Imperial County, California

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This article is about the county in Southern California. For the Holy Roman noble title, see Imperial Count.
Imperial County, California
County
Imperial valley fields.jpg
Salton Sea Reflection.jpg Courthouse night.JPG
Images, from top down, left to right: The fields of Imperial Valley, Salton Sea, Imperial County Courthouse
Official seal of Imperial County, California
Seal
Location in the state of California
Location in the state of California
California's location in the United States
California's location in the United States
Country  United States
State  California
Region Imperial Valley
Incorporated August 7, 1907
County seat El Centro
Largest city El Centro
Area
 • Total 4,482 sq mi (11,610 km2)
 • Land 4,177 sq mi (10,820 km2)
 • Water 305 sq mi (790 km2)
Population (2010 Census)
 • Total 174,528
 • Density 39/sq mi (15/km2)
Time zone Pacific Standard Time (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST) Pacific Daylight Time (UTC-7)
Website www.imperialcounty.net

Imperial County is a county located in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 174,528.[1] The county seat is El Centro.[2] Established in 1907, it was the last county to be established in California.

Imperial County comprises the El Centro, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is also part of the Southern California border region, the smallest but most economically diverse region in the state.[3] It is located in the Imperial Valley, in the far southeast of California, bordering both Arizona and Mexico.

Although this region is a desert, with high temperatures and low average rainfall of three inches (seventy-five mm) per year, the economy is heavily based on agriculture due to irrigation, supplied wholly from the Colorado River via the All-American Canal.

The Imperial Valley is a melting pot of European American and Hispanic cultures. On the American side, the majority of residents are of Mexican American heritage, while the Mexican side was greatly influenced by American culture for many decades. The entire valley is a multi-racial mixture of European Americans, East Asian Americans, South Asian Americans, some African Americans and Native Americans.

History[edit]

Juan Bautista de Anza Bezerra Nieto

Spanish explorer Melchor Díaz was one of the first Europeans to visit the area around Imperial Valley in 1540. The explorer Juan Bautista de Anza also explored the area in 1776.[4] Years later, after the Mexican-American War, the northern half of the valley was annexed by the U.S., while the southern half remained under Mexican rule. Small scale settlement in natural aquifer areas occurred in the early 19th century (the present-day site of Mexicali), but most permanent settlement (Anglo Americans in the U.S. side, Mexicans in the other side) was after 1900.

In 1905, torrential rainfall in the American Southwest caused the Colorado River (the only drainage for the region) to flood, including canals that had been built to irrigate the Imperial Valley. Since the valley is partially below sea level, the waters never fully receded, but collected in the Salton Sink in what is now called the Salton Sea, the world's only artificial inland sea.

Imperial County was formed in 1907 from the eastern portion of San Diego County. The county took its name from Imperial Valley, itself named for the Imperial Land Company, a subsidiary of the California Development Company, which at the turn of the 20th century had claimed the southern portion of the Colorado Desert for agriculture. Much of the Imperial Land Company's land also existed in Mexico (Baja California). The objective of the company was commercial crop farming development.

By 1910, the land company had managed to settle and develop thousands of farms on both sides of the border. The Mexican Revolution soon after severely disrupted the company's plans. Nearly 10,000 farmers and their families in Mexico were ethnically cleansed by the rival Mexican armies. Not until the 1920s was the other side of California in America sufficiently peaceful and prosperous for the company to earn a return for a large percentage of Mexicans, but some chose to stay and lay down roots in newly sprouted communities in the valley.

The county experienced a period of migration of "Okies" from drought-trodden dust bowl farms by the need of migrant labor, and prosperous job-seekers alike from across the U.S. arrived in the 1930s and 1940s, especially in World War II and after the completion of the All American Canal from its source, the Colorado River, from 1948 to 1951. By the 1950 census, over 50,000 residents lived in Imperial County alone, about 40 times that of 1910. Most of the population was year-round but would increase every winter by migrant laborers from Mexico. Until the 1960s, the farms in Imperial County provided substantial economic returns to the company and the valley.

In the 2000s, the real estate boom and bust impacted Imperial County. Currently, El Centro has one of the U.S' highest unemployment rates (above 30-34%) and ranks one of the state's poorest counties or have a lower than state and national average annual household income.

