Imamate (Twelver doctrine)

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This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shia doctrine) and is specifically about the Twelver Shia concept of the term.

Imāmah (Arabic: اٍمامة‎) means "leadership" and is a concept in Twelver theology. The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad, Prophet of Islam, in the Twelver branch of Shia Islam.[1] According to Twelver theology, the successors to Muhammad are infallible human beings, who not only rule justly over the community, but are also able to maintain and interpret sharia and undertake the esoteric interpretation of the Quran. The words and deeds of Muhammad and the Imams are a guide and model for the community to follow. For this, the Imams must be free from error and sin, and chosen by divine decree—nass—through the Prophet.[2][3]

Shia believe that divine wisdom—'Aql—is the source of the souls of the Prophets and Imams and gives them esoteric knowledge—hikmah—and that their sufferings are a means by which their devotees may acquire divine grace.[1][4][5] The Imam is not the recipient of divine revelation, but has a close relationship with God through which God guides him, and the Imam in turn guides the people. The Imamat, or belief in the divine guide, is a fundamental belief in Shia Islam and is based on the concept that God would not leave humanity without access to divine guidance.[6]

According to the Twelvers, there is always an Imam of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim community. Ali was the first Imam in this line, and in the view of Twelvers the rightful successor to Muhammad, followed by the male descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah. Each Imam was the son of the previous Imam, with the exception of Husayn ibn Ali, who was the brother of Hasan ibn Ali.[1] The twelfth and final Imam is Muhammad al-Mahdi, who is believed by the Twelvers to be currently alive and in hiding.[6]

The concept of Imamah[edit]

According to al-Mofid and Allamah Hilli Imamate is a universal authority over the religious and secular matters of the community as the successor of the prophet[7][8] and in Shia theology it means the legitimate successor to the Islamic community who are just the family of the prophet (ahl al-Bayt).[9] Allamah Tabatabaei states that Imamate is under investigation from three perpectives: Islamic government, Islamic sciences, spiritual guidance. Motahhari states that the term Imamate reflects the spiritual and socio-political leadership.[7] Shia theology, philosophy, and mysticism, politics as well as historical progression derives from the doctrine of Imamah.[10]

The necessity of Imamah[edit]

Two important functions of Muhammad were to reveal the divine law to humans and to guide them towards God. Twelver Shia believes that with the death of Muhammad, the first function, divine legislation, is completed, but that the second, guiding people and preserving and explaining the divine law, is continued through the Imams.[11] Muhammad al-Baqir, the fifth Imam, explaining why the Imams are needed, states: "So that the world may remain in righteousness, thus Allah withholds chastisement from the world while a Prophet or Imam is upon it, for Allah has said 'Allah will not chastise them while you are among them' 8:33 and the Prophet had said ' the stars are safety for the people of the heaven and the members of my family are safety for the people of the earth. By members of my family is meant the Imams....Through them Allah gives sustenance (Rizq) to His servants and through them His lands prosper and the rain falls from the heaven and the earth gives out its blessings".[12] The prophetic mission must be followed by a keeper of the Quran because it contains esoteric depth, superficial contradictions and hidden meaning. The meaning can be manifested not by ordinary knowledge but by an inspired heir who is the Hujjah of Allah. Divine knowledge is only attainable through divine revelation or inspiration.[13] While the prophet was a "legislative prophet" (nabi al-tashri), the continuation of the "esoteric prophecy" (nubuwah al-batiniyah) is through walayah. The role of the Imam in society is equivalent to the role of the mind in the body.[14]

Theological aspect[edit]

The station of Imams[edit]

Before the creation of the world, from His own light, Allah derived a light called light of Nubuwwa (prophethood) or exoteric and from that derived another light called Walaya (Imamah) or esoteric. Allah said "Here is a Light from my Light, its trunk is the prophecy and its branch is the Imamate; prophecy belongs to Muhammad, my servant and messenger and Imamate belongs to Ali, my proof and my friend. Without them I would have created none of my creation..." The very names of prophecy and Imamate are derived from the names of Allah.[15] Allah has two kinds of attributes:Essence (Dhat) and Act (Fi'l); attributes of Essence exist in Allah Himself, not having its opposites, but attributes of act, the Most Beautiful Names of Allah, are those which are manifested in His creatures, these creatures of manifestation of these attributes are Imams.Through these creatures, men could know His attributes.This is His plan to make Himself known.[16] By verse 2:124, Shia believe that the position of Imamate is higher than prophethood.[17][18] Shia believe that Imam is the God's Witness for the people, the Gate to God (bāb Allāh), and the Road (sabīl) and the Pillar of His Unity[19] so he should be infallible and chosen by God. [19] Allamah al-Majlisi, a Shia scholar of the Safawid era, states: "The Imams are superior to the prophets (except Muhammad) and the entire creation. The Covenant of the Imams was taken from the prophets, the angels and the entire creation. The major prophets called ulul-‘Azm (Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa and ‘Isa ) attained the status of ulul-‘Azm on account of loving the Imams."[20] Muḥammad al-Bāqir narrates that God chose Ibraham first as a worshipper (ʿabd), then a prophet (nabī), then a messenger (rasūl), then a friend (khalīl) and finally as an Imam over the people.[21] The Imams in many passages of Quran are referred as the Light of God (Nur), His Witnesses among mankind (Shuhada), His Signs (Ayat), those firm in knowledge (Rasikhun), the vicegerents of God on earth (Khulafa), the gates through which he is approached (Abwab), the heirs of the knowledge of the prophet.The Imam is endowed with the holy spirit (Ruh al-Kuds).[22] Shi'a Twelver believe that five Messengers achieved the rank of Leadership:

Imam as God's vicegerent (Khalifat Allah)[edit]

The Imam as vicegerent is the representative of all the attributes of God, whom he manifests. The Imam is God's image and face.[23] It is the highest position for man that is mentioned in the Quran, (2:30) which causes the angels to prostrate themselves before him. 15:30.[24] As the Quran (38:26) reflects Khalifah is God's appointee.[25] As God's best representative and sign, the vicegerent in the best way can contribute to God's goals. So every attribute which God owns by His Essence, the vicegerent also owns by accident. The vicegerent is the epiphany (mazhar)[a] of God's divine names. In fact he is the soul of the universe which can cause ontological changes in it.[26]

