Immigration to Italy

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Foreign residents as a percentage of the regional population, 2011

Immigration to Italy is a phenomenon that became relevant only at the end of the 1970s.[citation needed]

As of January 2013, there were 4,387,721 foreign nationals resident in Italy.[1] This amounted to 7.4% of the country’s population and represented an increase of 334,122 (+8,2%) over the previous year.[1] These figures include 79,894 children born in Italy to foreign nationals (15% of total births in Italy), but exclude foreign nationals who have subsequently acquired Italian nationality; this applied to 65,383 people in 2012.[1] They also exclude illegal immigrants whose numbers are difficult to determine. The distribution of foreign born population is largely uneven in Italy: 86% of immigrants live in the northern and central parts of the country (the most economically developed areas), while only 14% live in the southern half of the peninsula.[1]

There is a high level of illegal immigration to Italy - in May 2008, The Boston Globe quoted an estimate of 670,000 undocumented residents.[2] Many immigrants from Africa make the dangerous boat journey across the Mediterranean to Italy. This has lead to numerous disasters such as the May 2007 Malta migrant shipwreck, the 2009 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck, the 2011 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck, and the 2013 Lampedusa migrant shipwreck.[3] Once in Italy, immigrants seeking asylum often are unable to leave due to the Dublin Regulation requirement that they stay in the first country where they are processed.[4]

Since the expansion of the European Union, the most recent wave of migration has been from surrounding European states, particularly Eastern Europe, and increasingly Asia,[5] replacing North Africa as the major immigration area. About a million Romanians, around 10% of them being Roms,[6] are officially registered as living in Italy. As of 2013, the foreign born population origin was subdivided as follows: Europe (50.8%), Africa (22.1%), Asia (18.8%), America (8.3%), and Oceania (0.1%).[7]

Statistics[edit]

Total foreign population
Source: demo.istat.it
Year Population Increase  %
2003 1,549,373 n.a. n.a.
2004 1,990,159 440,786 +28.44
2005 2,402,157 411,998 +20.70
2006 2,670,514 268,357 +11.17
2007 2,938,922 268,408 +10.05
2008 3,432,651 493,729 +16.79
2009 3,891,295 458,644 +13.36
2010 4,235,059 343,764 +8.83
2011[note 1] 4,029,145 −205,914 −4.87
2012 4,053,599 24,454 +0.60
2013 4,387,721 334,122 +8.24
Immigration by country[note 2]
Country 2010[8] 2011 cens. [9] 2012[10] 2013[11] 2014[12]
 Romania 887,763 823,100 834,465 933,354 n.a.
 Morocco 431,529 407,097 408,667 426,971 524,775
 Albania 466,684 451,437 450,908 464,962 502,546
 China 188,352 194,510 197,064 223,367 320,794
 Ukraine 174,129 178,534 180,121 191,725 233,726
 Philippines 123,584 129,015 129,188 139,835 165,783
 India 105,863 116,797 118,409 128,903 160,296
 Moldova 37.971 130,619 132,175 139,734 150,021
 Egypt 82,064 65,985 66,932 76,691 135,284
 Bangladesh 73,965 80,639 81,683 92,695 127,861
 Tunisia 103,678 82,066 82,997 88,291 122,354
 Poland 105,608 84,619 84,749 88,839 n.a.
 Peru 87,747 93,905 93,841 99,173 110,152
 Serbia 53,875 n.a. 43,022 43,816 109,474
 Pakistan 64,859 69,877 71,031 80,658 106,485
 Sri Lanka 75,343 71,203 71,573 79,530 104,405
 Senegal 72,618 72,458 73,702 80,325 97,781
 Ecuador 85,940 80,645 80,333 82,791 91,145
 Macedonia 92,847 73,407 73,972 76,608 84,318
 Nigeria 47.338 48 220 56,476 70,125
 Bulgaria 15.374 n.a. 42,000 47,872 n.a.
 Ghana 44.031 44,364 48,575 56,607
 Brazil 37 567 39,157 46,523
 Germany 19.414 n.a. 34,936 35,576 n.a.
 Russia 28 604 30,948 39,314
 United States 12,184 13,165 36,783
 France 14.565 n.a. 23,985 25,016 n.a.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 28,015 28,996 30,026
 United Kingdom 5.405 n.a. 22,839 23,744 n.a.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The figures for 2011 have been updated downward as a result of the 15th General Census of Italy which offered more precise data.
  2. ^ Since 2013, the European Union foreign nationals are no longer counted in the immigration statistics. This includes the Romanians, the largest minority group in Italy.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Albani, Mauro (26 July 2013). "La popolazione straniera residente in Italia nel 2013". ISTAT. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  2. ^ Rosenthal, Elisabeth (16 May 2008). "Italy cracks down on illegal immigration". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  3. ^ "Italy’s illegal immigrants: Tidal wave". The Economist. 2014-07-05. 
  4. ^ Grant, Harriet; Domokos, John (2011-10-07). "Dublin regulation leaves asylum seekers with their fingers burnt". The Guardian. 
  5. ^ Willey, David (13 April 2007). "Milan police in Chinatown clash". BBC News. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  6. ^ Ciobanu, Claudia (16 May 2008). "EUROPE: Home to Roma, And No Place for Them". Inter Press Service. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  7. ^ IDOS (30 October 2012). "Dossier Statistico Immigrazione 2012". Caritas. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  8. ^ Albani, Mauro (22 September 2011). "La popolazione straniera residente in Italia nel 2011". ISTAT. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  9. ^ "Gli stranieri al 15° Censimento della popolazione". ISTAT. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  10. ^ "Immigrati Stat". ISTAT. 31 December 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  11. ^ "Demo Istat". ISTAT. 31 December 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  12. ^ http://www.istat.it/it/archivio/129854