|Operational Ilyushin Il-18 of Russia State Transport Company|
|Built by||Moscow Machinery Plant No. 30|
|First flight||4 July 1957|
|Status||Out of production, in limited service|
|Primary users||Aeroflot (Former)
|Unit cost||$24,500,000 (2011 USD equivalent)|
The Ilyushin Il-18 (NATO reporting name: Coot) is a large turboprop airliner that became one of the best known Soviet aircraft of its era as well as one of the most popular and durable, having first flown in 1957 and still being in civilian use 56 years later. The Il-18 was one of the world's principal airliners for several decades and was widely exported. Due to the aircraft's airframe durability, many achieved over 45,000 flight hours. The Il-18's successor was the long range Il-62 jet airliner.
Design and development 
Two Soviet aircraft shared the designation Ilyushin Il-18. The first Il-18 was a propeller-driven airliner of 1946 but after a year of test flights that programme was abandoned.
In the early 1950s a need to replace older designs and increase the size of the Soviet civil transport fleet, a Soviet Council of Ministers directive was issued on 30 December 1955 to the chief designers Kuznetsov and Ivchenko to develop new turboprop engines and to Ilyushin and Antonov to design an aircraft to use these engines. The two aircraft designs were developed as the Ilyushin Il-18 and the Antonov An-10 and the engine chosen was the Kuznetsov NK-4 rather than the Ivchenko AI-20.
The Il-18 design had started in 1954 before the directive was issued and experience with the piston-engined Il-18 was used although the aircraft was a new design. The design was for a four-engined low-wing monoplane with a circular pressurised fuselage and a conventional tail. The forward retracting tricycle landing gear had four-wheels fitted on the main leg bogies, the main legs bogies rotated 90 degrees and retracted into the rear of the inboard engines. A new feature at the time was the fitting of a weather radar in the nose and it was the first soviet airliner to have an automatic approach system. The aircraft has two entry doors on the port-side before and after the wing and two overwing emergency exits on each side.
The prototype SSSR-L5811 was rolled out in June 1957 and after ground-testing it began taxying test and high-speed runs on 1 July 1957. On 4 July 1957 the prototype first flew from Khodynka. On 10 July 1957 the aircraft was flown to Moscow-Vnukovo Airport to be presented to a soviet government commission, also present was the prototype Antonov An-10 and the Tupolev Tu-114. The Il-18 type was formally named Moskva and this was painted on the fuselage, although the name was not used when the aircraft entered production.
The Moscow Machinery Plant No. 30 located at Khodynka near where the Ilyushin design office and the prototype had been built was chosen to manufacture the aircraft. During 1957 the plant began to reduce its production of the Ilyushin Il-14 and prepare to build the production aircraft designated IL-18A. The Il-18A was only different to the prototype in minor details mainly internal configuration to increase the seating from 75 to 89.
The first production aircraft were powered by the Kuznetsov NK-4 but the engines were plagued with problems so the Council of Ministers decreed in July 1958 that all production from November 1958 would use the Ivchenko AI-20 and earlier production would be re-engined. Only 20 IL-18As were built before production changed to the improved Il-18B, this new variant had a higher-gross weight, the nose was re-designed with a larger radome which increased the length by 20 cm. The first Il-18B flew on 30 September 1958 powered by the AI-20, a VIP variant was also built as the IL-18S for the Soviet Air Force. From April 1961 a TG-18 Auxiliary Power Unit was fitted for ground starting rather than the bank of lead-acid batteries, some aircraft were modified to allow the APU to be run in flight.
With experience of the earlier aircraft a further improvement was the Il-18V variant. The Il-18V was structurally the same but the interior was re-designed including moving the galley and some minor system changes. The first Il-18V appeared in December 1959 and was to continue into production until 1965 after 334 had been built. Specialised variants of the aircraft also appeared including aircraft modified for flight calibration and a long-range polar variant. Military variants also appeared including the anti-submarine Ilyushin Il-38.
