. The local government has provided incentives to businesses in certain investment areas, such as income tax holidays and free issuance of permits and licenses.[38]

Trade and industry[edit]

There were 8,407 business establishments as of December 2003 in Iloilo City, of which 1,182 are new. Total capital investments for new business establishments is P365,506,020.92. However, both new and renewed capital investments for the year 2003 amounted to Php 13.02 billion.[35] Of the employed person by type of industry from primary occupation 82% belongs to service sector, 14% belongs industry sector and only 4% are in agriculture (as of April 2003 FIES, NSO).[35] Average annual family income (at current prices) is P 283,604 or a percentage increase of 32.3 between 1994 to 1997 while Average Annual Family Expenditures is P 226,887 or a 25.6% increase (2000 FIES). Average per Capita Income is P 65,136 and Average Per Capita Expenditures is P 51,557 (FIES 2000). Average Inflation Rate is 3.2, the Average Purchasing Power of the Peso is 0.62 and the Average Consumer Price Index (CPI) is 162.6 in 2003. (Source: NSO, Prices Section).[35]

BPO and IT Industry[edit]

The BPO industry has spurred employment rate and pushed the economic growth of Iloilo city in an unprecedented manner and opened its doors to more international investors. BPO locators are highly attracted to Iloilo City because of the pool of rich human resource. This is due to the high literacy rate and high number of graduates per year. [39]

The Department of Science and Technology-Information and Communications Technology Office (DOST-ICTO) and Business Processing Association of the Philippines (BPAP), has named Iloilo City as one of the next wave cities. This means that Iloilo city is capable to host information technology-business process outsourcing (IT-BPO) companies on the basis of availability of talent and relevant infrastructure. [40]

Iloilo City has a number of IT/BPO centers among them is the Iloilo Ayala Techno Hub, Amigo Mall, SM City Iloilo which houses BPO companies. [41][42][43] Another IT/BPO center is in Iloilo Business Park by Megaworld Corporation, It has business process outsourcing (BPO) office buildings undergoing construction. [44]

Shopping centers[edit]

Among the notable shopping malls in the city are Gaisano Capital, SM City Iloilo, SM Delgado and Robinsons Place Iloilo.

Infrastructure[edit]

Public transport[edit]

The passad jeepney, Iloilo City's primary public transport

Iloilo City is served mostly by passenger jeepneys, white metered taxis and tricycles within the city limits. The passad jeepneys of Iloilo are known for their sleek and sedan-like design. These often serve fixed routes and mostly travel on the city's major and secondary roads. Jeepneys are also the main mode of transportation to MIDC (Metro Iloilo) towns. Tricycles serve most secondary roads and city communities.

Large passad jeepneys and buses link Iloilo City to the rest of the province and the island of Panay. Buses bound for Manila are also available via the Roll-on, Roll-off ferry services of the Strong Republic Nautical Highway. Mini-shuttle vans also serve provincial towns.

Since the opening of the new airport in the town of Cabatuan, air-conditioned airport shuttle vans have served the passengers, crew and the employees of Iloilo Airport from the designated strategic locations in the city, such as in SM City Iloilo and Plaza Jaro.

Iloilo International Airport[edit]

Iloilo International Airport (Iloilo Airport) is the 4th busiest in the Philippines[45] with 2 international flight to Singapore, Hong Kong and Seoul (soon) and vice versa.[46] It is the airport serving the general area of Iloilo City. It is located 19 kilometres (12 miles) northwest of Iloilo City on a 188-hectare (460-acre) site in across the towns of Cabatuan, Santa Barbara and San Miguel. It opened to commercial traffic on June 14, 2007, replacing the Mandurriao Airport. The new airport inherited its IATA and ICAO airport codes.[47] It is linked to the city through Tomas Confessor Highway and served by metered taxis, airport shuttle vans and multicabs.

Seaport[edit]

The Port of Iloilo, is the port serving the general area of Iloilo and the premier port on Panay Island. The new port of iloilo is strategically located at a new site away from the older port facilities. Situated in the Southern coast of Panay Island, in the Panay Gulf, it has one of the country’s safest and most natural harbors. Guimaras Island guards the port from violent storms and makes it ideal for harboring ships and vessels.