Imam as mediator[edit]

Allamah al-Majlisi states that the Imams are mediators between God and human kind and that through their intercession, man can escape the punishment of the last day. In addition to Muhammad being intermediate between God and man, he is also a mediator before God on behalf of his followers. According to Shia belief, this idea of mediator includes the Imams.[27] Al-Shaykh al-Saduq has recorded a tradition that the prophet told Ali: "There are three things that I swear to be true. The first is that you and your descendants are mediators for mankind, as they will not be able to know Allah except through your introduction. The second is that you are to present to Allah those who may enter Paradise, i.e. those who recognize you and those whom you recognize. The third is that you are the absolute mediators, for those who will go to Hell will only be those who do not recognize you and whom you do not recognize." Al-Baqir said that through us God is known and is worshiped by human kind...whoever calls Allah through our mediation is blessed.[28] Without Imam, theophanic form (mazhar) and Face of Allah, no one can know Allah, because through him, Allah manifests himself.[29] Mulla Sadra explains that as the Imam is the perfect man—insan al-Kamel—is a higher-degree creature and the existence of the lower depends upon the higher degree, so the existence of the Imam is necessary.[30]

Imam as Wali[edit]

Shia believe that the Divine Truth or the True Religion has two aspects: exoteric (zahir) and esoteric (batin). The exoteric side is revealed by the prophet and his Holy Book to the general people but the esoteric side is the mission of Imams and for the believers by the Esoteric interpretation of the Quran(Ta'wil).[31] As the exoteric speaks of Shariah and esoteric speaks of Haqiqah, it is not a matter of succession but a matter of simultaneity.[32] Haqiqah is based on the spiritual meaning of Quran.[33] The kinship between the prophet and Imams is the sign of their walayah, not the basis for their walayah.[34] According to Shia just those are the real faithful that "Allah has written faith upon their hearts" 58:22: only if Walayah is obtained the faith is perfect.[35] Shia theologians refer to the verse 5:55 as a proof for the Walayah of Imams.[36] According to Motahhari, Walayah has four dimensions: the right of love, loving the Ahl al-Bayt is obligatory for all Muslims, the authority of Alh al-Bayt in spiritual guidance, the authority of Ahl al-Bayt in socio-political guidance and the authority of the universal nature by the grace of Allah.[7] By Shia, in fact there must be a guardian to protect the religion against any additions or subtractions after the prophet. According to al-Baqir, the prophet has revealed the religion but in every age there must be an Imam who lead to the religion and verse 13:7 refers to Imam.[37] A hadith narrates that "He who knows himself knows his Lord.",[38] but knowing Allah without His theophanic form (Mazhar), the Face of Allah, is impossible. Imam is the one who carries the human knowledge of Allah, without him we will be trapped in ta'til or metaphysical idolatry (tashbih)."[39] Numerous Shia hadith narrates: The Quran is the silent Imam, the Imam is the speaking Quran; Imam is the Guide by whom Quran remains alive. Regarding this matter, Mulla Sadra believes that the earth can not be without an Imam otherwise Quran will die.[40] By Shia, Wali is the one who has the most love and devotion to God, so God has bestowed His knowledge to him.[41]

Imam as Hujjah[edit]

See also: Hujja

The Hujja means the proof or God's guarantee to men; as the presence of the Hujja, whether hidden or apparent, is necessary for all the times, this presence expresses the metaphysical reality of the Hujja and the inseparability of the prophetology from Imamology.[42] Al-Baqir told "...Imam is the Proof of Allah to His servants and the earth will not remain without the Proof of Allah to His servants.[12] From the Time of Adam, Allah has sent Imams to guide the people towards Him who are His Hujjah upon His worshippers.[43] Khomeni described "Proof of Allah" as follows: "A ‘Proof of Allah’ is one whom Allah has designated to conduct affairs, all his deeds, actions, and sayings constitute a proof for the Muslims. If someone commits an offence, will be made to the ‘proof’ for adducing evidence and formulating the charge. If the ‘proof’ commands you to perform a certain act, to implement the penal provisions of the law in a certain way, or to spend the income derived from booty, zakat, and sadaqa in a certain manner and if you fail to obey him in any of these respects, then God Almighty will advance a ‘proof’ against you on the day of Judgment".[44]

Political aspect[edit]

The Shia believe that the only divinely chosen one is the legitimate leader of the community who owns some spiritual gifts. The first of these leaders was Ali, and his successors were the descendants of the prophet and the heirs of the charisma of Ali.[45] Imams possess all the attributes, duties, authorities of the prophet except receiving revelation. They are the political and religious guardians over the community.[46] Although Imam has a political role, but his Imamah does not depend on his getting this role.[47] the political According to the verse 5:55, because the absolute authority belongs to Allah, He can grant this authority to whomever He wishes as Guardians.[48] Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr believes that the political and spiritual dimensions are inseparable.[49]

Necessary attributes of Imams[edit]

According to Shia theology Imam must meet three attributes: divine appointment (nass), wisdom (hikmah), superiority (afdaliyyah). This right to authority is derived back to the prophet and Quran and thereby to Allah.[50]

Nass (divine designation)[edit]

One of the fundamental principles of Shia is that Imam is designated by the prophet and every Imam nominates his successor by divine designation (nass).[51][11][52] The divine designation is a logical necessity because Imam must be infallible and as it is a hidden virtue, only Allah knows who is infallible and this designation is only expressed to the people by an infallible: the previous Prophet or Imam.[51][53] Al-Baqir stated that the prophet was commanded by Allah, before his death, to grant to Ali his knowledge, his faith and the Great Name (al-Ism al-A'zam), as well as the legacy of knowledge and prophethood so that the Divine Heritage would be continued through the prophet's progency. So one of the fundamentals in the principle of Imamate was nass al-Jali (explicit designation) which was hereditary and brought out a kind of restriction for non-legitimates.[54] Muslims believe that Allah has appointed certain members of humankind to be the leaders of those who believe in Allah and practise the religion of Allah . When the prophet had taught the people the religion, he would then appoint a leader, in accordance with the orders of Allah, to guide believers towards perfection. Imamate is a universal authority and this right is derived from (niyabah) the prophet, it is one of its branches. It concerns the religion and the world of the person.[55] Concerning Nass, Allamah Majlesi states that from the time of Adam, every prophet had a successor,[56] Imam like the prophet had a perfect authority over the Muslim community including matters of religion and government and Allah better knows who is suitable for every responsibility, because he is the Knower of Secrets.[57][58] As the prophet is the representative of Allah, his successer is also a representative of Allah, if he is to represent Allah, he must be appointed by Allah.[59] Imam can not be distinguished except by designation.[60] By the verse 2:124 of Quran, Shia believe that Imamah is something which is given by Allah and must be appointed by Him and the earth never can be without a true Imam.[61][62] The relation between Imams is a spiritual one by carrying the Muhammadan Light from one Imam to the other, not a carnal relation.[63] Shia idea that the succession should continue in the descendents of the prophet originates from the Quran as verse 4:54 implies.[64]