Sites of interest[edit]

Fort Yuma[edit]

Fort Yuma is located on the banks of the Colorado River in Winterhaven, California. First established after the end of the Mexican-American War in 1848, it was originally located in the bottoms near the Colorado River, less than 1-mile (1.6 km) below the mouth of the Gila River. It was to defend the newly settled community of Yuma, Arizona on the other side of the Colorado River and the nearby Mexican border. In March 1851 the post was moved to a small elevation on the Colorado's west bank, opposite the present city of Yuma, Arizona, on the site of the former Mission Puerto de Purísima Concepción. This site had been occupied by Camp Calhoun, named for John C. Calhoun, established in 1849. Fort Yuma was established to protect the southern emigrant travel route to California and to attempt control of the Yuma Indians in the surrounding 100-mile (160 km) area.[5]

Blue Angels[edit]

Blue Angels

NAF El Centro is the winter home of the U.S. Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, The Blue Angels. NAF El Centro historically kicks off the Blue Angels' season with their first air show, traditionally held in March.[6]

Imperial Valley Expo & fairgrounds[edit]

Home to the California Mid-Winter Fair and Fiesta which is the local county fair, held in late February to early March and known throughout North America. It is also home to the Imperial Valley Speedway, a race track of 38 mile (600 m).[7]

Algodones Sand Dunes[edit]

The Algodones Dunes

The name Algodones Dunes refers to the entire geographic feature, while the administrative designation for that portion managed by the Bureau of Land Management is the "Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area" (sometimes called the "Glamis Dunes"). The Algodones Sand Dunes are the largest mass of sand dunes in California. This dune system extends for more than 40 miles (60 km) along the eastern edge of the Imperial Valley agricultural region in a band averaging 5 miles (8 km) in width. A major east-west route of the Union Pacific railroad skirts the eastern edge.The dune system is divided into 3 areas. The northern most area is known as Mammoth Wash. South of Mammoth Wash is the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness established by the 1994 California Desert Protection Act. This area is closed to motorized use and access is by hiking and horseback. The largest and most heavily used area begins at Highway 78 and continues south just past Interstate 8. The expansive dune formations offer picturesque scenery, a chance to view rare plants and animals, and a playground for ATV and off-roading enthusiasts. The dunes are also popular in film making and have been the site for movies such as Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi.[8]

Colorado River[edit]

The Colorado River is a river in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately 2,330 kilometres (1,450 mi) long, draining a part of the arid regions on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. The natural course of the river flows from north of Grand Lake, Colorado into the Gulf of California. For many months out of the year, however, no water actually flows from the United States to the gulf, due to human consumption. The river is a popular destination for water sports including fishing, boating, water-skiing, and jet-skiing.[9]

Salvation Mountain[edit]

Salvation Mountain (location 33°15′14.9″N 115°28′21.4″W / 33.254139°N 115.472611°W / 33.254139; -115.472611) is an artificial mountain north of Calipatria, California, near Slab City. It is made from adobe, straw, and thousands of gallons of paint. It was created by Leonard Knight to convey the message that "God Loves Everyone". Knight refused substantial donations of money and labor from supporters who wished to modify his message of universal love to favor or disfavor particular groups.

Anza-Borrego Desert State Park[edit]

Bighorn Sheep at Palm Canyon in Anza-Borrego State Park

Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, portions of which are located in Imperial County, is the largest state park in California. 500 miles (800 km) of dirt roads and twelve wilderness areas and miles of hiking trails provide visitors with an unparalleled opportunity to experience the wonders of the Colorado Desert. The park is named after Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza and the Spanish name borrego, or bighorn sheep. The park features washes, wildflowers, palm groves, cacti and sweeping vistas. Visitors may also have the chance to see roadrunner, golden eagles, kit foxes, mule deer and bighorn sheep as well as iguanas, chuckwallas and the red diamond rattlesnake.

Fossil Canyon and Painted Gorge[edit]

Located near Ocotillo, California in the Coyote Mountains, Fossil Canyon and the surrounding area is a great place for rock hounding and fossil hunting. The fossils here are not dinosaurs, but ancient shells, coral, and oysters from the Miocene epoch when the area was underwater.[10]

The Painted Gorge, located on the eastern side of the Coyote Mountains, consists of sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks. Heat and movement over time has created fantastic shapes and colors. Oranges, reds, purples, and mauves mixed with browns and blacks create a palette of color as the sun illuminates and plays shadows upon this geologic wonder.[10]

Imperial NWR[edit]

Mesquite point at Imperial NWR

The Imperial National Wildlife Refuge protects wildlife habitat along 30 miles (50 km) of the lower Colorado River in Arizona and California, including the last un-channeled section before the river enters Mexico. The river and its associated backwater lakes and wetlands are a green oasis, contrasting with the surrounding desert mountains. It is a refuge and breeding area for migratory birds and local desert wildlife.[11]

