Imamah (Shia doctrine)

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  • Imamah of Islamic
  • إمام
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Style {{{his/her}}} Majesty
First monarch Abu Bakr
Formation June 17, 656

Imâmah (Arabic: إمامة‎) is the Shia Islam doctrine of religious, spiritual and political leadership of the Ummah. The Shīa believe that the A'immah ("Imâms") are the true Caliphs or rightful successors of Muhammad, and further that Imâms are possessed of divine knowledge and authority (‘Iṣmah) as well as being part of the Ahl al-Bayt, the family of Muhammad.[1] These Imams have the role of providing commentary and interpretation of the Quran[2] as well as guidance to their tariqa followers as is the case of the living Imams of the Nizari Ismaili tariqah.

Etymology[edit]

The word "Imâm" denotes a person who stands or walks "in front". For Sunni Islam, the word is commonly used to mean a person who leads the course of prayer in the mosque. It also means the head of a madhhab ("school of thought"). However, from the Shi'i point of view this is merely the basic understanding of the word in the Arabic language and, for its proper religious usage, the word "Imam" is applicable only to those members of the House of the Prophet designated as infallible by the preceding Imam.

Introduction[edit]

The Shia further believe only these A'immah have the right to be Caliphs, meaning that all other caliphs, whether elected by consensus Ijma or not, are usurpers of the Caliphate.

All Muslims believe that Prophet Muhammad had said: "To whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is his Mawla." This hadith has been narrated in different ways by many different sources in no less than 45 hadith books[citation needed] of both Sunni and Shia collections. This hadith has also been narrated by the collector of hadiths, al-Tirmidhi, 3713;[citation needed] as well as Ibn Maajah, 121;[citation needed] etc. The major point of conflict between the Sunni and the Shia is in the interpretation of the word 'Mawla'. For the Shia the word means 'Lord and Master' and has the same elevated significance as when the term had been used to address the Prophet himself during his lifetime. Thus, when the Prophet actually (by speech) and physically (by way of having his closest companions including Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman [the three future Caliphs who had preceded Ali as Caliph] publicly accept Ali as their Lord and Master by taking Ali's hand in both of theirs as token of their allegiance to Ali) transferred this title and manner of addressing Ali as the Mawla for all Muslims at Ghadiri Khum Oasis just a few months before his death, the people that came to look upon Ali as Prophet Muhammad's immediate successor even before the Prophet's death came to be known as the Shia. However, for the Sunnis the word simply means the 'beloved' or the 'revered' and has no other significance at all.

Sects[edit]

Within Shia Islam (Shiism), the various sects came into being because they differed over their Imams' successions, just as the Shia - Sunni separation within Islam itself had come into being from the dispute that had arisen over the succession to Prophet Mohammad. Each succession dispute brought forth a different tariqah (literal meaning 'path'; extended meaning 'sect') within Shia Islam. Each Shia tariqah followed its own particular Imam's dynasty, thus resulting in different numbers of Imams for each particular Shia tariqah. When the dynastic line of the separating successor Imam ended with no heir to succeed him, then either he (the last Imam) or his unborn successor was believed to have gone into concealment, that is, The Occultation.

The Shia tariqah with a majority of adherents are the Twelvers who are commonly known as the "Shia". After that come the Nizari Ismailis commonly known as the Ismailis; and then come the Mustalian Ismailis commonly known as the "Bohras" with further schisms within their Bohri tariqah. The Druze tariqah (very small in number today) initially were of the Fatimid Ismailis and separated from them (the Fatimid Ismailis) after the death of the Fatimid Imam and Caliph Hakim Bi Amrillah. The Shia Sevener tariqah no longer exists. Another small tariqah is the Zaidi Shias, also known as the Fivers and who do not believe in The Occultation of their last Imam.

Although all these different Shia tariqahs belong to the Shia group (as opposed to the Sunni group) in Islam, there are major doctrinal differences between the main Shia tariqahs. After that there is the complete doctrinal break between all the different Shia tariqahs whose last Imams have gone into Occultation and the Shia Nizari Ismailis who deny the very concept of Occultation. The Shia Nizari Ismailis by definition have to have a present and living Imam until the end of time. Thus if any living Nizari Ismaili Imam fails to leave behind a successor after him then the Nizari Ismailism’s cardinal principle would be broken and it’s very raison d'être would come to an end.

