|An Aeroflot Il-96-300|
|Role||Widebody jet airliner|
|Built by||Voronezh Aircraft Production Association|
|First flight||September 28, 1988|
|Introduction||December 29, 1992 with Aeroflot|
US$ 40-50 million
|Developed from||Ilyushin Il-86|
The Ilyushin Il-96 (Russian: Ил-96) is a four-engined long-haul wide-body airliner designed by Ilyushin in the former Soviet Union and manufactured by the Voronezh Aircraft Production Association in Voronezh, Russia. It is powered by four Aviadvigatel PS-90 two-shaft turbofan engines.
Design and development
The Ilyushin Il-96 is a shortened, long-range, and advanced technology development of Russia's first widebody airliner, the Ilyushin Il-86. It features supercritical wings fitted with winglets, a glass cockpit, and a fly-by-wire control system. It was first flown in 1988 and certified in 1992. The basic Il-96-300 is equipped with modern Russian avionics integrating six multi-function colour LCD displays, inertial and satellite navigation systems, and a Traffic Collision Avoidance System (including mode "S"). It allows the airplane to be operated with two crew members. The avionics correspond to modern requirements on international routes in Europe and North America (RNP-1) and allow navigation and landing under ICAO CAT III/A conditions. The Il-96 is offered in three main variants: the Il-96-300, Il-96M/T and Il-96-400.
The Il-96-300 has a standard passenger capacity of 262 seats in a two-class configuration with 18 seats with a seat pitch of 54 inches (140 cm) and 244 seats with a pitch of 32 inches (81 cm), of which typical seating is 3-3-3 (layout), but low density seating is 2-4-2 (layout possible). Galleys are positioned on the upper deck, and the lower deck can accommodate 18 LD-3 containers and crew rest areas. Although its list price is more than 30% lower than equivalent Western types, Russian airlines are not particularly eager to buy it. As of September 2006[update], there were only 17 Il-96-300s in operation with Aeroflot (6 of the 17), KrasAir (2), Domodedovo Airlines (3; actually operated by Krasair on behalf of AiRUnion alliance), Atlant-Soyuz Airlines (1; cargo version), Cubana de Aviación (3) and Rossiya (2). Two more aircraft are being readied at the plant in Voronezh for shipment to the government of Cuba. Aeroflot and Transaero received tax exemption when importing Western-built aircraft in exchange for their promising to buy a few Il-96s each. Aeroflot-Cargo initiated talks about ordering 6 Il-96-400T and ordered 6 more Il-96-300
Iran Air took delivery of two Ilyushin Il-96-300s on short-term leases on from Russia's Kras Air in October 2006 and will use these aircraft on a trial basis for up to one year. If they meet its operational requirements, IFC will consider placing an order for up to four aircraft.
In June 2005, the Volga-Dnepr Group signed a 15-year financial agreement with Ilyushin Finance Corporation (IFC) to take delivery of two new-build Il-96-400T aircraft. The aircraft will be operated by Volga-Dnepr's subsidiary AirBridge Cargo. The first was due to have been delivered in late 2006.
On August 11, 2009 Russian Minister of Industry and Trade Viktor Khristenko announced that the manufacturing of the long-range aircraft of this class would be cancelled. In particular, the Il-96-300 had been deemed inferior to counterparts from Boeing and Airbus, and the manufacturer could not arrange commercially viable mass production, making only one plane per year. The cargo version of the plane, Il-96T, will remain in production. This effectively means that Russia is left without a domestically manufactured long-range wide-body passenger plane.
There are two variants of the Il-96. The Il-96-300 was launched in 1985 with introduction into service in 1993. The Il-96M was launched in 1993 with introduction into service in 2000.
The Il-96-300 is the initial variant and is fitted with Aviadvigatel (Soloviev) PS90A turbofans with a thrust rating of 16,000 kgf (157 kN, 35,300 lbf). Development started in mid-80s while the first prototype flew on 28 September 1988. The first Il-96 entered service with Aeroflot in 1993.