  • The Iloilo Commercial Port Complex (Iloilo International Port/Loboc Wharf)
Iloilo International Port/Loboc Wharf
It is located on 20.8 hectares of reclaimed land. It has modern facilities that include 11,400 sq. meters of open space for unhampered operations, supplemented by a backup area of 97,000 sq. meters, a crane,[1] rails of 348 lineal meters; roll-on-roll-off support; a 7,800 container freight stations; and a 720 sq. meter passenger shed. The port complex is ideal for ships plying international routes having a berth length of 400 meters, a width of 26.26 meters and a berthing depth of 10.50 meters.
  • The Iloilo Domestic Port (formerly the Old Foreign Pier)
The Iloilo Domestic Port or popularly known as "Fort/Port San Pedro", serves inter-island passenger and cargo ferries which serves the routes Manila, Bacolod, Cebu, Zamboanga and Cagayan de Oro. It is located near Fort San Pedro and the mouth of Iloilo River at the City Proper district. It is also the port of call for several domestic shipping companies such as SuperFerry or 2GO Travel, Negros Navigation, Sulpicio Lines, Cokaliong Shipping, Trans-Asian Shipping Lines and others. The colloquial name "Port San Pedro" refers to the old Spanish fort beside it that was destroyed during World War II.
  • Muelle Loney/Iloilo River Wharf
It is the original port of the city. Opened to international trade in 1855, it has served as the trans-shipment docks for muscovado sugar in the late 19th to the first half of the 20th century. It has undergone several times of expansion and improvement. Today, it serves smaller cargo ships, roll-on roll-off ferries bound for Guimaras and Negros Island and fast ferries that ply Iloilo-Bacolod route regularly.
  • Iloilo-Guimaras Jetty (Banca) Ports
Jetty ports for Guimaras outrigger ferries are located at Calle Ortiz and Parola. The terminal at Calle Ortiz serve Jordan, Guimaras-bound passenger and cargo outrigger boats, while Parola terminal serve Buenavista, Guimaras-bound ferries. On the other hand, the City Government of Iloilo plans to construct a modern ferry terminal serving Iloilo and Guimaras through public-private partnership.[48]

Roll-on/roll-off ferry service, known in as RO-RO, is available from to Iloilo City. There is also a ro-ro service to Cebu via Negros. It is ranked third in terms of shipcalls at 11,853, fourth in cargo throughout at 491,719 million metric tons and fourth in passenger traffic at 2.4 million annually.

Communication[edit]

The presence of advanced telecommunications infrastructure not only makes the Philippines readily accessible through the Internet, but also allows investors to ignore limitations imposed by the inadequacy of physical infrastructure. Iloilo’s economy benefits from the presence of key players in the telecommunications industry, which provide the necessary “info-structure” for commerce.

Available communication services in Iloilo are: telephone services including domestic and international direct dial, facsimile; mobile communications, internet, telegraph and telex stations, post offices and other messengerial and courier services.

There are three (3) telephone service providers in Iloilo providing landline connections to almost all of the municipalities. These are: Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, INNOVE (Globe Telecom) and Bayan Telecommunications. These companies are capable of providing fiber optic, copper and microwave T1 and E1 lines.

The Iloilo Mission Hospital Medical Arts building.

Cellular telephone facilities are also provided by three (3) cellular companies namely Smart Communications, Globe Telecom and Sun Cellular.

Medical facilities[edit]

Among the top medical facilities of Iloilo City :

A. Private Hospitals
  1. St. Paul Hospital, founded by Dennis Joseph Dougherty, the American Bishop of Jaro who later became Archbishop of Philadelphia and Cardinal of the Holy Roman Catholic Church. They are the first accredited Kidney Transplant facility outside Manila. They are said to be launching Stem Cell Therapy in Visayas and Mindanao.[49]
  2. Iloilo Mission Hospital, which was founded by American Protestant Missionaries in 1901 as the first Protestant hospital in the country and the first American hospital in Asia. The hospital established the first nursing school in the country in 1906, the Iloilo Mission Hospital School of Nursing (the present Central Philippine University College of Nursing.[50] Iloilo Mission Hospital serves as the university hospital of Central Philippine University .
  3. Iloilo Doctor's Hospital[51]
  4. Amosup Seamen's Hospital
  5. St. Therese Hospital
  6. The Medical City – Iloilo, an acquired hospital of the Medical City Group of Hospitals, which performed successful open heart surgeries and the first ever Angioplasty in the region.[52] It also boasts it's Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, being first in Western Visayas.[52][53]
  7. Medicus Medical Center
  8. University Physician Medical Center
  9. Cancer Treatment Facility
  10. CPU Birthing Center - Community Birthing and Maternity Center of Central Philippine University.
B. Government-owned and Controlled Corporation ( GOCC)'
  1. The Western Visayas Medical Center - a 425-bed capacity Medical Center is the end referral facility among government hospitals in the region.[54]
  2. West Visayas State University Medical Center (formerly the Don Benito Lopez Memorial Hospital)- is a 300 bed tertiary teaching, training hospital that serves as a functional laboratory for the College of Medicine, Nursing, and Health Sciences Institute of the West Visayas State University.[55]
C. City Hospitals
  1. WVMC-Annex Iloilo City Hospital
  2. Lapaz Maternity Hospital.

