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A Chagossian and his final coconut harvest, photographed at the time of the first United States encampment (1971).
|Regions with significant populations|
in Mauritius and the United Kingdom
|Chagossian Creole · Mauritian Creole · Seychellois Creole · English|
The Chagossians (also Îlois or Chagos Islanders) are people of African, Indian and Malay heritage who previously inhabited the Chagos Islands, specifically Diego Garcia, Peros Banhos, and the Salomon island chain, as well as other parts of the Chagos Archipelago. Most Chagossians now live in Mauritius and the United Kingdom after being forcibly evicted by the British government in the late 1960s and early 1970s so that Diego Garcia, the island where most Chagossians lived, could serve as the location for a military base shared between the UK and the United States. Today, there are no Chagossians that live on the island of Diego Garcia, as it is now the site of the military base Camp Justice.
The Chagossian people's ancestry is mostly of African heritage, particularly coming from Madagascar, Mozambique and other African nations including Mauritius. There is also a significant proportion of Indian and Malay ancestry.[full citation needed] The French brought some to the Chagos islands as slaves from Mauritius in 1786. Others arrived as fishermen, farmers, and coconut plantation workers during the 19th century.
The Chagossians speak Chagossian Creole, a mix of Indigenous languages and French-based creole language and part of the Bourbonnais Creole family. Chagossian Creole is still spoken by some of their descendants in Mauritius and the Seychelles. Chagossian people living in the UK speak English.
In 1965, as part of a deal to grant Mauritian independence, the Chagos Archipelago was split off from the Colony and came to form the British Indian Ocean Territory. The territory's new constitution was set out in a statutory instrument imposed unilaterally without any referendum or consultation with the Chagossians and it envisaged no democratic institutions. On April 16, 1971, The United Kingdom issued a policy called BIOT Immigration Ordinance #1 which made it a criminal offense for those without military clearance to be on the islands without a permit.
Between 1967 and 1973, the Chagossians, then numbering some 2,000 people, were expelled by the British government, first to the island of Peros Banhos, 100 miles (160 km) away from their homeland, and then, in 1973, to Mauritius (For the relationship between the Chagos Archipelago and Mauritius, see Chagos Archipelago). A number of Chagossians who were evicted reported they were threatened with being shot or bombed if they did not leave the island. One old man reported to Washington Post journalist David Ottaway that an American official told him, "If you don't leave you won't be fed any longer." BIOT commissioner Bruce Greatbatch later ordered all dogs on the island killed. Marcel Moulinie, who was in charge of managing the island, carried out this task by using raw meat to lure them into a shed for drying copra, gassing them with exhaust from U.S. military vehicles, and then setting their carcasses ablaze. Meanwhile, food stores on the island were allowed to deplete in order to pressure the remaining inhabitants to leave. The forced expulsion and dispossession of the Chagossians was for the purpose of establishing a United States air and naval base on Diego Garcia, with a population of between 3,000 to 5,000 U.S. soldiers and support staff, as well as a few troops from the United Kingdom.
High Court case
In early April 2006, in an excursion organised and financed by the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, a group of around a hundred Chagossians were permitted to visit the British Indian Ocean Territory for the first time in over thirty years.
On 11 May 2006, the Chagossians won their case in the High Court of Justice in England, which found that they were entitled to return to the Chagos Archipelago. It remained to be seen how this judgment might be implemented in practice. However, in June 2006 the British government filed an appeal in the Court of Appeal against the High Court's decision. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office put forward an argument based on the treatment of the Japanese Canadians following the attacks on Pearl Harbor.
House of Lords decision, 2008
After the Court of Appeal had upheld the decision of the High Court, the British government appealed successfully to the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords. On October 22, 2008, the Law Lords reached a decision on the appeal made by the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, David Miliband. They found in favour of the Government in a 3-2 verdict, ending the legal process in the UK and dashing the islanders' hopes of return. The judgement was published on the UK parliament website. The judges who voted to allow the government's appeal were Lord Hoffmann, Lord Rodger of Earlsferry, and Lord Carswell; those dissenting were Lord Bingham of Cornhill and Lord Mance.
Marine nature reserve and cable leak
In April 2010, the British Government—specifically, the British diplomat Colin Roberts, acting on the instructions of David Miliband—established a marine nature reserve around the Chagos Islands known as the Chagos Protected Area. The designation proved controversial as the decision was announced during a period when the UK Parliament was in recess.[full citation needed]
On December 1, 2010, a leaked US Embassy London diplomatic cable dating back to 2009 exposed British and US calculations in creating the marine nature reserve. The cable relays exchanges between US Political Counselor Richard Mills and British Director of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office Colin Roberts, in which Roberts "asserted that establishing a marine park would, in effect, put paid to resettlement claims of the archipelago's former residents." Richard Mills concludes:
Establishing a marine reserve might, indeed, as the FCO's Roberts stated, be the most effective long-term way to prevent any of the Chagos Islands' former inhabitants or their descendants from resettling in the [British Indian Ocean Territory].