Twelver View[edit]

Main articles: Twelver and The Occultation

Shias believe that Imamah is of the Principles of Faith (Usul al-Din).They refer to the verse (...This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion...) 5:3 of Quran which was revealed to the prophet when he appointed Ali as his successor at the day of Ghadir Khumm.[3]

By the verse Quran, 2:124,Shias believe that Imamah is a divine position that is just appointed by Allah to whomever he chooses.[4]

According to Shi'a, God has specified Imam in Quran such as ( And [mention, O Muhammad], when Abraham was tried by his Lord with commands and he fulfilled them. [Allah] said, "Indeed, I will make you a leader for the people." [Abraham] said, "And of my descendants?" [Allah] said, "My covenant does not include the wrongdoers.")2:124.In Quran, 21:73,32:24, always Imamah is accompanied by the word guidance, of course a guidance by God's Command.A kind of guidance which brings humanity to the goal. Regarding 17:71, no age can be without an Imam. So, according to the upper verse 1.Imamah is a postion which is appointed by God and must be specified by Him 2.Imam is protected by a divine protection and no one exceles him in nobility 3. No age can be without an Imam and finally Imam knows everything which is needed for humanbeing to get to the truth and goal.[5]

The period of occultation (ghaybat) is divided into two parts:

  • Ghaybat al-Sughra or Minor Occultation (874–941), consists of the first few decades after the Imam's disappearance when communication with him was maintained through deputies of the Imam.
  • Ghaybat al-Kubra or Major Occultation began 941 and is believed to continue until a time decided by God, when the Mahdi will reappear to bring absolute justice to the world.

During the Minor Occultation (Ghaybat al-Sughrá), it is believed that al-Mahdi maintained contact with his followers via deputies (Arab. an-nuwāb al-arbaʻa or "the Four Leaders"). They represented him and acted as agents between him and his followers. Whenever the believers faced a problem, they would write their concerns and send them to his deputy. The deputy would ascertain his verdict, endorse it with his seal and signature and return it to the relevant parties. The deputies also collected zakat and khums on his behalf.

For the Shia, the idea of consulting a hidden Imam was not something new because the two prior Twelver Imams had, on occasion, met with their followers from behind a curtain. Also, during the oppressive rule of the later Abbasid caliphs, the Shia Imams were heavily persecuted and held prisoners, thus their followers were forced to consult their Imams via messengers or secretly.

Shia Tradition hold that four deputies acted in succession to one another:

  1. Uthman ibn Sa’id al-Asadi
  2. Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Uthman
  3. Abul Qasim Husayn ibn Ruh al-Nawbakhti
  4. Abul Hasan Ali ibn Muhammad al-Samarri

In 941 (329 AH), the fourth deputy announced an order by al-Mahdi, that the deputy would soon die and that the deputyship would end and the period of the Major Occultation would begin.

The fourth deputy died six days later and the Shia Muslims continue to await the reappearance of the Mahdi. In the same year, many notable Shia scholars such as Ali ibn Babawayh Qummi and Muhammad ibn Ya'qub Kulayni, the learned compiler of Kitab al-Kafi, also died.

Main article: The Occultation

One view is that the Hidden Imam is on earth "among the body of the Shia" but "incognito." "Numerous stories" exist of the Hidden Imam "manifesting himself to prominent members of the ulama."[6]

Ismaili view[edit]

The Ismailis differ from Twelvers because they had living imams for centuries after the last Twelver Imam went into concealment. They followed Isma'il ibn Jafar, elder brother of Musa al-Kadhim, as the rightful Imam [7] after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq. The Ismailis believe that whether Imam Ismail did or did not die before Imam Ja'far, he had passed on the mantle of the imamate to his son Muḥammad ibn Ismail as the next imam.[8] Thus, their line of imams is as follows (the years of their individual imamats during the Common Era are given in brackets):