Power and Energy[edit]

A. Power Generation

A 72 MW Diesel Fuel Power Plant operated by Panay Power Corporation and A 164 MW coal-fired power plant operated by Panay Energy Development Corporation (PEDC) provides power generation for Iloilo City, both situated in Brgy. Ingore in Lapaz district.[56][57]

Panay Energy Development Corp.(PEDC) plans for a third coal-fired power generation facility. The newest generator will be on top of the existing 164-MWs for an additional 150-megawatt to be generated that will help produce a total of 404 MW supply for Panay, Guimaras and Negros islands.[58]

B. Power Distribution

Power distribution is facilitated by Panay Electric Company (PECO) . PECO is the sole power distributor in Iloilo City and it is one of the oldest private electricity distribution utilities in the country which has been operating since 1923.[59]

Culture[edit]

Language[edit]

Hiligaynon is the language spoken in Iloilo City.[60] English is used as the language of business and education. In addition, other local dialects such as Karay-a (also known as Kinaray-a) is also spoken. Spanish is still spoken by the elderly and some wealthy families and also the elder members of the micro-community of sugar-plantations related families. The Spanish language was the official language of Iloilo since the colonial period and it was removed in the 70's, But it is still been spoken. Hiligaynon is part of the Austronesian language branch spoken in Western Visayas, It was heavily influence and based on the Spanish language and its orthography. The Austronesian languages are a family of languages widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members on continental Asia. Hiligaynon is concentrated in the provinces of Iloilo and Negros Occidental which has mixed Cebuano.

The language is referred to as "Ilonggo" or "Ilongo/Ylongo" in Iloilo and in Negros Occidental. More precisely, "Ilonggo" is an ethno-linguistic group referring to the inhabitants of Iloilo and the culture associated with native Hiligaynon speakers. The distinction between the terms, Ilonggo and Hiligaynon, is unclear, however, most of the townspeople are claiming that Hiligaynon is the language being spoken and Ilonggo is a term used to refer a person living in Iloilo.

Festivals[edit]

Iloilo City has numerous fiestas and events, from the barangay religious feasts all the way to a city-wide mardi-gras. The city itself has four main festivals which are secular, cultural, and religious in nature. These are held during the "festival season" in the months of January and February.[61]

  • Dinagyang Festival (every 4th weekend of January)
The Dinagyang is a religious and cultural festival in Iloilo City, Philippines held on the fourth weekend of January, is the city's largest festival and is held to honor the Santo Niño, and to celebrate the arrival on Panay of Malay settlers and the subsequent selling of the island to them by the Atis. The highlight of this week-long revelry is the street dance competition.[62]
  • Jaro Fiesta/Candelaria Fiesta (every February 2)
Jaro Belfry during Jaro Fiesta.
Jaro's celebration of the Feast of Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria (Our Lady of the Candles), the Patroness of Western Visayas, every February 2. The religious celebration, which is well known in the Philippines, is also an occasion of more secular events like the pageantry of the daughters of the rich families in the District during the coronation of the Jaro Fiesta Queen, and cockfighting.
  • Paraw Regatta (3rd week of February)
the Paraw Regatta is a race among seafarers on colorful sailboats called Paraws (claimed as the oldest traditional seacraft in Asia) in the Iloilo Strait between Guimaras Island and the city of Iloilo.[63] The present-day Paraw managed to maintain its original design from the sailboats of the first settlers from Borneo who were in search of a peaceful home in 1212 A.D. Surviving centuries, the paraws have become a vital part of the Filipino seafaring life. The first race started in 1973 with the mission to preserve the historic value of the paraws. It is held every 3rd weekend of February at Villa Arevalo District in Iloilo City. Today, the event has grown from being a boat race to a festival with various interesting and exotic activities.
  • Chinese New Year (variable)
Chinese lion dancers pass by Arroyo Fountain at Chinese New Year Celebrations in Iloilo City
Celebrated by Ilonggos of Chinese descent, the festivity is highlighted by cultural presentation of the Chinese schools in the city, Chinese food festival and grand fireworks display.

