Imelda Marcos

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The Honorable
Imelda Marcos
Imelda Marcos.jpg
First Lady of the Philippines
In office
December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986
President Ferdinand Marcos
Preceded by Eva Macapagal
Succeeded by Amelita Ramos
Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Ilocos Norte's Second District
Incumbent
Assumed office
June 30, 2010
President Benigno Aquino III
Preceded by Ferdinand Marcos, Jr.
Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Leyte's First District
In office
June 30, 1995 – June 30, 1998
President Fidel V. Ramos
Preceded by Cirilo Roy Montejo
Succeeded by Alfred Romuáldez
Mambabatas Pambansa from Region IV-A
In office
June 12, 1978 – June 5, 1984
President Ferdinand Marcos
Governor of Metropolitan Manila
In office
February 27, 1975 – February 25, 1986
President Ferdinand Marcos
Succeeded by Jejomar Binay
Minister of Human Settlements
In office
1978–1986
President Ferdinand Marcos
Preceded by Antonio Villarama
Succeeded by Mita Pardo de Tavera
Ambassador Plenipotentiary and Extraordinary
In office
1978–1986
President Ferdinand Marcos
Personal details
Born Imelda Remedios Visitación Trinidad Romuáldez
(1929-07-02) July 2, 1929 (age 85)
Manila, Philippines
Nationality Filipino
Political party Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (1978–present)
Other political
affiliations
Nacionalista (1965-1978; 2009–present)
Spouse(s) Ferdinand Marcos (1954–1989; his death)
Relations Benjamin Romualdez (brother)
Daniel Z. Romualdez (cousin)
Norberto Romuáldez (uncle)
Mariano Marcos (father-in-law)
Pacifico Marcos (brother-in-law)
Children Imee
Ferdinand, Jr.
Irene
Aimee
Residence Makati
Occupation Ambassador
Profession Politician
Religion Roman Catholicism

Imelda Marcos, GM PLH (born July 2, 1929) is the widow of former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos. In popular culture, she is remembered for her collection of more than a thousand pairs of shoes.

Imelda began her career as a local singer and model in Manila before meeting her husband Ferdinand, who would later be elected President. After the declaration of martial law in 1972, Imelda began holding positions in the national government that allowed her to travel the world and accumulate artwork and real estate. The couple consolidated their power allowing them to transport funds from the Philippine treasury into offshore accounts, such as banks in Switzerland.

President Marcos was accused of the assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr.. This would lead to the People Power Revolution which forced the Marcoses out of office and into exile in Hawaii. After the death of Ferdinand, Imelda and her family were given amnesty by Corazon Aquino. Her return to the Philippines has since allowed her to restore her political dynasty. She was elected to the House of Representatives in 1995 for Leyte and again in 2010 for Ilocos Norte.

Despite facing numerous cases involving alleged corruption, she was not imprisoned and continued to wield power. Her ability to survive upheavals in her life has led her to be called the "Steel Butterfly".

Early life[edit]

Imelda Remedios Visitación Trinidad Romuáldez was born on July 2, 1929 in Manila to Remedios Trinidad and Vicente Romuáldez, brother of Philippine Supreme Court Associate Justice Norberto Romuáldez. Her paternal ancestors were from a land-owning family in Tolosa, Leyte, descended from Granada, Andalusia, Spain.[1] She has five other siblings: Alfredo, Alita, Armando, Benjamin (1930-2012),[2] and Concepcion who spent their childhood in San Miguel. After their mother died in 1938, the family moved to Tacloban, where she was known as the "Rose of Tacloban",[3] and was raised by her servant Estrella Cumpas.[4][5][6] In the film Imelda, she claimed to have met Douglas MacArthur when he landed in Tacloban at the end of World War II.[7][7][8]

At the request of her uncle, Daniel Z. Romualdez, Imelda returned to Manila in 1950, where she worked in a music store on Escolta street as a singer to attract customers. She took voice lessons at the music conservatory of the University of Santo Tomas.[9] Imelda would later join a beauty pageant known as "Miss Manila" where she placed second but was named the "Muse of Manila" after contesting the results.[10] This led her to become a local supermodel with her pictures appearing in local magazines and newspapers.[11][12] Before meeting her husband, she briely dated Benigno Aquino, Jr., who would later become a political rival.[3][9] On May 1, 1954, Imelda married Ferdinand Marcos, a Nacionalista Party congressman from Ilocos Norte,[13] to whom she was introduced by her uncle. The marriage resulted in three children: Imee, Ferdinand, Jr., and Irene. She also adopted a girl named Aimee.[9]