Nizārī Imām Mustā‘lī Imām Ismā'īlī Imām Period
1 Asās/Wāsīh Ali - Mustaali "Foundation" and first Nizārī Imām (632–661)
Pir 1 Hasan ibn Ali : First Mustaali Imām ; Nizārīs consider him a pir, not an Imām (661–669) Mustā‘lī
2 2 Husayn ibn Ali : Second Ismā'īlī Imām (669–680) Mustā‘lī
(661 - 680) Nizārī
3 3 Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin : Third Ismā'īlī Imām (680–713)
4 4 Muhammad al-Baqir : Fourth Ismā'īlī Imām (713–733)
5 5 Ja'far al-Sadiq : Fifth Ismā'īlī Imām (733–765)
6 6 Isma'il ibn Jafar : Sixth Ismā'īlī Imām (765 - 775)
7 7 Muhammad ibn Ismail : Seventh Ismā'īlī Imām and first distinctly Ismā'īlī (non-Twelver) Imām (775-813)

The Ismā'īlī ʿAqīdah[edit]

According to Ismā‘īlīsm, Allah has sent "seven" great prophets known as “Nātıq” (Spoken) in order to disseminate and improve his Dīn of Islam. All of these great prophets has also one assistant known as “Sāmad (Silent) Imām”. At the end of each seven “Sāmad” silsila, one great “Nātıq” (Spoken) has ben sent in order to reimprove the Dīn of Islam. After Adam and his son Seth, and after six “Nātıq” (Spoken) – “Sāmad” (Silent) silsila[9] (NoahShem), (AbrahamIshmael), (MosesAaron), (JesusSimeon), (Muhammad bin ʿAbd AllāhAli ibn Abu Tālib); the silsila of “Nātıqs and Sāmads have been completed with (Muhammad bin Ismā‘īl as-ṣaghīr (Maymûn’ûl-Qaddāh[10])–ʿAbd Allāh Ibn-i Maymûn[11] and his sons).

Zaidi view[edit]

Main article: Zaidiyyah

Zaidiyyah or Zaidi is a Shia madhhab (sect, school) named after the imam Zayd ibn Ali. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or are occasionally called Fivers in the West). However, there is also a group called the Zaidi Wasītīs who are Twelvers.

Imams[edit]

The name of Imam as it appears in Masjid Nabawi.

Twelver Imams[edit]

See also: Twelve Imams

According to the majority of Shī'a, namely the Twelvers (Ithnā'ashariyya), the following is a listing of the rightful successors to Muḥammad. Each Imam was the son of the previous Imam except for Hussayn ibn 'Alī, who was the brother of Hassan ibn 'Alī.The belief in this succession to Muḥammad stems from various Quranic ayaths which include: 75:36, 13:7, 35:24, 2:30, 2:124, 36:26, 7:142, 42:23. They support their discussion by putting facts from Genesis 17:19–20 and sunni hadeeth:Sahih Muslim, Hadith number 4478, English translation by Abdul Hamid Siddiqui.[12]

