Immigration to Italy

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Foreign residents as a percentage of the regional population, 2011

Immigration to Italy is a phenomenon that became relevant only at the end of the 1970s.[citation needed]

As of January 2013, there were 4,387,721 foreign nationals resident in Italy.[1] This amounted to 7.4% of the country’s population and represented an increase of 334,122 (+8,2%) over the previous year.[1] These figures include 79,894 children born in Italy to foreign nationals (15% of total births in Italy), but exclude foreign nationals who have subsequently acquired Italian nationality; this applied to 65,383 people in 2012.[1] They also exclude illegal immigrants whose numbers are difficult to determine. The distribution of foreign born population is largely uneven in Italy: 86% of immigrants live in the northern and central parts of the country (the most economically developed areas), while only 14% live in the southern half of the peninsula.[1]

There is a high level of illegal immigration to Italy - in May 2008, The Boston Globe quoted an estimate of 670,000 undocumented residents.[2] Many immigrants from Africa make the dangerous boat journey across the Mediterranean to Italy. This has lead to numerous disasters such as the May 2007 Malta migrant shipwreck, the 2009 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck, the 2011 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck, and the 2013 Lampedusa migrant shipwreck.[3] Once in Italy, immigrants seeking asylum often are unable to leave due to the Dublin Regulation requirement that they stay in the first country where they are processed.[4]

Since the expansion of the European Union, the most recent wave of migration has been from surrounding European states, particularly Eastern Europe, and increasingly Asia,[5] replacing North Africa as the major immigration area. About a million Romanians, around 10% of them being Roms,[6] are officially registered as living in Italy. As of 2013, the foreign born population origin was subdivided as follows: Europe (50.8%), Africa (22.1%), Asia (18.8%), America (8.3%), and Oceania (0.1%).[7]

Statistics[edit]

Total foreign population
Source: demo.istat.it
Year Population Increase  %
2003 1,549,373 n.a. n.a.
2004 1,990,159 440,786 +28.44
2005 2,402,157 411,998 +20.70
2006 2,670,514 268,357 +11.17
2007 2,938,922 268,408 +10.05
2008 3,432,651 493,729 +16.79
2009 3,891,295 458,644 +13.36
2010 4,235,059 343,764 +8.83
2011[note 1] 4,029,145 −205,914 −4.87
2012 4,053,599 24,454 +0.60
2013 4,387,721 334,122 +8.24
Immigration by country[note 2]
Country 2010[8] 2011[8] 2012[7] 2013[9]
 Romania 887,763 968,576 997,000 n.a.
 Morocco 431,529 452,424 506,369 513,374
 Albania 466,684 482,627 491,495 497,761
 China 188,352 209,934 277,570 304,768
 Ukraine 174,129 200,730 223,782 224,588
 Philippines 123,584 134,154 152,382 158,308
 India 105,863 121,036 145,164 150,462
 Moldova 37.971 130,948 147,519 149,231
 Egypt 82,064 90,365 117,145 123,529
 Tunisia 103,678 106,291 122,595 121,483
 Bangladesh 73,965 82,451 106,671 113,811
 Poland 105,608 109,018 112,000 n.a.
 Peru 87,747 98,603 107,847 n.a.
 Serbia 53,875 52,954 101,554 n.a.
 Sri Lanka 75,343 81,094 94,577 n.a.
 Pakistan 64,859 75,720 90,185 n.a.
 Ecuador 85,940 91,625 89,626 n.a.
 Senegal 72,618 80,989 87,311 n.a.
 Macedonia 92,847 89,900 82,209 n.a.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The figures for 2011 have been updated downward as a result of the 15th General Census of Italy which offered more precise data.
  2. ^ Since 2013, the European Union foreign nationals are no longer counted in the immigration statistics. This includes the Romanians, the largest minority group in Italy.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Albani, Mauro (26 July 2013). "La popolazione straniera residente in Italia nel 2013". ISTAT. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  2. ^ Rosenthal, Elisabeth (16 May 2008). "Italy cracks down on illegal immigration". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  3. ^ "Italy’s illegal immigrants: Tidal wave". The Economist. 2014-07-05. 
  4. ^ Grant, Harriet; Domokos, John (2011-10-07). "Dublin regulation leaves asylum seekers with their fingers burnt". The Guardian. 
  5. ^ Willey, David (13 April 2007). "Milan police in Chinatown clash". BBC News. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  6. ^ Ciobanu, Claudia (16 May 2008). "EUROPE: Home to Roma, And No Place for Them". Inter Press Service. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  7. ^ a b IDOS (30 October 2012). "Dossier Statistico Immigrazione 2012". Caritas. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  8. ^ a b Albani, Mauro (22 September 2011). "La popolazione straniera residente in Italia nel 2011". ISTAT. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  9. ^ Conti, Cinzia (30 July 2013). "I cittadini non comunitari regolarmente soggiornanti". ISTAT. Retrieved 28 August 2013.