Ismah[edit]

Main article: Ismah

Shia believe that Ismah is a logical prerequisite of Imamah as Allah has made their obedience necessary and the verse 33:33 proves Ismah of the fourteen infallible. Ismah in addition to sinlessness means infallibility, because of being protected against errors.[65] Imam by virtue of Nass based on Hikmah (wisdom) and Nur (light) becomes Ma'sum (Infallible).[66]

Hikmah (wisdom)[edit]

Imam has a perfect knowledge about religion and mankind.[67] The Imams are the most knowledgeable in religious law and the rewards and punishments of the next world and the world of unseen. They understand the literal meaning and the internal meaning (Ta'wil) of the Quran.[68] Some Hadiths state the link between Allah and the Imams as a pillar descending from the heaven to the Imams.[69] According to some Hadiths, Imams possess several special books including Al-Jafr (The Divination), Al-Sahifa (The Book), Al-Jamia (The Compilation), Book of Fatimah, and a codex of Quran and its commentary (Mus'haf of Ali) written by Ali.[70] He has the knowledge of the Greatest Name of Allah.[71] As Imams are the manifestation of the attributes of act (fi'l) of Allah, their Knowledge is equivalent to the Knowledge of Allah.[16] Imams have all the revealed books of the prophets.[72] As Sayyid Haydar Amuli states: "All the Imams are one and the same Light (nur), one and the same Essence (haqiqah), exemplified in twelve persons."[73] The hereditary character of nass embodied in itself a kind of exclusive Hikmah for its recipient which was traced back to Ali of whom the prophet told "I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate".[74] Ibn Babaway states that "the title Amir al-Momenin reserved for Imam indicates that he is the storehouse (mirror) of knowledge (mira't al-ilm) from whom people derived knowledge but he did not derive knowledge from any one else."[75] Only it is Imam who through his Knowledge of Unseen (Ilm al-Qayb) fully understands Quran and the worldly matters, a knowledge that he has received from Allah through Muhammad. Only Quran and Imam can truly manifest the Divine Truth.[76]

Afdaliyyah (superiority)[edit]

As the Imam is infallible (masum), he is the best of his age, otherwise Allah would choose another one as His Guid and Proof.[77] Ontologically the fourteen infallibles are superior to prophets, since they are created from a nobler matter.[78] In Quran, with respect to kingship (Imamate) and wisdom (hikmah, book), the heirs of the prophets are their descendents and kins.[9] Al-Baqir expresses Imamate is in the progency of Imams as indicated in verse 33:6 which its interpretation refers to the descendants of Husayn ibn Ali.[79] He further added that the light that is mentioned in verse 64:8 refers to Imams who are the light of Allah, this spiritual light which passes from the prophet to Imams is the symbol of eternal knowledge (hikmah). Referring to the light, he told that " the first beings that Allah created were Mohammad and his family, the rightly guided ones and the guides, they were the phantoms of light before Allah".[80] Superiority of a person is not known except through Quran or hadith.[81] Although Imamate is not hereditary, Shia believe that Imamate is in the progency of Muhammad.[82]

The necessity of recognizing Imams[edit]

According to Ja'far al-Sadiq: " We are the ones to whom Allah has made obedience obligatory. The people will not prosper unless they recognize us and the people will not be excused if they are ignorant of us. He who has recognised us is a believer (Momin) and he who has denied us is an unbeliever (Kafir)"...[71] Al-Riza remarks that "....whoever tends not to be separated from Allah, he love the household of Mohammad ...and follow his Imam, whoever does this is under the mercy of Allah..."[83] Kulaini, Na'mani attributed a tradition to al-Baqir that whoever worships Allah without recognizing his righteous Imam, his worship is not accepted.[83]

The necessity of obeying Imams[edit]

If the Imamate of Imams is not affirmed, one can not enter into heaven.[14] Al-Baqir states that according to verse 42:23, Not only the obedience of Imams but also their love is incumbent upon the believers.[84] Shia believe that Imamah is inseparable from Wilayah [b] which involves loveing ahl al-Bayt namely Imams, obeying them in their commands and prohibitions, recognising their rights and believing in their Imamat and this is one of the five principles (usul) of Shia.[85] According to al-Khu'i: "the wilayat and imamate in the meaning of succession (khilafat) is an essential part (dharuriy) of Shi'ism; anyone who rejects this dimension of the wilayat would not be considered as a Shia".[7] Muhammad Baqir Majlisi states: "All the Imamis agree that the spiritual validity of deeds and Allah's approval of them are conditioned by faith (Imam); this point is as integral a part of faith as is love for the Twelve Imams and their imamate."[86] Sajjad, the fourth Imam, states that the religion is attained only through submission and whoever sublimts the Imams is guided and blessful. Obeying the Imams is obligatory because Allah has commanded[87]

Guidance is only through Imams[edit]

According to Tabatabaei, in Quran, 21:73, 32:24 the word guidance is used side by side by the word Imamah and is followed by "our command", a kind of guidance with a divine command which conveys the human kind to the final truth, not just showing the way to them.[88] According to Mesbahyazdi, while Allah is the Creator of the whole world, all praise is due to Him and He is the only ontological (takwini) and legislative (tashri'e) Lord. So if every one wishes to be a servant and be a monotheist, he should accept His legislative laws and accept the executer of His laws, because this is His Will (Iradah).[89] A mutawatir hadith narrates that loving the prophet's family (Ahl al-Bayt) is the sign of faith, and enmity towards them is the sign of hypocrisy.[90] According to Mottahari, every one who do not accept walayah, he is in enmity with walayah which causes his deeds be worthless 6:88, 18:105, 14:18,3:117, 25:23, because he is not humble before the Truth which is the base of a pure deed.[91] Many hadith introduce Imam as the Guide, because there is no knowledge of Allah accessible to man without the knowledge of Imam.[92] Through hadiths, in order to reach to Allah, man must pass the Path (Sirat) who are the Imams.[93]

