Images pour orchestre
Images pour orchestre is an orchestral composition in three sections by Claude Debussy, written between 1905 and 1912. Debussy had originally intended this set of Images as a two-piano sequel to the first set of Images for solo piano, as described in a letter to his publisher Durand as of September 1905. However, by March 1906, in another letter to Durand, he had begun to think of arranging the work for orchestra rather than two pianos.
The original title of Gigues was Gigues tristes. Debussy used his memories of England as inspiration for the music, in addition to the song "Dansons la gigue" by Charles Bordes the Tyneside folk tune "The Keel Row".
Controversy exists over the role of André Caplet in the orchestration of Gigues. Robert Orledge and Williametta Spencer are two writers, for example, who have accepted Caplet as assisting with the orchestration. In contrast, François Lesure has stated, based on manuscript examination in the Bibliothèque National (MS 1010), that Caplet did not assist with the orchestration.
II. Ibéria (1905–1908)
Ibéria is the most popular of the three orchestral Images and itself forms a triptych within a triptych. The three sections of Ibéria are:
- Par les rues et par les chemins ("In the streets and by-ways")
- Les parfums de la nuit ("The fragrance of the night")
- Le matin d'un jour de fête ("The morning of the festival day")
The music is inspired by impressions of Spain. Richard Langham Smith has commented on Debussy's own wish to incorporate ideas of juxtaposing elements of the visual arts in musical terms, including a quote from Debussy to Caplet from a letter of 26 February 1910:
You can't imagine how naturally the transition works between 'Parfums de la nuit' and 'Le Matin d'un jour de fête. Ça n'a pas l'air d'être écrit.
Matthew Brown has briefly commented on Debussy's use of techniques such as incomplete progressions, parenthetical episodes and interpolations in Ibéria.
III. Rondes de printemps ("Round dances of spring") (1905–1909)
- Orledge, Robert (1974). "Debussy's Musical Gifts to Emma Bardac". The Musical Quarterly LX (4): 544–556. doi:10.1093/mq/LX.4.544. Retrieved 2008-02-23.
- Spencer, Williametta (1980). "The Relationship between André Caplet and Claude Debussy". The Musical Quarterly LXVI (1): 112–131. doi:10.1093/mq/LXVI.1.112. Retrieved 2008-02-23.
- Pirie, Peter J. (1966). "Portrait of Debussy. 5: Debussy and English Music". The Musical Times (The Musical Times, Vol. 108, No. 1493) 108 (1493): 599–601. doi:10.2307/953799. JSTOR 953799.
- Orledge, Robert (1974). "Debussy's Orchestral Collaborations, 1911–13. 1: Le martyre de Saint-Sébastien". The Musical Times (The Musical Times, Vol. 115, No. 1582) 115 (1582): 1030–1035. doi:10.2307/960380. JSTOR 960380.
- Orledge, Robert (1996). "Reviews of Books: Claude Debussy: biographie critique by François Lesure". Music & Letters 77 (1): 132–133. JSTOR 737556.
- Richard Langham Smith, "Debussy and the Art of the Cinema" (January 1973). Music & Letters, 54 (1): pp. 61–70.
- Paul Driver, "Debussy through His Letters" (December 1987). The Musical Times, 128 (1738): pp. 687–689.
- Brown, Matthew (Autumn 1993). "Tonality and Form in Debussy's Prélude à 'L'Après-midi d'un faune". Music Theory Spectrum 15 (2): 127–143. doi:10.1525/mts.1993.15.2.02a00010. JSTOR 745811.
- Brown, Matthew; Dempster, Douglas; and Headlam, Dave; Dempster, Douglas; Headlam, Dave (Autumn 1997). "The ♯IV(♭V) Hypothesis: Testing the Limits of Schenker's Theory of Tonality". Music Theory Spectrum 19 (2): 155–183. doi:10.1525/mts.1997.19.2.02a00020. JSTOR 745752.
- Images pour Orchestre: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- "Claude Achille Debussy – Iberia: Images for Orchestra, No. 2", Unknown author, 1935 article