Ilyushin Il-76

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Il-76
Volga-Dnepr Ilushin Il-76TD-90VD Beltyukov.jpg
Il-76TD-90VD of Volga-Dnepr in 2011
Role Strategic airlifter
National origin Soviet Union / Russia
Manufacturer Ilyushin / Tashkent Aviation Production Association
First flight 25 March 1971
Introduction June 1974[1]
Status In production, in service
Primary users Russian Air Force
Ukrainian Air Force
Indian Air Force[2]
TransAVIAexport Airlines
Number built 960[3]
Variants Ilyushin Il-78
Beriev A-50
KJ-2000

The Ilyushin Il-76 (NATO reporting name: Candid) is a multi-purpose four-engine strategic airlifter designed by the Ilyushin design bureau. It was first planned as a commercial freighter in 1967, as a replacement for the Antonov An-12. It was designed for delivering heavy machinery to remote, poorly serviced areas of the USSR. Military versions of the Il-76 have seen widespread use in Europe, Asia and Africa, including use as an airborne refueling tanker or as a command center.

The Il-76 has seen extensive service as a commercial freighter for ramp-delivered cargo, especially for outsized or heavy items unable to be otherwise carried. It has also been used as emergency response transport for civilian evacuations as well as for humanitarian/disaster relief aid around the world. Because of its ability to operate from unpaved runways, it has been useful to undeveloped areas. Specialist models have also been produced for aerial fire-fighting and zero-G training.

Design and development[edit]

The aircraft was first conceived by Ilyushin in 1967 to meet a requirement for a freighter able to carry a payload of 40 tons (88,000 lb) over a range of 5,000 km (2,700 nmi; 3,100 mi) in less than six hours, able to operate from short and unprepared airstrips, and capable of coping with the worst weather conditions likely to be experienced in Siberia and the Soviet Union's Arctic regions. It was intended as a replacement for the An-12. Another intended version was a double-decked 250-passenger airliner but that project was cancelled. The Il-76 first flew on March 1971 (1971-03).[4]

Il-76 of the Indian Air Force lands in Leh, Ladakh.

Production of Il-76s was placed in Tashkent Aviation Production Association in Tashkent, Uzbekistan (then a republic of the Soviet Union). Some 860 of the basic transport variants were made.[5] In the 1990s, modernized variants were developed (MF, TF), with a cargo compartment 20 m long by 3.4 m wide by 3.4 m tall, but were not produced in significant quantity due to financial problems of the major user, the Russian Air Force. The prototype of the longer variant Il-76MF, with greater capacity, first flew on 1 August 1995. The production ceased around 1997, and the factory has since deteriorated.

Some commercial aircraft were modernized to the Il-76TD-90VD version, starting from 2004, using new PS-90 engines to meet European noise limits.[1] In 2005, China ordered[clarification needed] in Russia 34 new Il-76MDs and 4 Il-78 tankers, and the factory in Tashkent produced 16 incomplete airframes.

Production of the Il-476 at a new production line at the Aviastar factory in Ulyanovsk, Russia, in cooperation with the Tashkent works, is under consideration.[5] The construction of two prototype Il-476s has begun at the Ulyanovsk facility.[6] In June 2013, Russian military export agency Rosoboronexport announced an order by China for 12 Il-76MD aircraft.[7]

Modified versions[edit]

The Il-76 has also been modified into an airborne refueller, otherwise known as a tanker aircraft (Il-78, some 50 were made[5]), and a waterbomber. Its airframe was used as a base for the Beriev A-50 'Mainstay' AEW&C (airborne early warning and control) aircraft (some 25 were made[5]). Still more applications have been found in Antarctic support flights and simulated weightlessness training for cosmonauts.[8] Beriev and NPO Almaz also developed an airborne laser flying laboratory designated A-60, of which two were built, although little is known about it, as the project is still classified.[9]

Operational history[edit]

USAF and IAF airmen work inside the cockpit of an Indian Il-76.

First aircraft were delivered to the Soviet Air Force in June 1974.[1] Next it became the main Soviet strategic transport aircraft. From 1976 it was operated by Aeroflot.

