Imamah (Ismaili doctrine)

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The Ismā'īlī Imāmah (Arabic: اٍمامة‎) doctrine; The Ismā'īlī Imāmate differ from Twelvers because they had living imams for centuries after the last Twelver Imam went into concealment. They followed Isma'il ibn Jafar, elder brother of Musa al-Kadhim, as the rightful Imam [1] after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq. The Ismailis believe that whether Imam Ismail did or did not die before Imam Ja'far, he had passed on the mantle of the imāmate to his son Muḥammad ibn Ismā'īl al-Maktum as the next imam.[2]

The Seven Imāms[edit]

Main articles: Qarmatian and Seveners

Qarmatian - Imamāte of Seven Imāms[edit]

According to Qarmatian imāmate the number of imāms are fixed as in Ithnā‘ashariyyah but it's Seven instead of Twelve. The imāmate of Qarmatian-Seveners is different than the current Mustaali-Tayyibi and Nizārī Ismā'īlī imāmates. The imāmate considers Muħammad ibn Ismā'īl al-Maktum - The founder of Ismā'īlīsm as The Mahdi in Ghaybah.

Imām Qarmatian Sevener-Ismā'īlī Imām Period
1 Ali - First Ismā'īlī Imām (632–661)
2 Hasan ibn Ali - Second Ismā'īlī Imām (661–669)
3 Husayn ibn Ali - Third Ismā'īlī Imām (669–680)
4 Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin - Fourth Ismā'īlī Imām (680–713)
5 Muhammad al-Baqir - Fifth Ismā'īlī Imām (713–733)
6 Ja'far al-Sadiq - Sixth Ismā'īlī Imām (733–765)
7 Isma'il ibn Jafar - Seventh Ismā'īlī Imām (765 - 775)
Mahdi Muħammad ibn Ismā'īl al-Maktum - The founder of Ismā'īlīsm[3] (775-813)

The Maymūnī-Ismā'īlī ʿAqīdah[edit]

According to Ismā‘īlīsm, Allah has sent "seven" great prophets known as “Nātıq” (Spoken) in order to disseminate and improve his Dīn of Islam. All of these great prophets has also one assistant known as “Sāmad (Silent) Imām”. At the end of each seven “Sāmad” silsila, one great “Nātıq” (Spoken) has ben sent in order to reimprove the Dīn of Islam. After Adam and his son Seth, and after six “Nātıq” (Spoken) – “Sāmad” (Silent) silsila[4] (NoahShem), (AbrahamIshmael), (MosesAaron), (JesusSimeon), (Muhammad bin ʿAbd AllāhAli ibn Abu Tālib); the silsila of “Nātıqs and Sāmads have been completed with (Muhammad bin Ismā‘īl as-ṣaghīr (Maymûn’ûl-Qaddāh[5])–ʿAbd Allāh Ibn-i Maymûn[6] and his sons).

The First Seven Mustā‘lī and Nizārī Ismā'īlī imāms[edit]

Main article: List of Ismaili imams

Tāyyībī-Mustā‘lī and Nizārī Ismā'īlī imāms[edit]

The line of common Nizārī and Mustā‘lī Ismā'īlī imāms is as follows (the years of their individual imamātes during the Common Era are given in brackets):

Nizārī Imām Mustā‘lī Imām Ismā'īlī Imām Period
1 Asās/Wāsīh Ali - Mustaali "Foundation" and first Nizārī Imām (632–661)
Pir 1 Hasan ibn Ali : First Mustaali Imām ; Nizārīs consider him a pir, not an Imām (661–669) Mustā‘lī
2 2 Husayn ibn Ali : Second Ismā'īlī Imām (669–680) Mustā‘lī
(661 - 680) Nizārī
3 3 Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin : Third Ismā'īlī Imām (680–713)
4 4 Muhammad al-Baqir : Fourth Ismā'īlī Imām (713–733)
5 5 Ja'far al-Sadiq : Fifth Ismā'īlī Imām (733–765)
6 6 Isma'il ibn Jafar : Sixth Ismā'īlī Imām (765 - 775)
7 7 Muhammad ibn Ismail : Seventh Ismā'īlī Imām and first distinctly Ismā'īlī (non-Twelver) Imām (775-813)

İsmaili imāms after Muħammad ibn Ismā'īl al-Maktum[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rise of The Fatimids, by W. Ivanow. Page 81, 275
  2. ^ THE IMAMATE IN ISMAʿILISM
  3. ^ MUHAMMAD BIN ISMAIL (158-197/775-813)
  4. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, DAWR (1)
  5. ^ Öz, Mustafa, Mezhepler Tarihi ve Terimleri Sözlüğü (The History of madh'habs and its terminology dictionary), Ensar Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 2011. (This is the name of the trainer of Muhammed bin Ismā‘īl ibn Jā’far. He had established the principles of the Batiniyya Madh'hab, later.)
  6. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica, "ʿABDALLĀH B. MAYMŪN AL-QADDĀḤ"