First Lady[edit]

On December 1965,[14] her husband, Ferdinand, was elected as the 10th President of the Philippines and she served as First Lady. Later in July 1966, Imelda became involved in an altercation with the Beatles when they toured the Philippines after they unintentionally snubbed her, failing to attend a breakfast reception at Malacañang.[15] The snub was broadcast on Philippine television and radio.[16]

In an attempt to hold on to power, her husband declared martial law on September 23, 1972.[17] On December 7 that same year, an assailant tried to stab her to death with a bolo knife during an award ceremony broadcast live on television. The assailant was shot to death by police while she suffered wounds on her hands and arms that required 75 stitches.[18] Once her husband had consolidated his power, Imelda orchestrated lavish public events using millions of U.S. dollars in public funds to extol her husband's regime and bolster her public image.[19][20][21]William H. Sullivan wrote that she had acquired enough power to be able to browbeat Philippine generals into wearing drag at her birthday parties.[22]

She secured the Miss Universe 1974 pageant for Manila, which necessitated the construction and completion of the 10,000-seat Folk Arts Theater in less than three months.[23] She also organized the Kasaysayan ng Lahi, an extravagant festival parade showcasing the history of the Philippines.[24][25] Imelda initiated social programs such as the Green Revolution that intended to address hunger and a lack of farming by encouraging the planting of vegetables and fruits in people's gardens. Other programs included a national family-planning program,[26] and an African safari on Calauit Island.[27] During the early 1970s, she took control of the distribution of the bread called the "nutribun", which came from the USAID.[28][29] In 1978, Imelda was appointed elected as a member of the Interim Batasang Pambansa representing Region IV-A. Imelda was later appointed Ambassador Plenipotentiary and Extraordinary and toured numerous countries, most notably the United States, China,[30] the Soviet Union, Libya, Yugoslavia, Iraq, and Cuba.[31] Throughout her travels,[32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39] she became friends with a variety of political figures including Richard Nixon, Muammar Gaddafi, Saddam Hussein,[40] Fidel Castro, and Joseph Tito.[41][42] A Wikileaks diplomatic note "claims she was waiting for Spain's dictator Franco to die so she could fly to Madrid for the funeral."[43]

Imelda with her husband and Lyndon B. Johnson in Manila, 1966

To justify the multi-million U.S. dollar expenditure of traveling with a large diplomatic entourage using private jets, she would claim that her tours included securing a cheap supply of oil from China, Iraq, and Libya, which she also said was instrumental in the signing of the Tripoli Agreement of the Moro National Liberation Front. She continued her extravagant lifestyle with US$5-million shopping tours in New York,[44][45] Rome, and Copenhagen in 1983. One of her excesses included sending a plane to pick up Australian white sand for a beach resort.[46] During her trip to the dedication of the Sydney Opera House, she tried to upstage Queen Elizabeth.[47] Besides being an ambassador, Imelda also held the position of Minister of Human Settlements, allowing her to build institutions including Cultural Center of the Philippines, Philippine Heart Center, Lung Center of the Philippines, Philippine International Convention Center, Coconut Palace, and the Manila Film Center, most of which are still used in the 21st century.[42][48]

Imelda purchased a number of properties in Manhattan in the 1980s, including the US$51-million Crown Building, the Woolworth Building in 40 Wall Street, and the US$60-million Herald Centre.[49] It was stated that she declined to purchase the Empire State Building for $750m as she considered it "too ostentatious."[50] Her property also included jewels and a 175-piece art collection,[51] which included works by Michelangelo, Botticelli, Canaletto, Raphael,[52] as well as Monet’s “L’Église et La Seine à Vétheuil” (1881), Alfred Sisley’s “Langland Bay” (1887), and Albert Marquet’s “Le Cyprès de Djenan Sidi Said” (1946), also known as “Algerian View.”[53] When criticized, Imelda responded that it was her "duty" to be "some kind of light, a star to give the poor guidelines."[50][54]

People Power[edit]