Operational history 
The first Il-18, equipped with NK-4 turboprop engines, flew on 4 July 1957. On 17 September 1958 the aircraft first flew with the new Ivchenko AI-20 engines. Vladimir Kokkinaki was the test pilot. Between 1958 and 1960 twenty-five world records were set by this aircraft, among them flight range and altitude records with various payloads. In 1958 the aircraft was awarded the Brussels World Fair Grand Prix. In April 1979 a monument was unveiled at Sheremetyevo airport to commemorate this remarkable aircraft.
Seventeen foreign air carriers acquired 125 Il-18 aircraft, seating 100-120 passengers. Some are still in service in Siberia and the Middle East. Several examples manufactured in the mid-1960s were still in civilian use in Africa as at 2012.
Data from:OKB Ilyushin
- Designation of the sole prototype of the Il-18 family.
- The original production model, equivalent to pre-production, powered by either Kuznetsov NK-4 or Ivchenko AI-20 turboprop engines. Circa 20 built.
- First major production model, a medium-haul airliner that could seat 84 passengers.
- Il-18 Combi
- Il-18 aircraft modified to mixed passenger / cargo configuration
- Silmilar to Il-18I, but equipped with an extra centre section fuel tank for increased range. The Il-18D is fitted with four 3,169 ekW (4,250 hp) Ivchenko AI-20M turboprop engines.
- Il-18D communications relay
- Three aircraft modified to provide communications relay between VIP aircraft and Government bodies.
- Il-18D Pomor
- A single Il-18D converted to a fisheries reconnaissance aircraft, (Pomor - person who lives by the sea)
- Il-18D Salon
- VIP version of the Il-18D
- Two IL-18Ds modified as fishery reconnaissance aircraft for the Polar Institute of Oceanic Fishery and Oceanography, the modification mainly involved the fitment of specialised mission equipment. First flown in 1985 they were later modified back as standard Il-18Ds.
- Similar to the Il-18I, but without the increased fuel capacity.
- Il-18E Salon
- VIP transport version of the Il-18E.
- Aircraft converted to cargo configuration, (Gr - Groozovoy - cargo).
- Several Il-18 aircraft modified to Gr standard with te addition of a pressurised side cargo door.
- Equipped with more powerful Ivchenko AI-20M turboprop engines, producing 3,170 kW (4,250 shp). Seating increased to 122 passengers in an enlarged cabin gained by moving the aft pressure bulkhead rearwards by 1.64 m (5 ft).
- (Letayuschchaya Laboratoriya - flying laboratory), one aircraft modified to be an anti-icing test-bed and an Il-18V used by the Czechoslovak flight test centre as an engine testbed.
- Two IL-18Vs were modified as Telemetry Relay Aircraft to rocket and unmanned air vehicle trials.
- VIP variant of Il-18B
- This designation was given to civil and military cargo transport aircraft converted from Il-18A/B/V aircraft.
- Il-18AT: Military transport/casevac version based on the Il-18A
- Il-18BT: Military transport/casevac version based on the Il-18B
- Il-18VT: Military transport/casevac version based on the Il-18V
- One IL-18T was modified as a military transport variant to take either 69 stretcher cases or 118 paratroopers. Not wanted by the military it was converted to IL-18D standard.
- One IL-18V was modified as a navigator trainer including two dorsal astro-sextant windows. Although it was tested and found acceptable the Soviet Air Force used a variant of the twin-jet Tupolev Tu-124 instead.
- Standard Aeroflot version, which entered service in 1961. The Il-18V was powered by four Ivchenko AI-20K turboprop engines, seating 90-100 passengers.
- Il-18V Salon
- VIP version of the Il-18V
- a single Il-18V modified for Polyarnaya Aviahtsiya - Polar Aviation use.