Armed with the Wikileaks revelations, the Chagossians launched an appeal, seeking a judgement that the reserve was unlawfully aimed at preventing them returning home. Although Bradley Manning had been arrested nearly three years previously, the UK government felt unable to confirm to the court that the leaked documents were genuine. It was made clear to the court that the government's inability to confirm was for two reasons: firstly, to protect itself from the charge that it created the reserve to prevent the islanders from ever returning home and, secondly, out of a purported fear (Bradley Manning had been looking at 22 charges related to leaking classified government documents for more than two years by now) that the US government might get angry if the cables were acknowledged as genuine. Despite the contents of his cable being known—"a marine park would, in effect, put paid to resettlement claims of the archipelago's former residents"—Roberts denied, when questioned in court, that there was an "ulterior motive" behind the reserve's establishment. Lord Justice Richards and Mr Justice Mitting then refused to accept the documents as evidence, declaring that to do so would breach diplomatic privilege. The Guardian described their decision as having "far-reaching consequences" and "a severe setback for the use of material obtained from leaks or whistleblowers." In June 2013, the pair of judges turned down the appeal brought by the Chagossians, ruling that everything was fine because the reserve was compatible with EU law.
Discourse about the Chagossians
The WikiLeaks cables revealed diplomatic cables between the U.S. and U.K. about the Chagossians. A cable written by D.A. Greenhill on August 24, 1966 to a U.S. State Department official refers to the Chagossians as "some few Tarzans or Man Friday."
Similar language appears in a 2009 U.S. State Department cable (09LONDON1156), which offered a description of the U.K. government's views about the effect of the Marine Protection Act:
However, Roberts stated that, according to the HGM,s current thinking on a reserve, there would be “no human footprints” or “Man Fridays” on the BIOT’s uninhabited islands. He asserted that establishing a marine park would, in effect, put paid to resettlement claims of the archipelago’s former residents.
On 5 March 2012, an international petition was launched on We the People section of the whitehouse.gov website in order to ask the White House in United States to consider the Chagos case.
The petition was as follows:
- The U.S. Government Must Redress Wrongs Against the Chagossians
- For generations, the Chagossians lived on the Chagos Archipelago in the Indian Ocean. But in the 1960s, the U.S. and U.K. governments expelled the Chagossians from their homes to allow the United States to build a military base on Diego Garcia. Facing social, cultural, and economic despair, the Chagossians now live as a marginalized community in Mauritius and Seychelles and have not been allowed to return home. The recent passing of the oldest member of the exiled population underscores the urgent need to improve the human rights of the Chagossians. We cannot let others die without the opportunity to return home and obtain redress. The United States should provide relief to the Chagossians in the form of resettlement to the outer Chagos islands, employment, and compensation.
On 4 April 2012, the required signatures was met and an official response was published.
- "June 2012 update | The UK Chagos Support Association". Chagossupport.org.uk. 2009-05-12. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
- Vine, David (2009). Island of shame : the secret history of the U.S. military base on Diego Garcia. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691138695.
- "In Pictures: Chagossians' visit". BBC News. April 10, 2006. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
- "Court victory for Chagos families". BBC News. May 11, 2006. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
- "Colourful" (weekend ed.).
- "Judgments - R (On The Application of Bancoult) V Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs". Retrieved 2008-10-22.
- Press Association (11 June 2013). "Chagos Islands marine park is compatible with law, high court rules". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "Welcome to the Chagos Conservation Trust | Chagos Conservation Trust". Protectchagos.org. Retrieved 2012-06-21.
- Rincon, Paul (2010-04-01). "BBC News - UK sets up Chagos Islands marine reserve". Avaaz.org. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
- "leaked US diplomatic cable". Archived from the original on 2010-12-02. Retrieved 2010-12-01.
- "Cable Viewer". Wikileaks.org. 2009-05-15. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
- Full discussion and copy of WikiLeaks cables - "HMG FLOATS PROPOSAL FOR MARINE RESERVE COVERING THE CHAGOS ARCHIPELAGO (BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY)". The Daily Telegraph (London: TMG). 2011-02-04. ISSN 0307-1235. OCLC 49632006. Retrieved 2011-04-21.
- Richard Norton-Taylor (15 April 2013). "UK refuses to admit US embassy cables obtained by WikiLeaks are genuine". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- Owen Bowcott (18 April 2013). "Chagossians suffer blow in fight to go home as court rejects WikiLeaks cable". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- Kazerooni, Ibrahim (2010-12-03). "WikiLeaks Cables Reveal Use of Environmentalism by US and UK as Pretext to Keep Natives From Returning to Diego Garcia | Focal Points, the Blog of FPIF". Fpif.org. Retrieved 2012-06-21.
- "The U.S. Government Must Redress Wrongs Against the Chagossians". Whitehouse.gov. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "We the People: Your Voice in Our Government | The White House". .whitehouse.gov. 2013-04-01. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
- UK Chagos Support Association
- Chagos Islands Site - The oldest site in favour of the Chagos Islanders
- Let Them Return - The Chagos People's Homeland Campaign
- Diego Garcia: Paradise Cleansed by John Pilger
- Spreading democracy, by any means necessary. the US/UK and Diego Garcia
- US/UK BIOT defence agreements, 1966-1982, US Court filing
- The UK Chagos Support Association