Between 1979 and 1991, the Soviet Air Force Il-76s made 14,700 flights into Afghanistan, transporting 786,200 servicemen, and 315,800 tons of freight. The Il-76 carried 89% of Soviet troops and 74% of the freight that was airlifted. As Afghan rebels were unable to shoot down high-flying Il-76s, their tactics were to try and damage it at take-off or landing. Il-76s were often hit by shoulder-launched Stinger and Strela heat-seeking missiles and large-calibre machine-gun fire, but because the strong airframes were able to take substantial damage and still remain operational, the aircraft had a remarkably low attrition rate during the period of conflict. Building on that experience, the bulk of the Canadian Forces equipment into Afghanistan is flown in using civilian Il-76.[10] In 2006, the Russian Air Force had about 200 Il-76s. Civilian users in Russia have 108.[5]

In 2004, a Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) Il-76 carried out flight mission in Afghanistan, later in 2011, PLAAF Il-76s were sent to Libya to evacuate Chinese citizens. The two missions were reported first steps of PLAAF developing long-range transportation capacity.[11]

Syrian Air Force Il-76s, operating as civil Syrianair aircraft have been reportedly used to ship weapons, money and other cargo from Russia and Iran to Syria, according to a defected Syrian military pilot. Since the start of the rebellion, in April 2011 (and up to July 2012), around 20 military flights have been conducted to and from Tehran, via Iraqi airspace. Further information exposes that since around 2012, Syrian Il-76s have regularly flown to Moscow's Vnukovo Airport to fetch shipments of Syrian banknotes that have been useful to Bashar al-Assad's regime to survive international sanctions.[12][13][14]

Variants[edit]

Prototypes and developmental variants[edit]

Il-76TD, one of the first variants, at Zurich Airport.
  • Izdeliye-176: prototype Il-76PP.
  • Izdeliye-576:
  • Izdeliye-676: Telemetry and communications relay aircraft, for use during trial programmes (prototype).
  • Izdeliye-776: Telemetry and communications relay aircraft, for use during trial programmes (prototype).
  • IZdeliye-976 ("SKIP")[15] - (СКИП - Самолетный Контрольно-Измерительный Пункт, Airborne Check-Measure-and-Control Center): Il-76/A-50 based Range Control and Missile tracking platform. Initially built to support Raduga Kh-55 cruise missile tests.
  • Izdeliye-1076: Special mission aircraft for unknown duties.
  • Izdeliye-1176: ELINT electronic intelligence aircraft, a.k.a. Il-76-11
  • Il-76TD-90 / Il-76MD-90: Engine upgrades to Perm PS-90s.
  • Il-76 firebomber: Fire-fighting aircraft to drop exploding capsules filled with fire retardant.
  • Il-76PSD: SAR version of Il-76MF
  • Il-96: Early development of convertible passenger/cargo aircraft, (project only, designation re-used later)
  • Il-150: proposed Beriev A-50 with Perm PS-90 engines.
  • Beriev A-60: Airborne laser weapon testbed. (Il-76 version 1A)

Military variants[edit]