Number
Name
(Full / Kunya)
Title
(Arabic / Turkish)[13]
Birth–Death
(CE / AH)[14]
Significance
Birthplace
(present-day country)
Place of death and burial
1 ‘Alī ibn Abu Talib
علي بن أبي طالب
Abu al-Hassan
أبو الحسن
Amir al-Mu'minina [15]
Birinci Ali[16]
600–661[15]
23–40[17]
The First Imam and the successor of Muhammad of all Shia; however, the Sunnis acknowledge him as the fourth Caliph as well. He holds a high position in almost all Sufi Muslim orders (Turuq); the members of these orders trace their lineage to Muḥammad through him.[15] Mecca, Saudi Arabia[15] Assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Kharijite in Kufa, who slashed him with a poisoned sword.[15][18] Buried at the Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf, Iraq.
2 Hassan ibn ‘Alī
الحسن بن علي
Abu Muḥammad
أبو محمد
al-Mujtaba
İkinci Ali[16]
624–670[19]
3–50[20]
He was the eldest surviving grandson of Muḥammad through Muḥammad's daughter, Fatimah Zahra. Hasan succeeded his father as the caliph in Kufa, and on the basis of peace treaty with Muawiya I, he relinquished control of Iraq following a reign of seven months.[21] Medina, Saudi Arabia[19] Poisoned by his wife in Medina, Saudi Arabia on the orders of the Caliph Muawiyah 1.[22] Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.
3 Husayn ibn ‘Alī
الحسین بن علي
Abu Abdillah
أبو عبد الله
Sayed al-Shuhada
Üçüncü Ali[16]
626–680[23]
4–61[24]
He was a grandson of Muḥammad. Husayn opposed the validity of Caliph Yazid I. As a result, he and his family were later killed in the Battle of Karbala by Yazid's forces. After this incident, the commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali has become a central ritual in Shia identity.[23][25] Medina, Saudi Arabia[23] Killed and beheaded at the Battle of Karbala.[23] Buried at the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, Iraq.
4 ‘Alī ibn al-Hussein
علي بن الحسین
Abu Muḥammad
أبو محمد
al-Sajjad, Zain al-Abedin[26]
Dördüncü Ali[16]
658-9[26] – 712[27]
38[26]–95[27]
Author of prayers in Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, which is known as "The Psalm of the Household of the Prophet." [27] Medina, Saudi Arabia[26] He was poisoned on the order of Caliph al-Walid I in Medina, Saudi Arabia.[27] The event is disputed. Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.
5 Muḥammad ibn ‘Alī
محمد بن علي
Abu Ja'far
أبو جعفر
al-Baqir al-Ulumb [28]
Beşinci Ali[16]
677–732[28]
57–114[28]
Sunni and Shia sources both describe him as one of the early and most eminent legal scholars, teaching many students during his tenure.[28][29] Medina, Saudi Arabia[28] He was poisoned by Ibrahim ibn Walid ibn 'Abdallah in Medina, Saudi Arabia on the order of Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.[27] The event is disputed. Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.
6 Ja'far ibn Muḥammad
جعفر بن محمد
Abu Abdillah
أبو عبد الله
al-Sadiq[30] c
Altıncı Ali[16]
702–765[30]
83–148 [30]
Established the Ja'fari jurisprudence and developed the Theology of Shia. He instructed many scholars in different fields, including Abu Hanifah and Malik ibn Anas in fiqh, Wasil ibn Ata and Hisham ibn Hakam in Islamic theology, and Jābir ibn Hayyān in science and alchemy.[30][31] Medina, Saudi Arabia[30] He was poisoned in Medina, Saudi Arabia on the order of Caliph Al-Mansur.[30] The event is disputed. Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.
7 Musa ibn Ja'far
موسی بن جعفر
Abu al-Hassan I
أبو الحسن الأول [32]
al-Kazim[33]
Yedinci Ali[16]
745–799[33]
128–183[33]
Leader of the Shia community during the schism of Ismaili and other branches after the death of the former Imam, Jafar al-Sadiq.[34] He established the network of agents who collected khums in the Shia community of the Middle East and the Greater Khorasan.[35] Medina, Saudi Arabia[33] Imprisoned and poisoned in Baghdad, Iraq on the order of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. The event is ?[strongly authentic]. Buried in the Kazimayn shrine in Baghdad.[33]
8 ‘Alī ibn Musa
علي بن موسی
Abu al-Hassan II
أبو الحسن الثاني [32]
al-Rida, Reza[36]
Sekizinci Ali[16]
765–817[36]
148–203[36]
Made crown-prince by Caliph Al-Ma'mun, and famous for his discussions with both Muslim and non-Muslim religious scholars.[36] Medina, Saudi Arabia[36] He was poisoned near Sanabad village near Tous town (in modern Mashhad-al-Reza city of Iran which was established because of his burial there). His poisoning was on the order of Caliph Al-Ma'mun. The event is authentic. He was buried in the Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad.[36]
9 Muḥammad ibn ‘Alī
محمد بن علي
Abu Ja'far
أبو جعفر
al-Taqi, al-Jawad[37]
Dokuzuncu Ali[16]
811–835[37]
195–220[37]
Famous for his generosity and piety in the face of persecution by the Abbasid caliphate. Medina, Saudi Arabia[37] Poisoned by his wife, Al-Ma'mun's daughter, in Baghdad, Iraq on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tasim. Buried in the Kazmain shrine in Baghdad.[37]
10 ‘Alī ibn Muḥammad
علي بن محمد
Abu al-Hassan III
أبو الحسن الثالث [38]
al-Hadi, al-Naqi[38]
Onuncu Ali[16]
829–868[38]
212–254[38]
Strengthened the network of deputies in the Shia community. He sent them instructions, and received in turn financial contributions of the faithful from the khums and religious vows.[38]
Surayya (village near Medina, Saudi Arabia)[38]
He was poisoned in Samarra, Iraq on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tazz.[39] The event is disputed. Buried in the Al Askari Mosque in Samarra.
11 Hassan ibn ‘Alī
الحسن بن علي
Abu Muḥammad
أبو محمد
al-Askari[40]
Onbirinci Ali[16]
846–874[40]
232–260[40]
For most of his life, the Abbasid Caliph, Al-Mu'tamid, placed restrictions on him after the death of his father. Repression of the Shi'ite population was particularly high at the time due to their large size and growing power.[41] Medina, Saudi Arabia[40] He was poisoned on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tamid in Samarra, Iraq. Buried in Al Askari Mosque in Samarra.[42]
12
Muḥammad ibn
al-Hassan

