Image-guided surgery (IGS) is the general term used for any surgical procedure where the surgeon employs tracked surgical instruments in conjunction with preoperative or intraoperative images in order to indirectly guide the procedure. Part of the wider field of computer-assisted surgery, image-guided surgery can take place in Hybrid Operating Rooms using intraoperative imaging. A hybrid operating room is a surgical theatre that is equipped with advanced medical imaging devices such as fixed C-Arms, CT scanners or MRI scanners. Most image-guided surgical procedures are minimally invasive. A field of medicine that pioneered and specializes in minimally invasive image-guided surgery is interventional radiology.
Image-guided surgery was originally developed for treatment of brain tumors using stereotactic surgery and radiosurgery that are guided by computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) using a tecnhology known as the N-localizer. Image-guided surgery has found wide application in surgery of the sinuses, where it helps to avoid damage to brain and nervous system.
A hand-held surgical probe is an essential component of any image-guided surgery system. During the surgical procedure, the IGS tracks the probe position and displays the anatomy beneath it as, for example, three orthogonal image slices on a workstation-based 3D imaging system. Existing IGS systems use different tracking techniques including mechanical, optical, ultrasonic, and electromagnetic.
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- Interventional radiology
- Stereotactic surgery
- Computer Assisted Surgery
- Intraoperative MRI
- Frameless Stereotaxy
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