Il-76TD glass nose
Il-76MD cargo cabin
  • Il-76-Tu160 tailplane transporter: One-off temporary conversion to support Tu-160 emergency modification programme.
  • Il-76D: ('D' for "Desantnyi", Десантный - "Paratrooper transport") has a gun turret in the tail for defensive purposes.
  • Il-76K/Il-76MDK/Il-76MDK-II: Zero-g cosmonaut trainer (dlya podgotovki kosmonavtov), for Yuri Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Center.
  • Il-76LL: Engine testbed, (ooniversahl'naya letayuschchaya laboratoriya).
  • Il-76M: Military transport version, (modifitseerovannyy - modified).
  • Il-76MD: Improved military transport version, (modifitseerovannyy Dahl'ny - modified, long-range).
  • Il-76MD Skal'pel-MT: - Mobile Hospital
  • Il-76M / Il-76MD: Built without military equipment but designated as Ms and MDs (Gordon - 'Falsies')
  • Il-76MD-90: An Il-76MD with quieter and more economical Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines.
  • Il-76MF: Stretched military version with a 6.6 m longer fuselage, PS-90 engines, maximum take-off weight of 210 tonnes and a lift capability of 60 tonnes. First flew in 1995, not built in series so far,[1] just built for Jordan.
  • Il-76PP: ECM aircraft, major problems with ECM equipment on the Izdeliye-176 only.
  • Il-76MDM: modernized Il-76MD for the Russian Air Force.
  • Il-76MD-90A (also known as Il-476 while in development): An updated version with a new glass cockpit, updated avionics and Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines.[16][17]
  • Il-76T/Il-76TD: Built as military aircraft but given civilian designations. (Gordon - 'Falsie')
  • Il-78 / Il-78M: Aerial refuelling tanker.
    • Il-78 MKI: A customized version of the Il-78 developed for the Indian Air Force.
  • Il-82: Airborne Command Post/communications relay aircraft, (alternative designation - Il-76VKP-'version65S').
  • Il-84: Maritime Search and Rescue aircraft, (alternative designation - Il-76PS-poiskovo-spasahtel'nyy), not produced.
  • Beriev A-50/Beriev A-50M/Beriev A-50I/Beriev A-50E: - Airborne Early Warning & Control aircraft. Beriev given control over the program.

Civil variants[edit]

A commercial variant of Ilyushin Il-76 loading cargo at Ali Base in Iraq.
A waterbomber Il-76TD belong to IRGC
  • Il-76MGA: Initial Commercial freighter. (2 prototypes and 12 production)
  • Il-76MD to Il-76TD conversions: Complete removal of Military equipment, identified by crude cover over OBIGGS inlet in Starboard Sponson.
  • Il-76P / Il-76TP / Il-76TDP / Il-76MDP: Firefighting aircraft. The Il-76 waterbomber is a VAP-2 1.5 hour install/removal tanking kit conversion. The Il-76 can carry up to 13,000 U.S. gallons (49,000 liters) of water; 3.5 times the capacity of the C-130 Hercules. Since this kit can be installed on any Il-76, the designation Il-76TP, Il-76TDP are also used when those versions of the Il-76 are converted into waterbombers. The Il-76P was first unveiled in 1990.
  • Il-76T: ('T' for Transport, Транспортный) unarmed civil cargo transport version. NATO code-name "Candid-A". It first flew on November 4, 1978.
  • Il-76TD: The civil equivalent of the Il-76MD, first flew in 1982.
  • Il-76TD-90VD: An Il-76TD with Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines and a partial glass cockpit. It was developed specially for Volga-Dnepr cargo company, which operates 4 aircraft as of 2012.
  • Il-76TD-S: Civilian mobile Hospital, similar to Il-76MD Skal'pel-MT.
  • Il-76TF: Civil transport stretched version with Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines. It is the civil version of the Il-76MF (none produced).
  • Il-76MD-90A (also known as Il-476 while in development): An updated version with a new glass cockpit, updated avionics and Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines.[16][17]

Foreign variants[edit]

The A-50E/I Mainstay of the Indian Air Force
  • A-50E/I Phalcon: For the Indian Air Force. Hosts Israeli Phalcon radar for AEW&C and Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines.[18]
  • Il-76MD tanker: Iraqi Air Force tanker conversions.
  • KJ-2000: Domestic Chinese airborne early warning and control conversion of Il-76, developed after A-50I was cancelled and currently in service with the armed forces of China.
  • CFTE engine testbed: The China Flight Test Establishment (CFTE) currently operates a flying testbed converted from a Russian-made Il-76MD jet transport aircraft to serve as a flying testbed for future engine development programmes. The first engine to be tested on the aircraft is the WS-10A “Taihang” turbofan, currently being developed as the powerplant for China’s indigenous J-10 and J-11 fighter aircraft. The #76456 Il-76MD, acquired by the AVIC 1 from Russia in the 1990s, is currently based at CFTE’s flight test facility at Yanliang, Shaanxi Province.
  • Baghdad-1: Iraqi development with a radar mounted in the cargo hold, used in the Iran - Iraq war.
  • Baghdad-2: Iraqi development (with French assistance) with fibreglass-reinforced plastic radome over the antenna of the Thomson-CSF Tiger G surveillance radar with a maximum detection range of 350 km (189 nmi, 217.5 mi). One was destroyed on the ground during the Persian Gulf War; two others were flown to Iran where they remained.[19] At least one went into service with IRIAF. One aircraft crashed following a midair collision with a HESA Saeqeh fighter during the annual Iranian military parade in Teheran.[20] It can be distinguished from the Beriev A-50 by having the Il-76 navigator windows in the nose, which the A-50 does not.