Imelda was instrumental in the 1980 exile of opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr., who had suffered a heart attack during his imprisonment.[55] Martial Law was later lifted in 1981 and her husband, Ferdinand, was again elected president in what was considered a sham election.[56] As her husband began to suffer from lupus erythematosus, Imelda started to effectively rule in his place. Aquino returned in 1983 but was assassinated at the Manila International Airport.[57] With accusations against her beginning to rise, her husband ordered the Agrava Commission, a fact-finding committee, to investigate her, ultimately finding her not guilty.[58][59][58][60]

In 1986, snap elections were held between Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquino, the widow of former Senator and opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr.[61] In spite of Ferdinand winning the elections, allegations of vote rigging led to mass protests that would be later known as the People Power Revolution.[62] On February 25, Imelda and her family fled to Hawaii via Guam. After they left Malacañan Palace, Imelda was found to have left behind 15 mink coats, 508 gowns, 1,000 handbags,[63] and 1,060 pairs of shoes. The exact number of shoes varies with estimates of up to 7500 pairs of shoes.[64] However, Time reported that the final tally was only 1,060.[65] The location where her shoes and jewelry were being kept was later destroyed and the contents stolen. Even a painting of Imelda was destroyed outside the Palace.[50][66][67][68][69]

In October 1988, Imelda, her husband Ferdinand, and Adnan Khashoggi, a Saudi Arabian former billionaire and arms dealer, were tried by a Federal grand jury in Manhattan in a racketeering case.[70] Charges included embezzlement of more than US$100 million from the Philippines used to buy three buildings in New York City and fraudulently borrowing US$165 million from American banks to refinance the buildings and buy additional property.[71] The couple pleaded not guilty and were represented by trial lawyer Gerry Spence.[72] Imelda's US$5-million-dollar bail was posted by tobacco heiress, Doris Duke, who befriended her while she lived in Hawaii.[73] Actor George Hamilton was a witness for her defense. The case ended in acquittal in 1990.[74][75] Ferdinand died in exile in Hawaii on September 28, 1989. Aquino refused to permit the repatriation of his remains because of national security reasons.[76] The Supreme Court upheld the decision of the government in Marcos vs. Manglapus.[77][78] In 1991, Imelda was allowed to return home through an amnesty proclamation.[79][80]

Presidential pardon[edit]

Imelda in Makati, 2008.

After her fall from grace, Imelda was allowed to return to the Philippines through a presidential pardon by Corazon Aquino on November 4, 1991.[81][82][83] The following year, she ran for president in the hotly-contested 1992 presidential elections, finishing 5th out of 7 candidates with 2,338,294 votes.[84] In trials held that year, Imelda claimed that her fortune came from Yamashita's Gold.[85] In September 1993, Imelda was found guilty of corruption by a Manila court and sentenced to 18 to 24 years in prison. She was set free on bail and filed an appeal. This was just one of approximately 100 cases involving US$350-million allegedly held by the Marcos family in Swiss banks. The Swiss federal tribunal ruled in December 1990 that the money would only be returned to the national government in Manila if a Philippine court convicted Imelda in a fair trial.[86]

In 1995, she was elected as a congresswoman of Leyte, representing the first district. Imelda defeated Cirilo Montejo with a victory of 70,471 votes to Montejo's 36,833. Initially, a disqualification case was filed against her, but the Supreme Court ruled in her favor.[87] In 1998, Imelda would again seek the presidency. She ran but later withdrew to support the eventual winner Joseph Estrada.[88] She finished 9th among 11 candidates.[89] Estrada's administration would be instrumental in the dismissal of the cases filed by the Aquino government through Ombudsman Aniano Desierto, who said that technicalities and a lapse of the prescriptive period for filing cases were an obstacle.[90] On June 29, 1998, the Sandiganbayan convicted her on charges that she had entered into an agreement disadvantageous to the government. On appeal, the Supreme Court reversed the decision and cited Sandiganbayan Justice Francis Gatchitorena for his alleged bias against Imelda.[91][92]