محمد بن الحسن
Abu al-Qasim
أبو القاسم
al-Mahdi, Hidden Imam, al-Hujjah [43]
Onikinci Ali[16]
869–present[44]
255–present[44]
He is believed by Shiites to be the current Imam and the promised Mahdi, a messianic figure who will return in end times. Samarra, Iraq[44] He is believed by Twelver Shiites to have been living in the Occultation since 872.[44]
a "Commander of the Faithful".   b "Splitting open Knowledge".   c "The Trustworthy".

Ismaili Imams[edit]

Main article: List of Ismaili imams

The Ismaili line of imams for both sects (the Nizari and the Mustali) continues undivided until Mustansir Billah (d. 1094). After his death the line of the imamat separates into the Nizari and Mustali dynasties.

The line of imams of the Mustali Ismaili Shia Muslims (also known as the Bohras/Dawoodi Bohra) continued up to Aamir ibn Mustali. After his death, they believe their 21st Imam Taiyab abi al-Qasim went into a Dawr-e-Satr (period of concealment) that continues to this day. In the absence of an imam they are led by a Dai-al-Mutlaq (absolute missionary) who manages the affairs of the Imam-in-Concealment until re-emergence of the Imam from concealment. Dawoodi Bohra's present 53rd Da'i al-Mutlaq is His Holiness Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin (TUS) who succeeded his predessor the 52nd Da'i al-Mutlaq His Holiness Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin (RA). Furthermore there has been a split in the Dawoodi Bohra sect which has led to the formation of Qutbi Bohra sect which was formed and led by Khuzaima Qutbuddin.

The line of imams of the Nizari Ismaili Shia Muslims (also known as the Agha-khani Ismailis in South and Central Asia) continues to their present living 49th hereditary imam, Aga Khan IV (son of Prince Aly Khan). They are the only Shia Muslim community today led by a present and living (Hazir wa Mawjud) imam.[45]

See also: Mustali, Hafizi and Nizari

Zaidi Imams[edit]

Main article: Imams of Yemen

The Zaidi branch of Shi'ism established its own line of Imams starting in the year 897; the line continued without interruption until 1962 when the North Yemen Civil War brought the Imamate to an end and established a republic.