Operators[edit]

Present and ex-Il-76 operators. (Red=Military only. Green=Civilian only. Blue=Both)

Military and civil operators in 38 countries have operated 850+ Il-76 in large numbers. While Russia is the largest military operator of the Il-76, followed by Ukraine and India, Belarus' TransAVIAexport Airlines is the largest civilian operator. In the list below, known current operators are listed in italics.

 Algeria
  • The Algerian Air Force operates 18 Il-76 aircraft, including 3 Il-76MD, 9 Il-76TD, and 6 Il-78 Midas.
 Angola
  • The Angolan Air Force operated one Il-76 which crashed on 27/08/09 near 4 de Fevereiro Internacional Airport
  • Gira Globo operates 1 Il-76.
 Armenia
 Azerbaijan
 Belarus
 Burkina Faso
 Cambodia
 China
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Republic of the Congo
  • The Republic of the Congo operates an Il-76.
 Cuba
  • Cubana used to operate 2 Il-76s.
 Equatorial Guinea
 Georgia
  • Sun Way has operated the Il-76TD.
 Hungary
Indian air force pilots walk away from their Il-76 medium cargo jet after landing at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii.
 India
  • The Indian Air Force current fixed-wing transport fleet comprises 24 Il-76s and more than 100 AN-32s.[23] 17 Il-76MD, 6 Il-78MKI aircraft and 2 A-50 with Israeli Phalcon radars for AEW&C.[24] Mostly for transporting supplies in high altitude regions in Jammu and Kashmir and Siachen region
 Iran
 Iraq
 Jordan
 Kazakhstan
Air Almaty Il-76T
 Kyrgyzstan
 Laos
  • Imtrec aviation of Cambodia operates Laos registered Il-76TD.
 Latvia
  • Inversija operates 3, including 2 Il-76T and 1 Il-76TD.
 Libya
 Mali
 Moldova
 North Korea
 Russia
 Serbia
 Sierra Leone
  • Aerolift Sierra Leone operates Il-76 aircraft for special charter and cargo lift operations.[32]
 Soviet Union
  • The Soviet Air Force operated hundreds of the aircraft, with an inventory of 310 in 1987. Most were dispersed to the successor states upon the breakup of the Soviet Union.
  • Aeroflot was the main civil user of the aircraft during the period of the Soviet Union, although many of its aircraft were operated on behalf of the military.
  • Jet Air Cargo was one of the first civil operators of the Il-76 in Russia other than Aeroflot.
 Sudan
 Syria
 Turkmenistan
 Ukraine
 United Nations
 United States
 United Arab Emirates
 Uzbekistan
 Yemen

Incidents and accidents[edit]