- a single Il-18V modified for Polyarnaya Aviahtsiya - Polar Aviation use with an auxiliary fuel tank in the cabin, revised window layout and enlarged oil tanks on the engines, covered by protruding fairings on the engine nacelles (sometimes referred to as the Il-18D, before the real D model emerged).
- Il-18V calibrator
- a single Il-18V operated by Interflug for navaid calibration.
- Il-20M Coot-A
- ELINT electronic, radar reconnaissance version. Also known as the Il-18D-36 Bizon.
- Four Telemetry and Communications Relay aircraft used to support the Soviet space activities, later replaced by a variant of the IL-76.
- Il-22 Coot-B
- Airborne command post version.
- Same as the Il-22 but had new mission equipment.
- Two Il-18Ds modified for ice reconnaissance similar to the IL-20M but with civilian reconnaissance equipment, both later modified back to standard configuration and sold.
- Maritime reconnaissance, anti-submarine warfare version.
- Designation of a number of different test and research aircraft, normally had a letter suffix like SL-18D for avionics trials.
- A proposed upgrade powered by two Lotarev D-236-T propfan engines.
Civil operators 
- Air Koryo - 1 in use
- NPP MIR - 1 in use
- Rossiya - 2 in use
- Egyptair (formerly United Arab Airlines)
- Ghana Airways (8 purchased, 4 later returned to the USSR)
- LOT (10 operated from 1961 until early 1990s)
- Polonia Airways (1 operated in 90s)
- Polnippon (3 operated from 1990 until 1996)
Military operators 
- Russian Air Force - Il-20 version
- Afghan Air Force (Five were delivered in 1968, and have since been retired.)
- Government of Bulgaria
- Government of Indonesia (Presidential aircraft)
- Government of Romania
Accidents and incidents 
- March 28, 1961 - ČSA Flight 511, crashed near Gräfenberg in West Germany. All 52 passengers and crew on board were killed.
- February 24, 1962 - Tarom Ilyushin 18V, off Paphos, Cyprus, landing in the sea after all 4 engines failed, perhaps due to the fuel filters icing (see List of airline flights that required gliding)
- September 5, 1967, a Ceskoslovenske Aerolinie Ilyushin IL-18 crashed shortly after takeoff from Gander, Newfoundland, Canada. 37 of the 69 passengers and crew aboard were killed.
- November 16, 1967 - While taking off from Koltsovo Airport, one of the engines of an Aeroflot Il-18 caught fire. Only 200 meters above the ground, the crew lost control of the plane, killing all 8 crew and 122 passengers.
- March 20, 1969, a United Arab Airlines Il-18 crashed while attempting to land at Aswan International Airport. 100 of the 105 passengers and crew on board were killed.
- August 28, 1971, a MALÉV Ilyushin Il-18, HA-MOC crashed into the sea near Copenhagen while executing an instrument approach. The main cause of the accident was microburst, a particularly dangerous and unpredictable meteorological phenomenon. 23 passengers and the crew of 9 died, 2 passengers survived. The captain of the plane was World War II flying ace of the Royal Hungarian Air Force, Dezső Szentgyörgyi, who was due to retire less than 3 weeks after the date of the accident.
- July 28, 1976 - ČSA Flight 001 - During a flight from Prague Ruzyně Airport, the no.3 engine (aircraft engines are numbered from the outermost port engine) of a Czech Airlines Il-18 malfunctioned. Whilst shutting down the No.3 engine, the crew inadvertently shut down No.4 engine (which was on the same wing as engine 3). This caused the aircraft to veer to the right during the emergency landing at the M. R. Štefánik Airport in Bratislava, crashing into the Zlaté Piesky lake, killing 70 passengers and 6 out of 9 crew members. Five crew members were saved right after the crash but two died later in hospital due to kerosene poisoning.
- January 18, 1988 - China Southwest Airlines Flight 4146 crashes while on approach to Chongqing Airport in China. All 108 passengers and crew on board are killed.
Specifications (Il-18D) 
Data from OKB Ilyushin
- Crew: 9 (flight crew 2 pliots ,flight engineer upfront. radio op,navigator at the back of the cockpit)
- Capacity: 65-120 passengers
- Length: 35.9 m (117 ft 9 in)
- Wingspan: 37.4 m (122 ft 8 in)
- Height: 10.165 m (33 ft 4 in)
- Wing area: 140 m2 (1,500 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 35,000 kg (77,162 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 64,000 kg (141,096 lb)
- Fuel capacity: 30,000 l (6,599 imp gal)
- Fuselage diameter: 3.5 m (11 ft)
- Max. landing weight: 52,600 kg (115,963 lb)
- Max. zero-fuel weight: 48,800 kg (107,586 lb)
- Max. taxi weight : 64,500 kg (142,198 lb)
- Powerplant: 4 × Ivchenko AI-20M axial flow turboprop engines, 3,170 kW (4,250 hp) each
- Propellers: 4-bladed AW-68 I constant speed feathering propellers, 4.5 m (14 ft 9 in) diameter
- Auxiliary power unit: TG-16M (28 Volt DC)
- Maximum speed: 675 km/h (419 mph; 364 kn)
- Maximum speed: Mach 0.65M
- Cruising speed: 625 km/h (388 mph; 337 kn) at 8,000 m (26,247 ft)
- Range: 6,500 km (4,039 mi; 3,510 nmi) with 6,500 kg (14,330 lb) payload, maximum fuel and reserves for one hour.
- 3,700 km (2,299 mi) with 13,500 kg (29,762 lb) maximum payload, at 84 - 85% of maximum continuous power.
- Service ceiling: 11,800 m (38,714 ft)
- Approach minima: ICAO CAT 1 Decision Height 60 m (200 ft) / 800 m (Visibility) or 550 m RVR
- Take-off run: 1,350 m (4,429 ft)
- Landing run: 850 m (2,789 ft)
- RPSN-2AMG: or RPSN-2N Emblema weather radar
- NAS-1B: autonomous navigation system
- DISS-1: doppler speed/drift sensor
- ANU-1: autonomous navigation computer
- Put'-4M: navigation system
- KS-6G: compass system
- DAK-DB: remote celestial compass
- RSBN-2S Svod: SHORAN (Svod - Dome)
- SP-50 Materik: ILS
- RV-UM: radio altimeter
- NI-50BM-1: navigation display
- ARK-11:main and backup ADF (automatic direction finder)
- RSB-5/1230: communications radio
- RSIU-5 (R802G): command link radio, 2 of.
- SR-2M Khrom: IFF transponder (Khrom - Chromium)
- MSRP-12-96: flight data recorder
See also 
Related development 
Comparable aircraft 
Related lists 
- Gordon and Komissarov 2004, pp. 7-9
- Gordon and Komissarov 2004, pp. 13-49
- The Local, 7th October 2011. 
- Gordon, Yefim; Dmitry Komissarov (2004). OKB Ilyushin. Sergey Komissarov (1st ed.). Hinkley: Midland publishing. pp. 193–251. ISBN 1-85780-187-3.
- Michał Petrykowski, Samoloty Ił-18 Lufthansy, Lotnictwo Nr. 12/2009, p.20 (Polish)
- AeroLOT Fleet history
- Aviation Safety Network
- Gordon, Yefim and Komissarov, Dmitry. Ilyushin Il-18/-20/-22 - A Versatile Turboprop Transport. Hinckley, Leicestershire, UK: Midland Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-85780-157-1
- Gordon, Yefim; Dmitry Komissarov (2004). OKB Ilyushin. Sergey Komissarov (1st ed.). Hinkley: Midland publishing. pp. 193–251. ISBN 1-85780-187-3.
- Ilyushin Il-18 accident database at AirDisaster.Com
- Flight simulator Il-18 in the Museum of Technology "Hugo Junkers" in Dessau (Germany)
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