Media[edit]

The city and the province of Iloilo is served by mostly tabloid-type English newspapers such as Panay News, The Daily Guardian, News Express, and Sunstar Iloilo. Hublas of Panay News is the sole Hiligaynon tabloid newspaper.

Iloilo City is the main headquarters of Bombo Radyo Philippines, which owns Bombo Radio AM stations and Star FM stations across the country. Being the urban center of the province, most of the AM and FM radio stations serve the province of Iloilo and Guimaras, mostly local stations of national radio stations.

In 1967, TV-6 Iloilo (a TV5 affiliate) stated its initial broadcast in Jaro, Iloilo City. By 1974 change its affiliation to GMA Network as their local television station. TV-6 Iloilo started upgrading its facilities and relocated their TV tower to Guimaras and serving Iloilo City, Guimaras and Panay Island provinces and some parts of Negros Occidental in 1998. Studio 23 Iloilo (UHF 38) (change its name to ABS-CBN Sports and Action in January 18, 2014) initiated its broadcast in 1999. In 2000, ABS-CBN launched TV-10 serving Iloilo City and the neighboring towns and separated its news team from Bacolod news team and launched TV Patrol Iloilo. The government television station, NBN (VHF 2) in 1992 and IBC (VHF 12) in 1977 are also broadcasting local programs for Iloilo. In the first quarter of 2010, QTV-28 Iloilo (UHF 28) (change its name to GMA News TV in February 28, 2011) & UNTV-42 (UHF 42) commenced operations in the city. In second quarter of 2012, TV 5 Iloilo (UHF 36) commenced operation and serving the southern part of Western Visayas Region that includes the Guimaras Island, Iloilo City, Panay Island and Negros Occidental and at the same time started its News5 team coverage. Myx is the Number 1 music channel in Philippines now serve in the city on UHF Channel 57 last December 2, 2013.

Education[edit]

Iloilo City hosts 8 universities and various colleges such as the Central Philippine University, University of the Philippines Visayas, West Visayas State University, Iloilo Science and Technology University (formerly WVCST),[64] University of San Agustin, University of Iloilo, St. Paul University, and John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime University.

Iloilo is also home to numerous private colleges and schools such as the Iloilo Doctors College (IDC), St. therese - MTC colleges (ST-MTCC), Western Institute of Technology (WIT), De Paul College, AMA Computer University, STI, Informatics, ACSI College Iloilo, ABBA Institute of Technology, Iloilo Scholastic Academy, Iloilo Central Commercial High School, Sun Yat Sen High School, Cabalum Western College, Assumption Iloilo run the Congregation of the Religious of the Assumption, Ateneo de Iloilo – Santa Maria Catholic School run by the Society of Jesus, Angelicum School Iloilo run by Order of Preachers, Philippine Science High School-Western Visayas, and one PAREF-affiliated high school, Westbridge School for Boys, Colegio de las Hijas de Jesus which is run by the Congregation of the Daughters of Jesus, or simply Hijas de Jesus, San Jose Catholic School which is run by the Order of St. Agustin, Colegio de San Jose, and Colegio del Sagrado Corazon de Jesus which are both run by the Congregation of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul and Asian College of Aeronautics. Colegio de San Jose is the oldest school for girls in Western Visayas which is now 141 years old. In June 2012, the city government opened the Iloilo City Community College at Molo, Iloilo City.

The Department of Education – Division of Iloilo City covers 88 private schools[65] and 52 public schools.[66]

Landmarks[edit]

St. Anne Church, Molo.

Iloilo City's urban planning and architecture reflect the plans of the Spanish colonial and the American colonial administrations. Since Iloilo City is a conglomeration of towns, the districts have their own plaza complexes or town squares which are surrounded by establishments of political and ecclesiastical influence, such as churches and old administrative halls. In 1930, Juan M. Arellano of the Bureau of Public Works designed the schematic plan for Iloilo City, which was influenced by Ebenezer Howard's "Garden City."[67]

Historical sites[edit]

Sites Established during the Spanish Regime[edit]