  • On 23 November 1979, a Soviet Air Force Il-76, registration CCCP-86714, banked left during an approach to Vitebsk Airport. Control of the aircraft was lost and the aircraft crashed, killing a crew of seven.[34]
  • On 11 December 1988, an Aeroflot Il-76 crashed on approach to Leninakan, Armenia killing all 78 on board. The aircraft was on an air relief operation following the 1988 Spitak earthquake.[35]
  • On August 3, 1995, a Il-76 piloted by a Russian crew was forced down by Taliban fighter plane sparking the Aerostan incident
  • On 19 August 1996, an Il-76T crashed while trying to land at Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport, killing all 14 occupants on board.[36]
  • On 12 November 1996, Kazakhstan Airlines Flight 1907, an Il-76 had a mid-air collision near New Delhi, India with a Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747, resulting in the loss of all 349 lives aboard both aircraft. The accident was ruled as pilot error, with the Il-76 aircraft failing to follow air-traffic controller instructions.
  • On 27 November 1996, a Russian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76MD, registration RA-78804, flew into the hillside of a mountain minutes after it departed Abakan Airport, and crashed 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) off the airport. All 21 occupants on board lost their lives in the accident.[37][38]
  • On 13 July 1998, an ATI Aircompany Il-76MD, registration UR-76424, crashed in the Persian Gulf shortly after departing Ra'sal-Khaymah Airport bound for Nikolaev Airport. The crew of eight perished in the accident.[39][40]
  • On 2 December 2001, Armed Forces of the Russian Federation Flight 9064 crashed at Novaya Inya, Russia, following an on-board fire, killing 18 on board.
  • On 19 February 2003, an Ilyushin Il-76 crashed near Kerman, Iran under unspecified reasons (possibly weather-related). The crash killed 275 people, including hundreds of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard.
  • On 8 May 2003, the rear loading ramp of an Il-76 leased by the Congolese government unexpectedly opened at 10,000 feet after taking off from the capital Kinshasa. Initial reports were that over 120 policemen and their families had been sucked out in 45 minutes,[41] but actual losses were only 14.[42]
  • On 11 November 2005, A Royal Airlines Cargo Il-76MD, s/n 0053464926, crashed into a hill 30 km north-west of Kabul, Afghanistan.
  • On 23 March 2007, a Transaviaexport Il-76 was shot down by an anti-aircraft missile while taking off from Mogadishu, Somalia. Everybody on board, 7 crew and 4 passengers, was killed.[43]
  • On 30 June 2008, an Ilyushin Il-76 exploded into a fireball on take-off from Khartoum International Airport in Sudan. All four crew were killed.[44]
  • On 15 January 2009, two Russian Ministry of Interior Il-76MDs were involved in a ground collision at Makhachkala Airport. One of the aircraft, registration RA-76825, was ready to depart and was positioned at the runway end when the other one, RA-76827, came into land. The wing of the landing aircraft struck the flight deck of RA-76825 and a fire erupted. There were three fatalities in the departing aircraft, out of seven occupants on board. None of the 31 occupants aboard RA-76827 were hurt. RA-76825 was written off as a consequence of the accident.[45][46]
  • On 9 March 2009 Aerolift Il-76 S9-SAB crashed into Lake Victoria just after takeoff from Entebbe Airport, Uganda, killing all 11 people on board. Two of the engines had caught fire on take-off. The aircraft was chartered by Dynacorp on behalf of AMISOM. The accident was investigated by Uganda's Ministry of Transport, which concluded that all four engines were time-expired and that Aerolift's claim that maintenance had been performed to extend their service lives and the certification of this work could not be substantiated.[47]
  • On 27 August 2009, Il-76 "T 906" of the Forças Armadas Angolanas aborted its take-off from Quatro de Fevereiro Airport, Luanda, Angola, and overran the end of the runway. There were no casualties among the eight crew and 33 passengers.[48]
  • On 22 September 2009, Il76-MD "5-8208" of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force crashed near Varamin killing all seven people on board.[49] The crash was the result of a mid air collision with a Northrop F-5E Tiger II.[50]
  • On 1 November 2009, Il-76MD (tail number RA-76801) of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs crashed soon after take-off from Mirny Airport in Yakutia killing all 11 people on board. The plane had no cargo, it was a repositioning flight to Irkutsk. The Il-76 banked to the right, its wing hit a pile of mine tailings and it crashed into the ground near an old diamond mine.[51][52]
  • On 28 November 2010 a Sun Way Flight 4412, Il-76 4L-GNI, crashed in a populated area of Karachi, Pakistan, shortly after taking off from Jinnah International Airport. All eight people on board were killed, along with two people on the ground. The aircraft was reported to have been trying to return to Jinnah after suffering an engine fire.[53]
  • On 6 July 2011 a Silk Way Il-76, tail number 4K-AZ55, crashed into a mountain in Afghanistan, while on final to Bagram Air Force Base. Eight people on board were initially confirmed as killed, with one unaccounted.[54][55]
  • On 14 August 2012 a Volga-Dnepr Airlines Il-76TD-90VD overran runway 11 while landing at St. John's International Airport in Newfoundland, Canada and came to rest in the grass overrun area. There was minor damage to the aircraft and no injuries to the crew of nine.[56]
  • On 30 November 2012 an Aéro-Service[21] Il-76T (also reported as being operated by Trans Air Congo in the days after the accident[57]) crashed 850 meters short of runway 5L of the Congo's Maya-Maya Airport in Brazzaville while landing during a violent storm, killing 32, including the 5 aircrew, another person on board and 26 people on the ground.[58]