Imamate and revelation (Wahy)[edit]

Although there is a consensus among Shia Twelvers that Imams have not received the prophetic revelation (Wahy), some Shia scholars believe they receive a weaker kind of revelation (Wahy) similar to what was received by Mary. However, Shias agree that they receive inspiration (Ilham) from Allah.[citation needed] A hadith narrates that "Imam hears the voice of the Angel, but does not have his vision, either in sleep or in waking".[17][94] Imams get Revelation but not like the prophets, they are called Muhaddath, they are spoken by angels via sounds through their ears and they are supported by the Holy Spirit, in addition they receive additional information on the Night of Power Laylat al-Qadr. They also make Spiritual Ascension to the Divine Throne on Friday to add their knowledge.[95] Regarding this matter, Shaykh al-Muzaffar explains: "We maintain that the powers of the Imams to receive inspiration have reached the highest degree of excellence, and we say that it is a Divinely given power. By this means the Imam is able to understand information about anything, anywhere, and at any time, and he understands by means of this Divinely-given power at once, without recourse to methodological reasoning or guidance from a teacher. When he desires to know about some matter, it is reflected in his pure mind as if in a polished mirror. It is clear from the histories of their lives that, like the Prophet, the Imams were not trained or taught by anyone at all, not even in reading and writing, from their childhoods to the maturing of their minds. No author or teacher was seen to instruct one of them, but they were incomparable masters of knowledge, so that they never asked about any problem without being able to answer it immediately, and they never said that they did not know. They never required time to consider a question before replying."[7]

Arguments[edit]

By Quran[edit]

The verse of Light, 24:35 is attributed to The Fourteen Infallible.[73] According to Shia sources, regarding the nature and basis of Imamate, Muhammad al-Baqir emphasizes that verse 5:55 refers to Ali.[96] According to al-Baqir's interpretation of verse 35:32, Imams are "Then we caused to inherit the Book those We have chosen of Our servants".[97] Shias mind verse 4:59 signifies a perfect love and obedience to divine guides.[49]

Imams are expressed in Quran as: "the Supreme Sign" (al-Ayat al-Kobra) 79:20, "the August Symbol" (al-Mathal al-a'la) 16:60, "the Most Solid Handle" (al-Urwat al-Wuthqa) 2:256, 31:22.[16] According to al-Baqir Imams are the Light of Allah 64:8, 57:28.[98] These Verses 28:68, 2:30, 38:26, 2:124, 21:73 state that Imamate is a divine appointment and an fallible can not be an Imam.[99] Madelung, regarding the blood ties which is found in Quran, states the superiority of Ali for his succession.[100] Regarding verse 2:124, Tabatabaei states that Imamah is a divine status, Imam must be Ma'sum (infallible), the earth can not be without an Imam, Imam have the complete knowledge which is related to this world and the next of the people, Imam excels all people in all virtues.[101]

By Hadith[edit]

A narration attributed to Ali al-Ridha reports:

In Ghadir Khum, when Ali was appointed to Imamate the verse 5:3 was revealed, which expresses that the religion had become perfect because of the appointment of Ali to Imamate.[103] and his obedience had become obligatory upon Muslims.[104] Hadith of Two Weighty Things reflects the proximity of the Imams to the Quran.[105] Addressing Hussain, the prophet said:" you are Imam, the son of the Imam, the brother of the Imam, nine of your lineal descendants will be pious Imams, the ninth of them being their Qa'im.[106] The shi'i scholar 'Allamah Kashif al-Ghita said about the Imamah: "Imamah is a divine station, just like Nubuwwah. Just as Allah chooses whomsoever He wants to for Nubuwwah and Risalah … similarly, for Imamah, too, He selects whomsoever He wishes."[107]

By reason[edit]

Al-Baqir states that while people need a guide for their journay to an strange place, how is about their journay to heaven which is stranger.[108] Al-Mufid states that an Imam is necessary for defining the exact laws which is obligatory upon the Muslims.[109] There are many verses in Quran which are ambiguous, revelation of Quran without its explanation is unlikely from Allah.[110] While Imamate makes the people nearer to obedience and away from disobedience, so it is a Grace (Lutf) which is incumbent of Allah.[111] egarding rejecting the Imamah-doctrine, al-Hilli, a 14th century Shi'a Twelver Islamic scholar, writes: "Imamah is a universal grace (lutf ‘amm) while Nubuwwah (prophethood) is a special grace (lutf khass), it is possible that a specific period in time can be void of a living Nabi, while the same is not true for the Imam. To reject the universal grace is worse than to reject the special grace[112] The prophet founded an eternal Shari'ah for all the times and this eternal religion could not continue without a leader.[113]

History of the concept of Imamah[edit]

In the period of Minor Occultation, theologians like Ibn Qube Razi, Newbakhtis, al-Shaykh al-Mufid, Seyyed Morteza, al-Shaykh al-Tusi rebuid the theological school of Imamiyah.[114] In the second and third century of Hijra, a Ma'sum (infallible) and divinely chosen leader of the religion was more focused than the political role of the Imams by the theologians.[115] Although Imamiyah believed that the Most of the works on the early Islamic centuries argue that Shi'ism began as a political movement rather than a religious group.[45] However this does not mean that religious sentiment were absent in the first century.[116] Dakake believes that the doctrine of Imamate is established in the time of Ja'far al-Sadiq, while Kohlberg states that the twelver Shi'ism dates back not much before the beginning of the "Major_Occultation".[117]

Muhammad is reported to have said that the Islamic leadership is in Koreish (i.e., his tribe) and that 12 “Imams” shall succeed him. There is a difference of opinion within Sunni and Shiite sects as to whom Muhammad was referring. It is also important to mention that Muhammad stated, and this statement has been authenticated by Sunnis and Shiites alike, that “Whoever does not know the Imam of his Lifetime (Hadith of the Current Imam: i.e., recognizes same) has died the death of Ignorance”.[85][118] Again, this statement has different interpretations and consequences with different Sunni and Shiite sects (or Schools of thought). The idea of a prophet appointing a successor is also found in the Old Testament where Joshua son of Nun is declared Moses’ successor or manager of his affairs after his death.