Sunni view on shia imāmate[edit]

The Twelver's imāmology is not shared by Sunnis. The Syrian mufti Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728/1328) composed a long refutation of it in his "Minhāj al-Sunnat al-Nabawiyya".[46]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (2006). The Shia revival : how conflicts within Islam will shape the future (1st ed.). New York: Norton. p. 38. ISBN 0-393-06211-2. 
  2. ^ Sociology of religions: perspectives of Ali Shariati (2008) Mir Mohammed Ibrahim
  3. ^ al-Tijani al-Samawi, p. 79
  4. ^ al-Tijani al-Samawi, p. 43
  5. ^ Ayoub 1984, p. 157
  6. ^ Momen, Moojan, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Yale University Press, 1985, p.199
  7. ^ Rise of The Fatimids, by W. Ivanow. Page 81, 275
  8. ^ THE IMAMATE IN ISMAʿILISM
  9. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, DAWR (1)
  10. ^ Öz, Mustafa, Mezhepler Tarihi ve Terimleri Sözlüğü (The History of madh'habs and its terminology dictionary), Ensar Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 2011. (This is the name of the trainer of Muhammed bin Ismā‘īl ibn Jā’far. He had established the principles of the Batiniyya Madh'hab, later.)
  11. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica, "ʿABDALLĀH B. MAYMŪN AL-QADDĀḤ"
  12. ^ Imam Muslim (translated by Aftab Shahryar) (2004). Sahih Muslim Abridged. Islamic Book Service. ISBN 81-7231-592-9. 
  13. ^ The Imam's Arabic titles are used by the majority of Twelver Shī‘ah who use Arabic as a liturgical language, including the Usooli, Akhbari, Shaykhi, and to a lesser extent Alawi. Turkish titles are generally used by Alevi, a fringe Twelver group, who make up around 10% of the world Shī‘ah population. The titles for each Imam figuratively translate as "First ‘Alī", "Second ‘Alī", and so forth. Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale Group. 2004. ISBN 978-0-02-865769-1. 
  14. ^ The abbreviation "CE" refers to the Common Era solar calendar, while "AH" refers to the Islamic Hijri lunar calendar.
  15. ^ a b c d e Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-10-12. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale Group. 2004. ISBN 978-0-02-865769-1. 
  17. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.190-192
  18. ^ Tabatabae (1979), p.192
  19. ^ a b "Hasan". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  20. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.194-195
  21. ^ Madelung, Wilferd. "Hasan ibn Ali". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 
  22. ^ Tabatabae (1979), p.195
  23. ^ a b c d "al-Husayn". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  24. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.196-199
  25. ^ Calmard, Jean. "Husayn ibn Ali". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 
  26. ^ a b c d Madelung, Wilferd. "'ALÈ B. AL-HUOSAYN". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  27. ^ a b c d e Tabatabae (1979), p.202
  28. ^ a b c d e Madelung, Wilferd. "AL-BAQER, ABU JAFAR MOHAMMAD". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  29. ^ Tabatabae (1979), p.203
  30. ^ a b c d e f Tabatabae (1979), p.203-204
  31. ^ "Wasil ibn Ata". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  32. ^ a b Madelung, Wilferd. "'ALÈ AL-HAÚDÈ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  33. ^ a b c d e Tabatabae (1979), p.205
  34. ^ Tabatabae (1979) p. 78
  35. ^ Sachedina (1988), pp.53-54
  36. ^ a b c d e f Tabatabae (1979), pp.205-207
  37. ^ a b c d e Tabatabae (1979), p. 207
  38. ^ a b c d e f Madelung, Wilferd. "'ALÈ AL-HAÚDÈ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  39. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.208-209
  40. ^ a b c d Halm, H. "'ASKARÈ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  41. ^ Tabatabae (1979) pp. 209-210
  42. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp.209-210
  43. ^ "Muhammad al-Mahdi al-Hujjah". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  44. ^ a b c d Tabatabae (1979), pp.210-211
  45. ^ http://www.akdn.org
  46. ^ See "Ibn Taymiyya’s Critique of Shī‘ī Imāmology. Translation of Three Sections of his "Minhāj al-Sunna", by Yahya Michot, The Muslim World, 104/1-2 (2014), pp. 109-149.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Rizvi, Sa'id Akhtar (1956). Imamate: The Vicegerency of the Prophet. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]