Preserved Aircraft[edit]

  • UR-UCI (cn 083414444) Preserved at State Museum of Aviation, Kiev-Zhulyany.

Specifications (Il-76TD-90)[edit]

Ilyushin Il-76.svg

Data from Ilyushin,[59] Aviadvigate,[60] Volga-Dnepr Airlines.[61]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

  • Guns: 2× 23 mm cannon in radar-directed manned turret at base of tail
  • Bombs: Some military models have 2 hardpoints under each outer wing capable of supporting 500 kg bombs.

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 60,000 kg for the Il-76MF/TF
  2. ^ 92,000 kg (Il-76MD/TD), 104,000 kg (Il-76MF/TF)
  3. ^ for other models: 170,000 kg (Il-76M/T), 190,000 kg Il-76MD/TD), 210,000 kg (Il-76MF/TF)
  4. ^ 4,000 km (Il-76M/T), 4,400 km (Il-76MD/TD), 4,200 km (Il-76MF/TF)
  5. ^ 633.3 kg/m² (Il-76MD/TD)
  6. ^ 0.282 (Il-76M/T), 0.252 (Il-76MD/TD), 0.228 (Il-76MF/TF)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Butowski, Piotr. Iliuszyn Ił-76 powraca. Lotnictwo nr. 9/2004, p. 28-32 (Polish)
  2. ^ "Ilyushin beriev IL-76 Candid (Gajraj)". Indian-military.org. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  3. ^ [ Ilyushin Il-76: Russia's Versatile Jet Freighter]
  4. ^ "Ilyushin". Flightglobal. Flight International. 4 December 1996. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Butowski, Piotr. Rosyjski kontrakt na Ił-76 i Ił-78 dla Chin. Lotnictwo nr. 1/2007, pp. 54-55 (Polish)
  6. ^ "Поставки транспортников Ил-476 заказчикам начнутся в 2012 году - ВПК.name". Vpk.name. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  7. ^ "IL-76MD aircraft will be provided to China". Retrieved 2013-06-17. [unreliable source?]
  8. ^ "File:Марка России 2006г №1073-Самолет ИЛ-76ТД и научно-экспедиционное судно "Академик Федоров"; панорама станции.jpg". Stamps of Russia. Publishing and Trading Centre "Marka". 2006-01-26. Retrieved 2009-04-11. 
  9. ^ A-60 brief description
  10. ^ Canadian Parliament Website[dead link]
  11. ^ "IL-76s' mission in PLAAF, China". Retrieved 2011-09-06. 
  12. ^ Wilson, Nigel (24 March 2013). "I flew secret missions carrying cash and weapons into Syria for Assad, pilot reveals". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  13. ^ http://www.propublica.org/article/flight-records-list-russia-sending-tons-of-cash-to-syria
  14. ^ http://www.contact.az/docs/2013/Politics/032600032347en.htm#.Ud5Cym15uJI
  15. ^ "The Ilyushin Il-76". Vectorsite.net. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  16. ^ a b "ASIAN DEFENCE: Russian to receive Il-476 transport planes in 2012". Theasiandefence.blogspot.com. 2009-12-25. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  17. ^ a b Il-476
  18. ^ Aviation and Aerospace
  19. ^ AEW&C and Hawkeyes - The Complete History of Airborne Early Warning
  20. ^ YouTube - IRIAF IL-76MD "Simorgh" (Phoenix) AWACS Crash (Sep 22, 2009)‏
  21. ^ a b Hradecky, Simon (December 1, 2012 (Updated December 2, 2012)). "Crash: Aero Services IL76 at Brazzaville on Nov 30th 2012, clipped trees then impacted buildings short of runway". Aviation Herald. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  22. ^ [1][dead link]
  23. ^ "India Seeks To Bolster Transport With 10 C-17s". Defense News. 2009-11-05. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  24. ^ "Indian Air Force :: Aircraft Fleet Strength". Bharat-rakshak.com. 2009-10-19. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  25. ^ Jordan International Air Cargo
  26. ^ "Lease", Air Almaty
  27. ^ Jet Line
  28. ^ http://en.rian.ru/mlitary_news/20121004/176407559.html
  29. ^ http://www.jamierochepr.co.uk/newsletters/volga-dnepr/august2008/download/Volga-Dnepr_Big_News_Issue_15.pdf