  • Before conception, the preceding the Imam is sent through an heavenly syrup which he drinks.
  • The Imam is born pure and circumcised. (93:5)
  • The Imam's mother experiences light and noises before the birth of the Imam.

Shias believe that just as Moses appointed Aaron as his successor (Hadith of position), in accordance with God’s order, Muhammad, the final prophet, appointed Ali ibn Abi Talib to be the leader of the believers.

The Shi'a Twelver denomination of Islam consider it to be the highest level of responsibility given by God to a human.

List of the Twelve Imams[edit]

Main article: The Twelve Imams

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ like a mirror in which the image appears without being incarnate in it
  2. ^ wilayan with kasr of waw means authority but with fatha means love, devotion
  3. ^ 1ـ أَبُو مُحَمَّدٍ الْقَاسِمُ بْنُ الْعَلاءِ رَحِمَهُ الله رَفَعَهُ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ كُنَّا مَعَ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِمَرْوَ فَاجْتَمَعْنَا فِي الْجَامِعِ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ فِي بَدْءِ مَقْدَمِنَا فَأَدَارُوا أَمْرَ الامَامَةِ وَذَكَرُوا كَثْرَةَ اخْتِلافِ النَّاسِ فِيهَا فَدَخَلْتُ عَلَى سَيِّدِي (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَأَعْلَمْتُهُ خَوْضَ النَّاسِ فِيهِ فَتَبَسَّمَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) ثُمَّ قَالَ يَا عَبْدَ الْعَزِيزِ جَهِلَ الْقَوْمُ وَخُدِعُوا عَنْ آرَائِهِمْ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمْ يَقْبِضْ نَبِيَّهُ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) حَتَّى أَكْمَلَ لَهُ الدِّينَ وَأَنْزَلَ عَلَيْهِ الْقُرْآنَ فِيهِ تِبْيَانُ كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ بَيَّنَ فِيهِ الْحَلالَ وَالْحَرَامَ وَالْحُدُودَ وَالاحْكَامَ وَجَمِيعَ مَا يَحْتَاجُ إِلَيْهِ النَّاسُ كَمَلاً فَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ما فَرَّطْنا فِي الْكِتابِ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ وَأَنْزَلَ فِي حَجَّةِ الْوَدَاعِ وَهِيَ آخِرُ عُمُرِهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الاسْلامَ دِيناً وَأَمْرُ الامَامَةِ مِنْ تَمَامِ الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يَمْضِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) حَتَّى بَيَّنَ لامَّتِهِ مَعَالِمَ دِينِهِمْ وَأَوْضَحَ لَهُمْ سَبِيلَهُمْ وَتَرَكَهُمْ عَلَى قَصْدِ سَبِيلِ الْحَقِّ وَأَقَامَ لَهُمْ عَلِيّاً (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَلَماً وَإِمَاماً وَمَا تَرَكَ لَهُمْ شَيْئاً يَحْتَاجُ إِلَيْهِ الامَّةُ إِلا بَيَّنَهُ فَمَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمْ يُكْمِلْ دِينَهُ فَقَدْ رَدَّ كِتَابَ الله وَمَنْ رَدَّ كِتَابَ الله فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ بِهِ هَلْ يَعْرِفُونَ قَدْرَ الامَامَةِ وَمَحَلَّهَا مِنَ الامَّةِ فَيَجُوزَ فِيهَا اخْتِيَارُهُمْ إِنَّ الامَامَةَ أَجَلُّ قَدْراً وَأَعْظَمُ شَأْناً وَأَعْلَى مَكَاناً وَأَمْنَعُ جَانِباً وَأَبْعَدُ غَوْراً مِنْ أَنْ يَبْلُغَهَا النَّاسُ بِعُقُولِهِمْ أَوْ يَنَالُوهَا بِ‏آرَائِهِمْ أَوْ يُقِيمُوا إِمَاماً بِاخْتِيَارِهِمْ إِنَّ الامَامَةَ خَصَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِهَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْخَلِيلَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بَعْدَ النُّبُوَّةِ وَالْخُلَّةِ مَرْتَبَةً ثَالِثَةً وَفَضِيلَةً شَرَّفَهُ بِهَا وَأَشَادَ بِهَا ذِكْرَهُ فَقَالَ إِنِّي جاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِماماً فَقَالَ الْخَلِيلُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) سُرُوراً بِهَا وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِي قَالَ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى لا يَنالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ فَأَبْطَلَتْ هَذِهِ الايَةُ إِمَامَةَ كُلِّ ظَالِمٍ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَصَارَتْ فِي الصَّفْوَةِ ثُمَّ أَكْرَمَهُ الله تَعَالَى بِأَنْ جَعَلَهَا فِي ذُرِّيَّتِهِ أَهْلِ الصَّفْوَةِ وَالطَّهَارَةِ فَقَالَ وَوَهَبْنا لَهُ إِسْحاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ نافِلَةً وَكُلاً جَعَلْنا صالِحِينَ. وَجَعَلْناهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنا وَأَوْحَيْنا إِلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْراتِ وَإِقامَ الصَّلاةِ وَإِيتاءَ الزَّكاةِ وَكانُوا لَنا عابِدِينَ فَلَمْ تَزَلْ فِي ذُرِّيَّتِهِ يَرِثُهَا بَعْضٌ عَنْ بَعْضٍ قَرْناً فَقَرْناً حَتَّى وَرَّثَهَا الله تَعَالَى النَّبِيَّ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَقَالَ جَلَّ وَتَعَالَى إِنَّ أَوْلَى النَّاسِ بِإِبْراهِيمَ لَلَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ وَهذَا النَّبِيُّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالله وَلِيُّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَكَانَتْ لَهُ خَاصَّةً فَقَلَّدَهَا (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) عَلِيّاً (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِأَمْرِ الله تَعَالَى عَلَى رَسْمِ مَا فَرَضَ الله فَصَارَتْ فِي ذُرِّيَّتِهِ الاصْفِيَاءِ الَّذِينَ آتَاهُمُ الله الْعِلْمَ وَالايمَانَ بِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى وَقالَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ وَالايمانَ لَقَدْ لَبِثْتُمْ فِي كِتابِ الله إِلى‏ يَوْمِ الْبَعْثِ فَهِيَ فِي وُلْدِ علي (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) خَاصَّةً إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ إِذْ لا نَبِيَّ بَعْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَمِنْ أَيْنَ يَخْتَارُ هَؤُلاءِ الْجُهَّالُ إِنَّ الامَامَةَ هِيَ مَنْزِلَةُ الانْبِيَاءِ وَإِرْثُ الاوْصِيَاءِ إِنَّ الامَامَةَ خِلافَةُ الله وَخِلافَةُ الرَّسُولِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَمَقَامُ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَمِيرَاثُ الْحَسَنِ وَالْحُسَيْنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّ الامَامَةَ زِمَامُ الدِّينِ وَنِظَامُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَصَلاحُ الدُّنْيَا وَعِزُّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِنَّ الامَامَةَ أُسُّ الاسْلامِ النَّامِي وَفَرْعُهُ السَّامِي بِالامَامِ تَمَامُ الصَّلاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَالصِّيَامِ وَالْحَجِّ وَالْجِهَادِ وَتَوْفِيرُ الْفَيْ‏ءِ وَالصَّدَقَاتِ وَإِمْضَاءُ الْحُدُودِ وَالاحْكَامِ وَمَنْعُ الثُّغُورِ وَالاطْرَافِ الامَامُ يُحِلُّ حَلالَ الله وَيُحَرِّمُ حَرَامَ الله وَيُقِيمُ حُدُودَ الله وَيَذُبُّ عَنْ دِينِ الله وَيَدْعُو إِلَى سَبِيلِ رَبِّهِ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَالْحُجَّةِ الْبَالِغَةِ الامَامُ كَالشَّمْسِ الطَّالِعَةِ الْمُجَلِّلَةِ بِنُورِهَا لِلْعَالَمِ وَهِيَ فِي الافُقِ بِحَيْثُ لا تَنَالُهَا الايْدِي وَالابْصَارُ الامَامُ الْبَدْرُ الْمُنِيرُ وَالسِّرَاجُ الزَّاهِرُ وَالنُّورُ السَّاطِعُ وَالنَّجْمُ الْهَادِي فِي غَيَاهِبِ الدُّجَى وَأَجْوَازِ الْبُلْدَانِ وَالْقِفَارِ وَلُجَجِ الْبِحَارِ الامَامُ الْمَاءُ الْعَذْبُ عَلَى الظَّمَإِ وَالدَّالُّ عَلَى الْهُدَى وَالْمُنْجِي مِنَ الرَّدَى الامَامُ النَّارُ عَلَى الْيَفَاعِ الْحَارُّ لِمَنِ اصْطَلَى بِهِ وَالدَّلِيلُ فِي الْمَهَالِكِ مَنْ فَارَقَهُ فَهَالِكٌ الامَامُ السَّحَابُ الْمَاطِرُ وَالْغَيْثُ الْهَاطِلُ وَالشَّمْسُ الْمُضِيئَةُ وَالسَّمَاءُ الظَّلِيلَةُ وَالارْضُ الْبَسِيطَةُ وَالْعَيْنُ الْغَزِيرَةُ وَالْغَدِيرُ وَالرَّوْضَةُ الامَامُ الانِيسُ الرَّفِيقُ وَالْوَالِدُ الشَّفِيقُ وَالاخُ الشَّقِيقُ وَالامُّ الْبَرَّةُ بِالْوَلَدِ الصَّغِيرِ وَمَفْزَعُ الْعِبَادِ فِي الدَّاهِيَةِ النَ‏آدِ الامَامُ أَمِينُ الله فِي خَلْقِهِ وَحُجَّتُهُ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ وَخَلِيفَتُهُ فِي بِلادِهِ وَالدَّاعِي إِلَى الله وَالذَّابُّ عَنْ حُرَمِ الله الامَامُ الْمُطَهَّرُ مِنَ الذُّنُوبِ وَالْمُبَرَّأُ عَنِ الْعُيُوبِ الْمَخْصُوصُ بِالْعِلْمِ الْمَوْسُومُ بِالْحِلْمِ نِظَامُ الدِّينِ وَعِزُّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَغَيْظُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَبَوَارُ الْكَافِرِينَ. الامَامُ وَاحِدُ دَهْرِهِ لا يُدَانِيهِ أَحَدٌ وَلا يُعَادِلُهُ عَالِمٌ وَلا يُوجَدُ مِنْهُ بَدَلٌ وَلا لَهُ مِثْلٌ وَلا نَظِيرٌ مَخْصُوصٌ بِالْفَضْلِ كُلِّهِ مِنْ غَيْرِ طَلَبٍ مِنْهُ لَهُ وَلا اكْتِسَابٍ بَلِ اخْتِصَاصٌ مِنَ الْمُفْضِلِ الْوَهَّابِ فَمَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَبْلُغُ مَعْرِفَةَ الامَامِ أَوْ يُمْكِنُهُ اخْتِيَارُهُ هَيْهَاتَ هَيْهَاتَ ضَلَّتِ الْعُقُولُ وَتَاهَتِ الْحُلُومُ وَحَارَتِ الالْبَابُ وَخَسَأَتِ الْعُيُونُ وَتَصَاغَرَتِ الْعُظَمَاءُ وَتَحَيَّرَتِ الْحُكَمَاءُ وَتَقَاصَرَتِ الْحُلَمَاءُ وَحَصِرَتِ الْخُطَبَاءُ وَجَهِلَتِ الالِبَّاءُ وَكَلَّتِ الشُّعَرَاءُ وَعَجَزَتِ الادَبَاءُ وَعَيِيَتِ الْبُلَغَاءُ عَنْ وَصْفِ شَأْنٍ مِنْ شَأْنِهِ أَوْ فَضِيلَةٍ مِنْ فَضَائِلِهِ وَأَقَرَّتْ بِالْعَجْزِ وَالتَّقْصِيرِ وَكَيْفَ يُوصَفُ بِكُلِّهِ أَوْ يُنْعَتُ بِكُنْهِهِ أَوْ يُفْهَمُ شَيْ‏ءٌ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ أَوْ يُوجَدُ مَنْ يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ وَيُغْنِي غِنَاهُ لا كَيْفَ وَأَنَّى وَهُوَ بِحَيْثُ النَّجْمِ مِنْ يَدِ الْمُتَنَاوِلِينَ وَوَصْفِ الْوَاصِفِينَ فَأَيْنَ الاخْتِيَارُ مِنْ هَذَا وَأَيْنَ الْعُقُولُ عَنْ هَذَا وَأَيْنَ يُوجَدُ مِثْلُ هَذَا أَ تَظُنُّونَ أَنَّ ذَلِكَ يُوجَدُ فِي غَيْرِ آلِ الرَّسُولِ مُحَمَّدٍ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) كَذَبَتْهُمْ وَالله أَنْفُسُهُمْ وَمَنَّتْهُمُ الابَاطِيلَ فَارْتَقَوْا مُرْتَقاً صَعْباً دَحْضاً تَزِلُّ عَنْهُ إِلَى الْحَضِيضِ أَقْدَامُهُمْ رَامُوا إِقَامَةَ الامَامِ بِعُقُولٍ حَائِرَةٍ بَائِرَةٍ نَاقِصَةٍ وَآرَاءٍ مُضِلَّةٍ فَلَمْ يَزْدَادُوا مِنْهُ إِلا بُعْداً قَاتَلَهُمُ الله أَنَّى يُؤْفَكُونَ وَلَقَدْ رَامُوا صَعْباً وَقَالُوا إِفْكاً وَضَلُّوا ضَلالاً بَعِيداً وَوَقَعُوا فِي الْحَيْرَةِ إِذْ تَرَكُوا الامَامَ عَنْ بَصِيرَةٍ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَصَدَّهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ وَكَانُوا مُسْتَبْصِرِينَ رَغِبُوا عَنِ اخْتِيَارِ الله وَاخْتِيَارِ رَسُولِ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ إِلَى اخْتِيَارِهِمْ وَالْقُرْآنُ يُنَادِيهِمْ وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ ما يَشاءُ وَيَخْتارُ ما كانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ سُبْحانَ الله وَتَعالى‏ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ وَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَما كانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذا قَضَى الله وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْراً أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ الايَةَ وَقَالَ ما لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ أَمْ لَكُمْ كِتابٌ فِيهِ تَدْرُسُونَ إِنَّ لَكُمْ فِيهِ لَما تَخَيَّرُونَ أَمْ لَكُمْ أَيْمانٌ عَلَيْنا بالِغَةٌ إِلى‏ يَوْمِ الْقِيامَةِ إِنَّ لَكُمْ لَما تَحْكُمُونَ سَلْهُمْ أَيُّهُمْ بِذلِكَ زَعِيمٌ أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكاءُ فَلْيَأْتُوا بِشُرَكائِهِمْ إِنْ كانُوا صادِقِينَ وَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَ فَلا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ أَمْ عَلى‏ قُلُوبٍ أَقْفالُها أَمْ طُبِعَ الله عَلى‏ قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لا يَفْقَهُونَ أَمْ قالُوا سَمِعْنا وَهُمْ لا يَسْمَعُونَ إِنَّ شَرَّ الدَّوَابِّ عِنْدَ الله الصُّمُّ الْبُكْمُ الَّذِينَ لا يَعْقِلُونَ وَلَوْ عَلِمَ الله فِيهِمْ خَيْراً لاسْمَعَهُمْ وَلَوْ أَسْمَعَهُمْ لَتَوَلَّوْا وَهُمْ مُعْرِضُونَ أَمْ قالُوا سَمِعْنا وَعَصَيْنا بَلْ هُوَ فَضْلُ الله يُؤْتِيهِ مَنْ يَشاءُ وَالله ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ فَكَيْفَ لَهُمْ بِاخْتِيَارِ الامَامِ وَالامَامُ عَالِمٌ لا يَجْهَلُ وَرَاعٍ لا يَنْكُلُ مَعْدِنُ الْقُدْسِ وَالطَّهَارَةِ وَالنُّسُكِ وَالزَّهَادَةِ وَالْعِلْمِ وَالْعِبَادَةِ مَخْصُوصٌ بِدَعْوَةِ الرَّسُولِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَنَسْلِ الْمُطَهَّرَةِ الْبَتُولِ لا مَغْمَزَ فِيهِ فِي نَسَبٍ وَلا يُدَانِيهِ ذُو حَسَبٍ فِي الْبَيْتِ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ وَالذِّرْوَةِ مِنْ هَاشِمٍ وَالْعِتْرَةِ مِنَ الرَّسُولِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَالرِّضَا مِنَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ شَرَفُ الاشْرَافِ وَالْفَرْعُ مِنْ عَبْدِ مَنَافٍ نَامِي الْعِلْمِ كَامِلُ الْحِلْمِ مُضْطَلِعٌ بِالامَامَةِ عَالِمٌ بِالسِّيَاسَةِ مَفْرُوضُ الطَّاعَةِ قَائِمٌ بِأَمْرِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ نَاصِحٌ لِعِبَادِ الله حَافِظٌ لِدِينِ الله إِنَّ الانْبِيَاءَ وَالائِمَّةَ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يُوَفِّقُهُمُ الله وَيُؤْتِيهِمْ مِنْ مَخْزُونِ عِلْمِهِ وَحِكَمِهِ مَا لا يُؤْتِيهِ غَيْرَهُمْ فَيَكُونُ عِلْمُهُمْ فَوْقَ عِلْمِ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فِي قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى أَ فَمَنْ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْحَقِّ أَحَقُّ أَنْ يُتَّبَعَ أَمَّنْ لا يَهِدِّي إِلا أَنْ يُهْدى‏ فَما لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ وَقَوْلِهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى وَمَنْ يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِيَ خَيْراً كَثِيراً وَقَوْلِهِ فِي طَالُوتَ إِنَّ الله اصْطَفاهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ وَالله يُؤْتِي مُلْكَهُ مَنْ يَشاءُ وَالله واسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ وَقَالَ لِنَبِيِّهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَنْزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ ما لَمْ تَكُنْ تَعْلَمُ وَكانَ فَضْلُ الله عَلَيْكَ عَظِيماً وَقَالَ فِي الائِمَّةِ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِ نَبِيِّهِ وَعِتْرَتِهِ وَذُرِّيَّتِهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلى‏ ما آتاهُمُ الله مِنْ فَضْلِهِ فَقَدْ آتَيْنا آلَ إِبْراهِيمَ الْكِتابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَآتَيْناهُمْ مُلْكاً عَظِيماً فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ آمَنَ بِهِ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ صَدَّ عَنْهُ وَكَفى‏ بِجَهَنَّمَ سَعِيراً وَإِنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا اخْتَارَهُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لامُورِ عِبَادِهِ شَرَحَ صَدْرَهُ لِذَلِكَ وَأَوْدَعَ قَلْبَهُ يَنَابِيعَ الْحِكْمَةِ وَأَلْهَمَهُ الْعِلْمَ إِلْهَاماً فَلَمْ يَعْيَ بَعْدَهُ بِجَوَابٍ وَلا يُحَيَّرُ فِيهِ عَنِ الصَّوَابِ. فَهُوَ مَعْصُومٌ مُؤَيَّدٌ مُوَفَّقٌ مُسَدَّدٌ قَدْ أَمِنَ مِنَ الْخَطَايَا وَالزَّلَلِ وَالْعِثَارِ يَخُصُّهُ الله بِذَلِكَ لِيَكُونَ حُجَّتَهُ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ وَشَاهِدَهُ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ وَذلِكَ فَضْلُ الله يُؤْتِيهِ مَنْ يَشاءُ وَالله ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ فَهَلْ يَقْدِرُونَ عَلَى مِثْلِ هَذَا فَيَخْتَارُونَهُ أَوْ يَكُونُ مُخْتَارُهُمْ بِهَذِهِ الصِّفَةِ فَيُقَدِّمُونَهُ تَعَدَّوْا وَبَيْتِ الله الْحَقَّ وَنَبَذُوا كِتَابَ الله وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لا يَعْلَمُونَ وَفِي كِتَابِ الله الْهُدَى وَالشِّفَاءُ فَنَبَذُوهُ وَاتَّبَعُوا أَهْوَاءَهُمْ فَذَمَّهُمُ الله وَمَقَّتَهُمْ وَأَتْعَسَهُمْ فَقَالَ جَلَّ وَتَعَالَى وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّنِ اتَّبَعَ هَواهُ بِغَيْرِ هُدىً مِنَ الله إِنَّ الله لا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ وَقَالَ فَتَعْساً لَهُمْ وَأَضَلَّ أَعْمالَهُمْ وَقَالَ كَبُرَ مَقْتاً عِنْدَ الله وَعِنْدَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كَذلِكَ يَطْبَعُ الله عَلى‏ كُلِّ قَلْبِ مُتَكَبِّرٍ جَبَّارٍ وَصَلَّى الله عَلَى النَّبِيِّ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ تَسْلِيماً كَثِيراً.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Britannica 2007
  2. ^ Nasr 1979, p. 10
  3. ^ Momen 1985, p. 173
  4. ^ Nasr 1979, p. 15
  5. ^ Corbin 1993, pp. 45–51
  6. ^ a b Martin 2004
  7. ^ a b c d e Rizvi 2000
  8. ^ Akhtar Rizvi 1985, p. 21
  9. ^ a b Lalani 2000, p. 20
  10. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 2
  11. ^ a b Momen 1985, p. 147
  12. ^ a b Momen 1985, p. 148
  13. ^ Corbin 1993, p. 46
  14. ^ a b Momen 1985, p. 159
  15. ^ Amir Moezzi 1994, p. 30
  16. ^ a b c Amir Moezzi 1994, p. 45
  17. ^ a b Donaldson 1984, p. 306
  18. ^ Kardan 2014
  19. ^ a b Nasr 2008, p. 318
  20. ^ Majlisi, pp. 267–318–88
  21. ^ Lalani 2010, p. 33
  22. ^ Madelung 2015
  23. ^ Nasr 2008, p. 424,425
  24. ^ Javadi Amoli 2008, p. 92
  25. ^ Askari 1998, p. 71
  26. ^ Javadi Amoli 2008, p. 93
  27. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 103
  28. ^ Donaldson 1984, p. 344,345
  29. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988, p. 170
  30. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988, p. 179
  31. ^ Amir Moezzi 1994, p. 29
  32. ^ Corbin 1993, p. 27
  33. ^ Corbin 1993, p. 38
  34. ^ Corbin 1993, p. 61
  35. ^ Corbin 1993, p. 63
  36. ^ Vaezi 2004, p. 58
  37. ^ Donaldson 1984, p. 308,309
  38. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988, p. 168
  39. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988, p. 170,171
  40. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988, p. 177,178
  41. ^ Nasr 2008, p. 316
  42. ^ Corbin 1993, p. 40
  43. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 83
  44. ^ Akhtar Rizvi 1985, pp. 55
  45. ^ a b Dakake 2007, p. 3
  46. ^ Akhtar Rizvi 1985, pp. 56
  47. ^ Madelung 2015
  48. ^ Vaezi 2004, pp. 58,59
  49. ^ a b Mavani 2013, p. 11
  50. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 4
  51. ^ a b Donaldson 1984, p. 314
  52. ^ Momen 1985, p. 153
  53. ^ Momen 1985, pp. 154,155
  54. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 77
  55. ^ Mashita 2013
  56. ^ Donaldson 1984, p. 316
  57. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, pp. 105,106
  58. ^ Donaldson 1984, p. 317
  59. ^ Akhtar Rizvi 1988, p. 7
  60. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 101
  61. ^ Ayoub 1984, p. 156,157
  62. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 98
  63. ^ Nasr 1994, p. 159
  64. ^ Nasr 2008, p. 312
  65. ^ Momen 1985, p. 155
  66. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 82
  67. ^ Momen 1985, p. 156
  68. ^ Martin 2004, p. 625
  69. ^ Momen 1985, p. 149
  70. ^ Amir Moezzi 1994, p. 73,74
  71. ^ a b Momen 1985, p. 150
  72. ^ Amir Moezzi 1994, p. 73
  73. ^ a b Corbin 1993, p. 48
  74. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 78
  75. ^ Afsaruddin 2015
  76. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 5
  77. ^ Momen 1985, pp. 155
  78. ^ Amir Moezzi 1994, p. 71
  79. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 68
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