In contrast to Imelda's very public life in the 1990s, her life in the first decade of the 21st century was a bit more private as she had retreated from politics and focused on her trials. In December 2000, she suffered a blood clot in her brain but recovered.[93] In 2004, the Global Transparency Report published a study that showed she and her husband amassed $5-10 billion.[94] By September 21, 2007, Imelda still had 10 pending graft cases.[95] She was acquitted on March 10, 2008 by the Manila Regional Trial Court Branch of 26 of 32 counts of dollar salting involving Swiss bank accounts due to reasonable doubt. Imelda, in reaction to her acquittal, said: "First of all, I am so happy and I thank the Lord that the 32 cases have been dismissed by the regional court here in Manila. This will subtract from the 901 cases that were filed against the Marcoses."[96] Imelda still had 10 pending criminal cases remaining before the Sandiganbayan Courts.[97]

Electoral return[edit]

In 2010, Imelda ran for the second district of Ilocos Norte in the 2010 elections to replace her son,[98] Ferdinand Marcos, Jr., who was running for Senate under the Nacionalista Party.[99][100] She defeated her nearest rival Mariano Nalupta, Jr. with 80% of the vote.[101] She held the position of Millennium Development Goals chairperson in the Lower House.[102]

In 2011, the Sandiganbayan's Fifth Division ordered Imelda to return US$280,000 in government funds taken by her and her late husband from the National Food Authority.[103] In 2012, Imelda declared her net worth to be US$22-million. She was listed as the second-richest Filipino behind boxer Manny Pacquiao.[104] On September 27, 2012, Imelda attended the book launch of Juan Ponce Enrile's autobiography, Juan Ponce Enrile: A Memoir, in the Rigodon Ballroom of The Peninsula Manila near her home in Makati. There, Imelda met with Benigno S. Aquino III.[105][106] Imelda filed her certificate of candidacy on October 3, 2012 in a bid to renew her term as Ilocos Norte's second district representative, [107] saying she wants to continue serving the province despite her age. In 2013, she won the election with 94,484 votes against her opponent Ignacio with 11,221 and Madamba with 1,647.[108]

Early in 2013, the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists released an expose on offshore leaks that included the name of her eldest daughter, Imee, among the list of wealthy people involved in offshore financial secrecy.[109][110] It was revealed that Imee had been helping her mother, Imelda, to hide portions of President Ferdinand Marcos' wealth in tax havens including the British Virgin Islands.[111][112] In October 17, 2013, the sale of two Claude Monet paintings, L'Eglise de Vetheuil and Le Bassin aux Nymphease, became the subject of a legal case in New York against Vilma Bautista, one-time aide to Imelda,[113][114] after she sold Le Bassin aux Nymphease for US$32 million to a Swiss buyer. The Monet paintings, along with two others, were allegedly acquired by Imelda during her husband's presidency using the nation's funds. Bautista's lawyer claim that the aide sold the painting for Imelda but did not have a chance to give her the money. The Philippine government currently seeks the return of the painting.[115] Le Bassin aux Nymphease, also known as Japanese Footbridge over the Water-Lily Pond at Giverny, is part of Monet's famed Water Lilies series.[53] Her secretary was sentenced in January 6, 2014.[116] On January 13, 2014, three collections of her jewelry:[117] the Malacanang collection, the Roumeliotes collection, and the Hawaii collection; along with paintings of Claude Monet were seized by the Philippine government.[118][119][120][121][122] Imelda caused a stir in January 2014 when she called the hospital arrest of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo by Benigno Aquino III as "cruel, unjust."[123][124][125]

Legacy[edit]

Marikina Shoe Museum, where her shoes rest.

Imelda's lavish collection of 3,000 pairs of shoes including white Pierre Cardin heels now lie partly in the National Museum of the Philippines and partly in a shoe museum in Marikina.[126][127][128] Typhoon Haiyan damaged her ancestral home in Tacloban, which also serves as a museum,[129] although she still retains homes in Ilocos Norte and Makati, where she resides.[130] Her net worth is assumed to be US$5 billion,[131][132][133] making her the third richest Filipino after Henry Sy and Lucio Tan and the richest woman in the country.[134][135][136] Towns in Biliran, Bohol, and Zamboanga Sibugay are named after her.[137] She is known by her nicknames "Iron Butterfly" or "Steel Butterfly",[60][138][139][140][141] which she has earned through surviving challenges in her life such as the deaths of her parents and her husband.[142][143] Her beauty has led her to be known in the Philippines as a fashion icon.[144]