La Villa Rica de Arevalo 
6 km (4 mi) southwest of city proper; 2nd capital of the Alcaldia of Panay; flower and firecracker district of Iloilo City. This is also home to the 3rd oldest image of the Sto. Nino in the Philippines. Also found in the plaza is the replica of the crown given by the Spanish Queen Isabela in 1896.
Jaro Cathedral 
The first and only cathedral in Western Visayas built in 1864. It is the seat of Jaro Archbishopric (comprising the Metropolitan Ecclesiastical Province of Western Visayas). The Cathedral, which is dedicated to St. Elizabeth of Hungary, is famous for its Shrine of Our Lady of Candles which, according to pious tradition has been miraculously growing. The devotees of the Blessed Virgen, who invoke her under this title of "Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria" come in thousands during her feast day, 2 February. The image was canonically crowned by His Holiness Pope John Paul II, during the Roman Ponriff's visit to Jaro in 1981. Until the present, the miraculous image is the only sacred icon in the Philippines ever crowned personally by a Pope.
Jaro Belfry 
One of the few belfries in country that stands apart from the church. It was constructed by the Spaniards to serve also as a watchtower to monitor Muslim invasion from Mindanao. The colonial structure was ruined by an earthquake in 1948, but was restored decades later, in the mid-1990s.
Jaro Cathedral Facade.
Jaro Cathedral Belfry. One of the few freestanding bell towers in the country.
Archbishop's Palace 
(Spanish: Palacio del Arzobispo) The residence of the Archbishop of Jaro. It is located southwest of the Jaro Cathedral and southeast of the Jaro Plaza.
The 1990 iron marker placed by the National Historical Institute of the Republic of the Philippines on the main entrance of St. Vincent Ferrer Seminary in Jaro, Iloilo City - the first Institution of Higher Learning in Western Visayas.
Muelle Loney 
The River Port of Iloilo named after British Consul Nicholas Loney, who is considered the father of sugar industry in Panay and Negros. Protected by the Island of Guimaras from typhoons, Muelle Loney is one of the safest harbours in the Country. It was opened to international market in 1855.
Distrito Jaro 
The old section of the City boasts of the mansions and Hispano-Filipino houses of the sugar barons and elite families during the Spanish regime. It is also seat of Catholicism in Western Visayas.
St. Vincent Ferrer Seminary 
The first institution of higher education in Western Visayas. Following the Papal Bull of Pope Pius IX, dated 27 May 1865, the Dominican Bishop Mariano Cuartero, O.P., the first Bishop of Jaro, laid the foundation of this seminary in 1869, in honor of St. Vincent Ferrer.
Molo Church 
A Gothic renaissance church made of coral rock, located three kilometers (1.9 miles) from the City proper. It was completed in 19th century. The church, which is also referred to as the "Church of Women" because of the statues of women saints that decorate its pillars, was visited by Jose Rizal on his way to exile in Dapitan, Mindanao.
Calle Real (Downtown Iloilo City Heritage District) 
Old buildings that were constructed in the Commonwealth era in J.M Basa (Calle Real), Iznart, Aldeguer and Guanco were declared as a heritage site of Iloilo.

Sites Established from the First Half of the 20th Century onwards[edit]

University of San Agustin, founded in 1904
An institution of Catholic Higher Education founded on July 15, 1904, by Spanish Augustinian friars belonging to the Province of the Most Holy Name of Jesus of the Philippines and their American confreres from the Augustinian U.S. Province of St. Thomas of Villanova. Elevated as a University on 1 March 1953, the University of San Agustin holds the title as the "First University in Western Visayas".
Central Philippine University, founded in 1905
The first Protestant and American higher education institution in Western Visayas, which was founded by the Baptist missionary, Rev. William Orison Valentine. It was founded in 1905 as a two separate schools: an elementary school for poor boys which eventually opened up a high school in 1920 and a bible school to train ministers and other Christian workers. It converted into a college in 1923 and attained university status in 1953. Central is the first Baptist founded and second American university in Asia. The university has pioneered and established the first nursing school in the country; the first and oldest organized student government in Asia (still in continuous operation), the Central Philippine University Republic (CPU Republic) and the oldest student publication in the country, The Central Echo; among others. The university has been declared as a cultural property by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines and is the only university in Asia declared as a tourist site by a local government.[68] The university is host to the Henry Luce III Library, the largest library in Western Visayas. Central Philippine University is a famous landmark and is visited by locals and tourists every December because of the display of Christmas lights, which the university hosts annually.
Jaro Evangelical Church
The first Baptist Church in the Philippine Islands established by the Northern Baptists (now American Baptist Churches).
Arroyo Fountain 
The regional kilometer zero point.
Villa Lizares/Angelicum School Iloilo 
It was once the mansion and villa of the Lizares Family. The Lizares mansion was sold to the Dominican Order of the Philippines in the late 1970s, and is now the seat of Angelicum School Iloilo- a private, Catholic school run by the Order of the Preachers (Dominicans). The Angelicum is a popular landmark visited by local folks every Christmas because of the display of Christmas lights that decorate the Lizares Mansion – its oldest building being the main feature of the panoramic view of the school.
Museo Iloilo 
Repository of Iloilo's cultural heritage Geo taton.
Iloilo River Esplanade 
A 1.2 kilometer linear park in one of the riverbanks of Iloilo River in Mandurriao, Iloilo City.