Range with 262 passengers and fuel reserves (for holding 75 minutes at an altitude of 450 m) in a two-class configuration is about 11,000 km (5,940 nmi), allowing flights from Moscow to US west coast cities, a far improvement over the Ilyushin Il-86. A highly customized version of the Il-96-300, called Il-96-300PU is used as the primary aircraft in the Russian presidential aircraft fleet. Three were used by Russian president Vladimir Putin, and by Dmitry Medvedev as VIP planes. The VIP aircraft is operated by Russia State Transport Company.
This variant also comes in a longer-range version dubbed Il-96-300V.
The Il-96M is a stretched variant of the Il-96-300. It features a 10 m (30 ft) fuselage stretch, is 15 tonnes (33,000 lb) heavier, is fitted with Western-style avionics, and is powered by four Pratt & Whitney PW2337 engines with a thrust rating of 165 kN (37,000 lbf). Range with 312 passengers in a three-class configuration or 92 tonne (203,000 lb) payload is about 10,400 km (5,600 nmi). This turned it into a true -but vastly more capable — Il-86 successor. The Il-96M/T is broadly comparable with the Airbus A330-300 and McDonnell Douglas MD-11CF, but is much cheaper. Development on the M/T variant stalled when the US Export-Import Bank suspended talks on financing the engines and avionics, following pressure from Boeing. The dispute was later settled following an Aeroflot order for ten Boeing 737-400s —placed in April 1997 in a deal worth US$440 million— that were granted a tax exemption by the Russian government; nevertheless, the financing was blocked again when four Boeing 767-300ERs also ordered by Aeroflot were not included in the accorded exemption. The deal was never realised.
The Il-96-400 is similar to the Il-96M, but features Russian avionics and engines. It is powered by four Aviadvigatel PS90-A1 turbofans and can carry up to 436 passengers. Typical two-class configuration will have 386 passengers. Range with 315 passengers in a three-class configuration is about 10,000 km. A special version, dubbed Il-96-400VT, was reported on Friday 19 March 2010 by the Wall Street Journal to bid on the US $40 billion Air Force Tanker Program contract. In February 2013, Cubana signed a deal for the order of three 350-seater Ilyushin Il-96-400s.
Current users (updated October 2013):
|Airline||Aircraft Type||In Service||On Order||Stored|
Production by year
- There have been no accidents with fatalities involving the Il-96 as of January 2010. Following a series of small incidents, one of which involved President Putin's jet at Turku Airport, Finland, Russian civil aviation authorities grounded all the Il-96-300s from 22 August to 3 October 2005 to examine the braking gear.
|Length||55.3 m (181 ft 7 in)||64.7 m (212 ft 3 in)||63.939 m (209 ft 9.28 in)|
|Span||60.11 m (197 ft 3 in)|
|Wing area||350 m² (3767.9 ft²)|
|Flaps/Slats||I - 2°/3° (275 KIAS), II - 3°/25° (264 KIAS), III - 10°/25° (243 KIAS),
IV - 25°/25° (210 KIAS) for Takeoff, V - 40°/25° (189 KIAS) for Landing
|Cabin width||5.70 m (18.70 ft) |
|Fuselage Diameter||6.08 m (19.94 ft)|
|Height||15.7 m (57 ft 7 in)|
|Operating Empty Weight||120,400 kg (265,198 lb)||132,400 kg (291,630 lb)||116,400 kg (256,387 lb)||122,300 kg (269,383 lb)|
|Max. Zero Fuel Weight||180,000 kg (403,000 lb)||208,400 kg (459,030 lb)|
|Max. Landing Weight||183,000 kg (403,083 lb)||220,000 kg (484,581 lb)||220,000 kg (484,581 lb)||220,000 kg (484,581 lb)|