In 1996, British musician Mark Knopfler wrote the song "Imelda", which was featured on his album Golden Heart.[145][146][147] She was the subject of the 2003 documentary film Imelda by Ramona S. Diaz in which she was interviewed about her life as a First Lady.[148][149] Imelda returned to the fashion scene by making a public appearance on October 8, 2008 when she was featured in the Project Runway Philippines (season 1) episode "Terno Challenge". She previously tried a comeback in 2006 by designing jewelry dubbed the Imelda Collection.[150] Imelda celebrated her 80th birthday in 2009 with a lavish party in the grand ballroom of Hotel Sofitel in Manila.[151] Her party was reminiscent of the extravagant gatherings she held as First Lady. Opera singers and a pianist performed on a stage adorned with her portrait. Marcos-era friends showed up, including Japanese socialite Ratna Sari Dewi Sukarno, a widow of the former President of Indonesia, Sukarno, who flew in from Japan just to attend the party.[151][152]

In 2010, British producer Fatboy Slim and American musician David Byrne created a concept album called Here Lies Love. It centers around the life of Imelda leading up to her family's exile in Hawai'i. The album features many guest singers including Cyndi Lauper, Florence Welch, Tori Amos, Sia, and Santigold, alternately playing the roles of Imelda and her servant, Estrella Cumpas, on each its tracks.[3] In the spring of 2013, The Public Theater in New York presented a staged musical version of the album.[153][154] An open-ended run returns to the Public Theater on March 24, 2014.[155]

Quotes[edit]

Topic Quotes by Imelda[156] Source
Popularity and Politics "When you reach a certain level of leadership, people cannot be neutral with you. They either love, love, love you, or hate, hate, hate you." BBC News (2000)[157]
Human Rights We never had such a violation of human rights. In fact, we have had no human rights case here in the Philippines, even to this day. “ Imelda (2003)[158]
Beauty “It is not expensive to be beautiful. It takes only a little effort to be presentable and beautiful. But it takes some effort. And unfortunately people think of beauty as luxury, beauty as frivolity, ... or extravagance. Beauty is a discipline, beauty is art, is harmony, in the ideological sense and in the theological sense, beauty is God and love made real. And the ultimate reach in this world is beauty.” Imelda
Ugliness “I seem to be able to only see the positive things in life and the beautiful things in life and when I see, for instance, garbage or ugliness, then I turn my back or I seem to be able to skip it.” Imelda
Setting an example "I am my little people's star and slave. When I go out into the barrios, I get dressed because I know my little people want to see a star. Other presidents' wives have gone to the barrios wearing housedresses and slippers. That's not what people want to see. People want someone they can love, someone to set an example." Los Angeles Times (1980)
Her Legacy "I was born ostentatious. They will list my name in the dictionary someday. They will use Imeldific to mean ostentatious extravagance." Associated Press (1998)
Making it “’Who is Imelda?’ I come from a third world country, third class province. And I was orphaned—and look, Imelda made it. If Imelda made it everyone can make it. At this age and stage I feel so good I’m still ready to fly.” Imelda

Ancestry[edit]

Family[edit]

 
Mariano Marcos
 
Josefa Edralin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vicente Romuáldez
 
Remedios Trinidad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ferdinand Marcos
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imelda Romuáldez
 
Benjamin Romuáldez
 
Alita Romuáldez
 
Alfredo Romuáldez
 
Armando Romuáldez
 
Concepcion Romuáldez
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tommy Manotoc
 
Imee Marcos
 
Ferdinand Marcos, Jr.
 
Louise Araneta
 
Gregorio Araneta III
 
Irene Marcos
 
 
Aimee Marcos
 
 
 
 