  30. ^ http://www.heavyliftpfi.com/content/NewsItem.aspx?id=3747
  31. ^ a b Trgovao oružjem sa bivšim agentima KGB at Blic Online, 17-12-2009, retrieved 19-11-2013 (Serbian)
  32. ^ "Ilyushin 76", Aerolift
  33. ^ JUBA Cargo
  34. ^ Accident description for CCCP-86714 at the Aviation Safety Network
  35. ^ Accident description for CCCP-86732 at the Aviation Safety Network
  36. ^ Accident description for RA-76513 at the Aviation Safety Network
  37. ^ Accident description for RA-78804 at the Aviation Safety Network
  38. ^ "IL-76 hits mountain". Flight International. 4 December 1996. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. 
  39. ^ Accident description for UR-76424 at the Aviation Safety Network
  40. ^ "Il-76 crash in Gulf". Flightglobal. Flight International. 22 July 1998. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. 
  41. ^ Astill, James (10 May 2003). "At 10,000 feet the door flipped open and scores of passengers were sucked out". Nairobi: The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 June 2013. 
  42. ^ "Safety Review", Flight International 20–26 January 2004 page 39
  43. ^ Hassan, Mohamed Olad (24 March 2007). "Cargo Plane Shot Down in Somalia". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 28 June 2013. 
  44. ^ "Cargo plane explodes in Khartoum, killing 4 crew". Reuters. 30 June 2008. 
  45. ^ Accident description for RA-76827 at the Aviation Safety Network
  46. ^ Accident description for RA-76825 at the Aviation Safety Network
  47. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: Aerolift IL76 at Entebbe on Mar 9th 2009, impacted Lake Victoria after takeoff". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 27 December 2010. 
  48. ^ "RECENT ACCIDENTS / INCIDENTS WORLDWIDE". JACDEC. Retrieved 28 August 2009. 
  49. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  50. ^ "Iranian Military Planes Crashes in Annual Parade". Defensenews. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  51. ^ "Вести.Ru: Экипаж не смог справиться с сильным креном Ил-76". Vesti.ru. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  52. ^ Berry, Lynn for Associated Press. "Russian military cargo plane crashes on takeoff, killing all 11 crew members on board". Dailypress.com, 1 November 2009.
  53. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: Sun Way IL76 at Karachi on Nov 28th 2010, engine fire". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  54. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: Silk Way IL76 near Bagram on Jul 6th 2011, impacted mountain". The Aviation Herald. The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 6 July 2011. 
  55. ^ "Cargo plane crash in Afghanistan". BBC News. 6 July 2009. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. 
  56. ^ Canadian Transportation Safety Board - Aviation investigation A12A0082
  57. ^ "2012 Ilyushin 76T Accident". Accident description. aviation-safety.net. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  58. ^ "Plane crashes houses in Congo killing 30". heraldsun.com.au. Australian Associated Press (AAP). 30 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  59. ^ "IL-76TD-90." Ilyushin.
  60. ^ "PS-90A-76 Aircraft Engine." Aviadvigate.
  61. ^ "IL-76TD-90VD". Volga-Dnepr Airlines. Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. 
  62. ^ http://www.generalequipment.info/IL76TD%20PS90.htm
  • Eden, Paul (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London, UK: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9. 

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