|Max. Take-off Weight||250,000 kg (551,000 lb)||270,000 kg (595,000 lb)||270,000 kg (594,713 lb)||265,000 kg (583,700 lb)|
|Max. Payload||40,000 kg (88,105 lb)||58,000 kg (127,753 lb)||92,000 kg (202,643 lb)||58,000 kg (127,753 lb)|
|Takeoff Run at MTOW||2,340 m (7,677 ft)||3,000 m (9,843 ft)||2,700 m (8,858 ft)||2,700 m (8,858 ft)|
|Landing Run||860 m (2,821 ft)||1,800 m (5,906 ft)||1,650 m (5,511 ft)||1,650 m (5,511 ft)|
|Cruising speed||0.78 to 0.84 Mach or 850 to 870 km/h TAS (459 to 469 KTAS)|
|Maximum speed (Vmo)||0.84 Mach or 900 km/h IAS (485 KIAS)|
|Service ceiling||13,100 m (43,000 Ft)|
|Cruise Altitude||9,000 to 12,000 m (29,527 to 39,370 Ft)|
|Range with max. payload||11,500 km (6,209 nmi)||12,800 km (6,907 nmi)||5,000 km (2,699 nmi)||10,000 km (5,400 nmi)|
|Range with max. fuel||13,500 km (7,289 nmi)||15,000 km (8,100 nmi)||12,000 km (6,479 nmi)||12,000 km (6,479 nmi)|
|Max. Fuel capacity||152,620 l (40,322 US gal)|
|Engines (x4)||Aviadvigatel PS-90A||Pratt & Whitney PW2000||Pratt & Whitney PW2337
|Thrust (x4)||PS-90A: 16,000 kg
|PW2337: 17,030 kg
|PS-90A1: 17,400 kg
|Engine Dry Weight (x4)||2,950 kg
|PW2337: 3,314 kg
|Cockpit crew||Three||Two||Two (op. Three)|
|3-class Seating capacity||237||307||315|
|2-class Seating capacity||263||340||386|
|1-class Seating capacity||300||420||436|
|Cargo Capacity||F.H.1: 9,000 kg (Front)
F.H.2: 15,000 kg (Back)
F.H.3: 1,000 kg (Back)
6 LD3 (front)
10 LD3 (Rear)
|580m³ main deck
114m³ front lower deck
82m³ rear lower deck
18 LD3 (Front)
14 LD3 (Rear)
|114m³ front lower deck
82m³ rear lower deck
18 LD3 (Front)
14 LD3 (Rear)
Data from Ilyushin Aviation Complex, FAA Certification Document A54NM and Il-96-300 Pilot Manual
|Il-96-300/-400 aircraft lifetime|
- Integrated communication and navigation control panel and flight management system
- Upgraded EFIS with LCD indicators
- Inertial navigation system
- Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System
- Weather radar
- ACARS with satellite communication.
- Flight Data Recorder and Cockpit Voice Recorder
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- Gómez Lluciá, Julio (January 3, 2006). "Realiza su primer vuelo oficial IL 96-300 de" (in Spanish). Granma.[dead link]
- Kolobkov, Sergei (August 11, 2009). "The short-lived Il-96-300" (in Russian). RBC Daily. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Il-96-400". Ilyushin.
- "Il-96 registry". russianplanes.net.
- "Flight — Airline Industry news, aviation jobs & airline recruitment". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2009-12-20.
- The Vmo values for military operation are higher
- All the PS-90A turbofan can be upgraded to the new PS-90A2 version, with the latest generation FADEC of western design and many other improvements. The maintenance costs are reduced by 40%. The fuel consumption (SFC) of this version is equivalent to current Western turbofans. PS-90A2 variant meets the ETOPS-180 rules, ICAO-4 and AP-33 (equivalent to FAR-33/JAR-33). The Maximum thrust is 16,000 kg or 18,000 kg. 
- Ilyushin has not ruled out the possibility to install other engines (PW, RR, or CFM), depending on the number of requests from customers.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ilyushin Il-96.|
- Ilyushin HP (Il-96-300)
- Ilyushin HP (Il-96-400)
- Voronezh Aircraft Building Plant (Il-96-300) (Russian)
- Voronezh Aircraft Building Plant (Il-96-400) (Russian)
- Ilyushin Finance Co. (Il-96)
- Il-96 production/orders list with statistics