Notable people[edit]

Trivia[edit]

Figure 1: Iloilo is located in an island shaped like a giant heart, Panay island.
Figure 2: It may have been the heart shaped island eluded to by this codex by Gaspar de San Agustin from the Archive of the Indies. The bishop in the codex having held aloft a heart while being illumined by the Jesuit Monogram IHS, while at the right side, conquistadors are pointing to a mass of islands.

Saints - Iloilo is associated with at least five saints of the Catholic Church. These are; Saint Ezekiel Moreno, a Spanish born Augustinian Recollect bishop and the patron Saint of Columbia, he was ordained into the minor orders at Jaro, Iloilo; Saint Pedro Calungsod a Visayan alternative-healer and a Jesuit trained layman who was purportedly born at Molo, Iloilo; Saint John Paul II, who crowned the miraculous image of Our Lady of Candles at the Jaro Cathedral (The only Marian Image in the Philippines personally crowned by a Pope-Saint); blessed Maria Beatriz del Rosario Arroyo, foundress of the Dominican Sisters of the Most Holy Rosary of the Philippines, she was born in Molo, Iloilo and the venerable Jaime Cardinal Sin, he was ordained at Iloilo and was the former Archbishop of Jaro before becoming the Cardinal-Archbishop of Manila. He was the spiritual leader of the People Power Revolution.

Movies - Iloilo is also the name of an award-winning movie featured at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival, wherein the movie won the Camera d'Or and became the first Singaporean feature film to win at the Cannes Film Festival. Set in Singapore during the 1997 Asian financial crisis, Ilo Ilo chronicle the story of the bond between a 10-year-old Singaporean boy, Jiale and his caretaker, Teresa from the Philippines — while his parents struggle to overcome their already strained relationship as well as the financial crisis. Teresa and Jiale soon formed a bond and continues to develop and she becomes an unspoken part of the family. It also won the Grand Jury Prize at the 10th Jameson Cinefest in Miskloc, Hungary and the Best Feature Film award at the 50th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei.