Elections[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kerima Polotan, "Imelda Romualdez Marcos, A Biography of the First Lady of the Philippines", The World Publishing Company, Ohio
  2. ^ "Kokoy Romualdez, powerful younger brother of Imelda Marcos, dies at 81". GMA. February 2012.
  3. ^ a b c The Imelda Marcos Story — As Told by David Byrne TIME. April 10, 2010.
  4. ^ Katherine Ellison, Imelda, Steel Butterfly of the Philippines, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988. ISBN 0-07-019335-5
  5. ^ Imelda: a Story of the Philippines, Beatriz Francia
  6. ^ Rowan, Roy (March 29, 1979). "Orchid or Iron Butterfly, Imelda Marcos Is a Prime Mover in Manila". People Magazine. Retrieved July 23, 2006. 
  7. ^ a b FILM CLIPS / Also opening today. San Francisco Gate. June 11, 2004.
  8. ^ 'Imelda': Don't Cry for Her. The Washington Post. July 16, 2004.
  9. ^ a b c Carmen Navarro Pedrosa. The Untold Story of Imelda Marcos, Manila: Bookmark, 1969, p. 3–4.
  10. ^ Imelda. '.TV Guide.
  11. ^ Imelda Marcos (Filipino Public Figure). Encyclopædia Britannica.
  12. ^ `I'm a magpie for beauty'. The Chicago Tribune. November 6, 2006.
  13. ^ Staycation guide: Overnight stay in Quiapo. ABS-CBN News. January 6, 2014.
  14. ^ The best books on the Philippines: start your reading here. The Guardian. January 15, 2014
  15. ^ Spitz, The Beatles (2005) p619
  16. ^ "Beatles to avoid Philippines". Saskatoon Star-Phoenix (Associated Press). 8 July 1966. Retrieved May 22, 2012. 
  17. ^ "Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law". United States Department of State.
  18. ^ "Mrs. Marcos / Assassination Attempt". Television News Archive/Vanderbilt University. 
  19. ^ Imelda Romualdez Marcos, Kerima Polotan
  20. ^ Imelda Marocs Biography. The Biography Channel.
  21. ^ Nacimentos: Imelda Marcos. Projeco VIP.
  22. ^ "Ferdinand Marcos, Former Philippines Dictator, Forced Generals To Perform Drag Show, According To WikiLeaks". The Huffington Post. April 9, 2013.
  23. ^ Cronies and Enemies: the Current Philippine Scene, Belinda Aquino, editor, University of Hawaii, 1982
  24. ^ Kasaysayan ng Lahi [documentary video], Manila: National Media Production Board, 1974
  25. ^ Serin, J.R., A.L. Elamil. D.C. Serion, et al. Ugnayan ng Pamhalaan at Mamamayan. Manila: Bede's Publishing House, Inc., 1979.
  26. ^ Ramona Diaz. Imelda. Ramona Diaz-Independent Television Service, 2003.
  27. ^ At Philippine Safari Park, Serengeti on South China Sea. Bloomberg Businessweek. December 3, 2013.
  28. ^ Masagana 99, Nutribun, and Imelda's 'edifice complex' of hospitals. GMA News. September 20, 2012.
  29. ^ Nutrition and Related Services Provided to the Republic of the Philippines. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. September 1979.
  30. ^ Imelda Marcos - "Gates of Friendship: Bridges for Tomorrow" part 1. Youtube. January 17, 2007.
  31. ^ Chronology of the Marcos Plunder. Asian Journal.
  32. ^ Walk in her shoes. Canoe.ca. December 1, 2004.
  33. ^ Imelda. Deseret News. December 2, 2004.
  34. ^ Short Reviews: Imelda. The Phoenix. August 6–12, 2004.
  35. ^ Movie guide. Christian Science Monitor. June 18, 2004.
  36. ^ Imelda. Film Threat.
  37. ^ For a Regal Pariah, Despite It All, the Shoe Is Never on the Other Foot. The New York Times. June 9, 2004.
  38. ^ Review: ‘Imelda’. Variety. March 17, 2004.
  39. ^ A walk in the shoes of Imelda Marcos. The Boston Globe. August 6, 2004.
  40. ^ Imelda Marcos - The Conquest of Iraq. Youtube. April 23, 2007.
  41. ^ Waltzing with a Dictator: the Marcoses and the Making of American Policy, Raymond Bonner, author, Times Books, New York, 1987, ISBN 0-8129-1326-4
  42. ^ a b Get to know former First Lady Imelda Marcos on Powerhouse. Power House. GMA Network. July 8, 2013.
  43. ^ The Following comments about Mrs. Marcos were made by Jack Anderson on the dates indicated on the Good Morning America broadcast on the ABC Television Network. Wikileaks. January 26, 1976.
  44. ^ "Witness ties Imelda Marcos to Buildings." The Spokesman-Review. January 30, 1986.