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Fernández, Juan; Jose Espinoza Jr. (2006). Monografias de los pueblos de la Isla de Pan-ay. Iloilo City: University of San Agustin Pub. House. p. 220. ISBN 978-971-0381-05-0. 
  2. ^ "Cities". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  3. ^ "Province: Iloilo". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 26 February 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities". 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  5. ^ City to recognize Lapuz as separate district from La Paz. Thenewstoday.info (2008-12-22). Retrieved on 2011-11-07.
  6. ^ a b c Lopez Group Foundation (2008). Iloilo: A Rich and Noble Land. Pasig City, Philippines: Benpres Publishing. p. 278. ISBN 971-93904-0-9. 
  7. ^ a b Iloilo History Part 1 - Research Center for Iloilo
  8. ^ Chuan-chou Fu-chi (Ch.10) Year 1612
  9. ^ The actual words of the Royal Decree says: "A propuesta del Ministro de Ultramar, y teniendo en cuenta el creciente desarrollo que en la industria y el commercio ha alcanzado la cabecera de la provincia de Ilo-Ilo, la más importante de las islas de Filipinas, despues de la de Manila; En nombre de mi Augusto Hijo el Rey D. Alfonso XIII, y como Reina Regente del Reino, Vengo en conceder el titulo de la Ciudad á la cebecera de Ilo-Ilo, en dichas islas. Dado en San Sebastian á cinco de Octubre de mil ochocientos ochenta y nueve. Maria Cristina" Cf. Decreto Real de la Reina Regente Maria Cristina (5 Octubre 1889) en Gazeta de Madrid, N. 298, 25 Octubre 1889, p. 238.
  10. ^ TIF file
  11. ^ Funtecha, Henry (2000). "The Urbanization of the Town of Iloilo, 1865–1900". Selected Papers on Cities in Philippine history (Philippine National Historical Society): 89–108. 
  12. ^ Policarpio F. Hernadez, Iloilo, the Most Noble City: History and Development (1566-1898), p. 143.
  13. ^ The members of the Jaro Ayuntamiento who signed the act of protestation against the uprising were: Mariano Villalobos, Tranquilino Gonzales, Severino Argüelles, Raimundo Escarilla, Vidal Jabelona, Ruperto Jalandoni, Esteban Jalandoni, Juan Ledesma, Pablo Ledesma, and León Jereos (Secretary). Cf. 7 September 1896 issue of El Porvenir de Bisayas
  14. ^ Policarpio F. Hernadez, Iloilo, the Most Noble City: History and Development (1566-1898), p. 144. The actual text of of the letter of the members of the Jaro Ayuntamiento addressed to the Governor General of the Philippines (published in the 7 September 1896 issue of El Porvenir de Bisayas) says: Estos hechos de sedición, doblemente criminales en las dolorosas circunstancias que afligen a la Patria común, que allá, al otro lado de los mares, en los Campos de Cuba, está vertiendo sin tasa la generosa sangre de sus leales hijos que otros hijos integrados la hacen derramar; no pueden levanter eco en los corazones nobles de los Jareños, que no olvidan la inmensa gratitud que deben a España que, de la nada... los hizos nacer a la vida de la civilización y del progreso.
  15. ^ The officials of the City of Iloilo who signed the letter of protestation were as follows: Victoriano Mapa (Primer Alcalde), Emilio Escay (Primer Teniente Alcalde), Arcadio Conde Otegui (Segundo Teniente Alcalde), Vanancio Conception, Jose Ma. Aguilar, Felix de la Rama, Severino Durán, Eduardo Arjanuate, Francisco Aguado, Francisco Ortiz, Lorenzo Guevara, Ramon Roco, and Mariano Teaño - regidores. Cf. 7 September 1896 issue of El Porvenir de Bisayas.
  16. ^ Esas negras traiciones, cuya sola idea avergüenza a los Filipinos buenos y leales, han producido un sentimiento unánime de protesta e indignación en el pueblo Ilongo, que cifra su más honroso blasón en el inextinguible y sacrosanto amor que profesa a la gloriosa nacionalidad española de que se siente legitimamente orgulloso. Españoles son los Ilongos, Ex.cmo. Señor, y españoles seran hasta la muerte, porque no quieren vivir ni morir de otro modo que a la sombra de la augusta enseña castillana, a la cual deben el ser hoy hombres dignos y libres. 7 September 1896 issue of El Porvenir de Bisayas.
  17. ^ Cf. 3 September 1896 issue of El Porvenir de Bisayas. Also cf. Policarpio F. Hernadez, Iloilo, the Most Noble City: History and Development (1566-1898), p. 145.
  18. ^ Cf. Policarpio F. Hernadez, Iloilo, the Most Noble City: History and Development (1566-1898), p. 145.
  19. ^ Cf. 30 December 1896 issue of El Eco de Panay. Also cf. Policarpio F. Hernadez, Iloilo, the Most Noble City: History and Development (1566-1898), pp. 145-146.
  20. ^ Cf. 16 January 1897 issue of Diario de Manila.
  21. ^ Cf. Policarpio F. Hernadez, Iloilo, the Most Noble City: History and Development (1566-1898), p. 147.
  22. ^ Cf. 26 April 1898 issue of El Eco de Panay. Cf. also Policarpio F. Hernadez, Iloilo, the Most Noble City: History and Development (1566-1898), p. 147.
  23. ^ Cf. Policarpio F. Hernadez, Iloilo, the Most Noble City: History and Development (1566-1898), p. 147.
  24. ^ TIF file
  25. ^ "Queriendo dar una prueba de Mi Real aprecio á la ciudad de Ilo Ilo por su honoroso proceder con motivo de haber sido la primera que presentó voluntarios para combatir la insurrección de Filipinas; a propuesta del Ministro de Ultramar, de acuerdo con Mi Consejo de Ministros; En Nombre de Mi augusto Hijo el Rey D. Alfonso XIII, y come Reina Regente del Reino, vengo en conceder á dicha ciudad el dictado de «Muy Noble», como recompensa á su conducta y estimulo para el porvenir. Dado en Palacio á primero de Marzo de mil ocho-cientos noventa y ocho." These were the actual words (in Spanish) of the Royal Decree honoring the City with the title "Muy Noble" (Most Noble). Real Decreto de La Reina Regente Maria Cristina (Marzo 1, 1898) in Gaceta de Mardrid,No. 63, 4 Marzo 1898, p. 750.
  26. ^ The Iloilo culmination of the declaration of Philippine Independence. Thenewstoday.info (2008-06-06). Retrieved on 2011-11-07.
  27. ^ N.B. For a detailed study regarding the history of war for independence in Iloilo and Panay, as well as regarding the American occupation of the Island, confer the paper of Jose Manuel Velmonte, Ethnicity and the Revolution in Panay in Kasarinlan, Volume 14 No. 1.
  28. ^ Roads and bridges in Iloilo during the American rule
  29. ^ Carson 1965, p. 4
  30. ^ The Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches, Inc. - is the oldest Baptist organizational body in the Philippines. Retrieved 10/19/2012
  31. ^ Cf. Fr. Juan Fernandez, O.S.A, Monografias de los pueblos de la isla de Panay in Monographs of the Towns of Panay, Jose Espinosa, Jr., trans., Iloilo City: University of San Augustine, 2006
  32. ^ C.A. No. 158, Iloilo City Charter - PhilippineLaw.info
  33. ^ McCoy, Alfred (1982). "A Queen Dies Slowly". Philippine Social History : Global Trade and Local Transformations (Ateneo de Manila University Press): 289–358. 
  34. ^ BATAS PAMBANSA BILANG. 51 - Zamboanga.com :Portal to The Philippines
  35. ^ a b c d e Socio-Economic Profile 2004 of Iloilo City, The City Government of Iloilo, 2004 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g National Statistics Office. "2010 Census of Population and Housing — Western Visayas". pp. 100–104.
  37. ^ Espejo, Jr., Boy. "Pacifico Sudario: The man who coined "Dinagyang"". Sun.Star Network Online. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  38. ^ City Government of Iloilo (2010). "Socio-Economic Profile 2010". 
  39. ^ BPO spurs local employment rate
  40. ^ BPAP, DOST tag 10 next wave cities for IT-BPO | Business, News, The Philippine Star | philstar.com
  41. ^ http://www.ayalaland.com.ph/portfolio/offices/technopods/iloilo-ayalaland-techno hub
  42. ^ Properties for Rent
  43. ^ Operating Economic Zones (277)
  44. ^ Megaworld allots P25 B for Iloilo project | Business, News, The Philippine Star | philstar.com
  45. ^ Old Iloilo airport sees last of happy landings - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos
  46. ^ Philippines' Iloilo airport readies for int'l flights - Yahoo! News Philippines
  47. ^ Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines (1 March 2010). "Philippine Airports Passenger Movement CY 2009 Report". Retrieved 26 October 2010. 
  48. ^ Pendon, Lydia (24 August 2010). "International firms eye Iloilo infra projects". SunStar Iloilo (Iloilo City, Philippines). Retrieved 26 October 2010. 
  49. ^ Iloilo City girds for stem cell medicine | Sun.Star
  50. ^ http://www.scribd.com/doc/15885553/Pioneer-Nursing-Schools-and-Colleges-in-the-Philippines
  51. ^ Home - Iloilo Doctors' Hospital, Inc. a ISO CERTIFIED HOSPITAL
  52. ^ a b Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory - The Medical City Iloilo
  53. ^ Heart Surgery at The Medical City Iloilo - The Medical City Iloilo
  54. ^ Welcome to the Western Visayas Medical Center Web Site!
  55. ^ History
  56. ^ Panay Energy Development Corporation
  57. ^ Mix of coal and diesel still cheapest for Iloilo electricity
  58. ^ http://www.pna.gov.ph/index.php?idn=&nid=2&rid=518006
  59. ^ First Philippine Holdings Corporation
  60. ^ http://ilongo.weebly.com/languages-of-iloilo.html
  61. ^ Iloilo – City of Festivals Promotional Video (Part 1) (MPEG) (Youtube) (in English). Iloilo City, Philippines: City Tourism and Development Office of Iloilo. 2007. Archived from the original on 10 December 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2010. 
  62. ^ Iloilo Dinagyang Foundation Inc. "The Iloilo Dinagyang". Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  63. ^ Grant, Jonathan. "The Iloilo Paraw Regatta". Retrieved 2 November 2010. 
  64. ^ http://www.senate.gov.ph/republic_acts/ra%2010595.pdf
  65. ^ Philippine Department of Education. "Masterlist of Private Schools Schools in Region VI, SY 2007–2008". Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  66. ^ Philippine Department of Education. "Masterlist of Public Schools Schools in Region VI, SY 2007–2008". Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  67. ^ Iloilo City Cultural Heritage Conservation Council, Republic of the Philippines Iloilo City Conservation Planning and Development Guidelines for the Downtown Central Business District (CBD)Heritage Zone, pp. 16–17, retrieved 4 November 2010 
  68. ^ National Registry of Historic Sites and Structures in the Philippines.Retrieved 4/9/13.

External links[edit]