  45. ^ "Real Estate Agent Gives Evidence of Marcos Buys."The Bulletin. April 10, 1986.
  46. ^ Imelda Marcos - The First Lady's Visit to Australia. Youtube. January 16, 2007.
  47. ^ Reluctant Embararrass Mrs. Marcos if she insisted on attending inauguration. Wikileaks. December 23, 1976.
  48. ^ Documentary on Imelda Marcos - Al Jazeera.
  49. ^ "Manila After Marcos: Managing a Frail economy; Marco's Mansion Suggests Luxury". The New York Times. February 28, 1986.
  50. ^ a b c McNeill, David (February 25, 2006). "The weird world of Imelda Marcos". The Independent (London). Retrieved December 30, 2006. 
  51. ^ Marcoses' Silver Sets Record At Auction. The New York Times. January 11, 1991.
  52. ^ Marcoses' Raphael Sold To Italy for $1.65 Million. The New York Times. January 12, 1991.
  53. ^ a b Buettner, Russ (November 20, 2012). "Imelda Marcos’s Ex-Aide Charged in ’80s Art Theft". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  54. ^ Imelda camp mum on Newsweek’s ‘greediest’ tag. GMA News. April 6, 2009.
  55. ^ Imelda Marcos Talkasia Transcript. CNN. January 24, 2007.
  56. ^ The Marcos Dynasty, Sterling Seagrave, author, Harper & Row, New York, 1988, ISBN 0-06-015815-8
  57. ^ "Filipino Women Protest Mrs. Marcos' Extravagance." The Telegraph-Herald. October 28, 1983.
  58. ^ a b Sandiganbayan ruling on Ninoy assassination. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  59. ^ "Creating a Fact-Finding Board with Plenary Powers to Investigate the Tragedy Which Occurred on August 21, 1983". Presidential Decree No. 1886. Malacanang Palace. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  60. ^ a b The Steel Butterfly Still Soars. The New York Times. October 6, 2012.
  61. ^ Imelda, Steel butterfly of the Philippines, Katherine Ellison, author, McGrawHill, New York, 1988, ISBN 0-07-019335-5
  62. ^ Inside the Palace: The Rise and Fall of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos, Beth Day Romulo, author, Putnam Publishing Group, New York, 1987, ISBN 0-399-13253-8
  63. ^ "Imeldarabilia: A Final Count". TIME. February 23, 1987. Retrieved December 30, 2006. 
  64. ^ "The day in numbers: $100". CNN. November 7, 2006. 
  65. ^ "Investigations: Imeldarabilia: A Final Count". Time. February 23, 1987. 
  66. ^ "The Yamashita Treasure was found by Roxas and stolen from Roxas by Marcos' men."
  67. ^ The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos and Imelda Marcos, Primitivo Mijares, author, Union Square Publishing, ISBN 1-141-12147-6
  68. ^ Morrow, Lance (March 31, 1986). "Essay: The Shoes of Imelda Marcos". New York Times. 
  69. ^ No Apology, It Was a Godly Act -- Imelda. October 14, 1998.
  70. ^ Judge Delays Hearing for Marcos, Not Wife. The New York Times. October 28, 1988.
  71. ^ Lubasch, Arnold (October 22, 1988). "Marcos and wife, 8 others : Charged by US with fraud". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  72. ^ The Marcos Verdict; Marcos Is Cleared of All Charges In Racketeering and Fraud Case. The New York Times. July 3, 1990.
  73. ^ Imelda Marcos Acquitted, Again. The New York Times. March 11, 2008.
  74. ^ Angelo, Bonnie (July 2, 1990). "Judge Wapner, Where Are You?". TIME. Retrieved September 11, 2007. 
  75. ^ "Imelda Marcos Found Not Guilty : Philippines: The former first lady's late husband was the culpable party, some jurors feel. Khashoggi is also cleared.." Los Angeles Times. July 3, 1990.
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  158. ^ Director fights for Imelda movie. BBC News. July 7, 2004.
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Evangelina Macapagal
First Lady of the Philippines
1965–1986
Vacant
Title next held by
Amelita Ramos
House of Representatives of the Philippines
Preceded by
Cirilo Roy C. Montejo
Member of the House of Representatives from Leyte's 1st district
1995–1998
Succeeded by
Alfred S. Romualdez
Preceded by
Ferdinand Marcos, Jr.
Member of the House of Representatives from Ilocos Norte's 2nd district
2010–present
Incumbent