Sonny Bono Salton Sea NWR[edit]

The Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge is located 40 miles (60 km) north of the Mexican border at the southern end of the Salton Sea in California’s Imperial Valley. Situated along the Pacific Flyway, the refuge is the only one of its kind, located 227 feet below sea level. Because of its southern latitude, elevation, and location in the Colorado Desert, the refuge experiences some of the highest temperatures in the nation. Daily temperatures from May to October generally exceed 100°F with temperatures of 116°-120°F recorded yearly.[12]

Mexicali[edit]

The border city of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico offers big city amenities like museums, a zoo, a sports convention center, and an international airport. Visitors cross by foot or car from Calexico in the United States every day. Restaurants and taco stands, pharmacies, bars and dance clubs are part of the draw for the city's tourists. Many shops and stalls selling Mexican crafts and souvenirs are also located in walking distance from the border. Also many residents from California, Arizona and Nevada look for medical and dental services in Mexicali, because they tend to be less expensive than those in the United States. Mexico's drinking age of 18 (vs. 21 in the United States) makes it a common weekend destination for many high school and college aged Southern Californians.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,482 square miles (11,610 km2), of which 4,177 square miles (10,820 km2) is land and 305 square miles (790 km2) (6.8%) is water.[13] Much of Imperial County is below sea level. Imperial County is slighy twice the size in total square miles as the State of Delaware.

The county is in the Colorado Desert, an extension of the larger Sonoran Desert.

The Colorado River forms the county's eastern boundary. Two notable geographic features are found in the county, the Salton Sea, at 235 feet (72 m) below sea level, and the Algodones Dunes, one of the largest dune fields in America.[14]

The Chocolate Mountains are located east of the Salton Sea, and extend in a northwest-southeast direction [14] for approximately 60 miles (97 km).

In this region, the geology is dominated by the transition of the tectonic plate boundary from rift to fault. The southernmost strands of the San Andreas Fault connect the northern-most extensions of the East Pacific Rise. Consequently, the region is subject to earthquakes, and the crust is being stretched, resulting in a sinking of the terrain over time.

National protected areas[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Imperial County is at the junction of one interstate, and three state highways. Radiating to the east and west are connections to the Arizona Sun Corridor and San Diego-Tijuana metropolitan area via Interstate 8, Blythe, and northern San Diego County via State Route 78, the Mexicali Valley via State Route 111, and the Coachella Valley, Inland Empire, and Los Angeles metropolitan area via State Route 86.

Public transportation[edit]

Imperial County is served by Greyhound Lines and Imperial Valley Transit buses. Amtrak trains on the Sunset Limited route also travel through the county, but with no scheduled stops; the nearest stop is in Yuma, Arizona.

Airports[edit]

County owned[edit]

  • Imperial County Airport, the county's main airport, is primarily a general aviation facility. It is located just north of El Centro, and has limited commercial flight service subsidized by the Essential Air Service program.
  • Holtville Airport is a public use general aviation airport, owned by the county and located roughly 5 miles (8 km) east of Holtville.

Municipal ownership[edit]

Privately owned[edit]

Military[edit]

Crime[edit]

The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.

Cities by population and crime rates[edit]

Demographics[edit]

2011[edit]

Places by population, race, and income[edit]

2010[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1910 13,591
1920 43,453 219.7%
1930 60,903 40.2%
1940 59,740 −1.9%
1950 62,975 5.4%
1960 72,105 14.5%
1970 74,492 3.3%
1980 92,110 23.7%
1990 109,303 18.7%
2000 142,361 30.2%
2010 174,528 22.6%
Est. 2013 176,584 1.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[25]
1790-1960[26] 1900-1990[27]
1990-2000[28] 2010-2013[1]

The 2010 United States Census reported that Imperial County had a population of 174,528. The racial makeup of Imperial County was 102,553 (58.8%) White, 5,773 (3.3%) African American, 3,059 (1.8%) Native American, 2,843 (1.6%) Asian, 165 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 52,413 (30.0%) from other races, and 7,722 (4.4%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 140,271 persons (80.4%).[29]

2000[edit]

As of the census[30] of 2000, there were 142,361 people, 39,384 households, and 31,467 families residing in the county. The population density was 34 people per square mile (13/km²). There were 43,891 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile (4/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 49.4% White, 4.0% Black or African American, 1.9% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 39.1% from other races, and 3.7% from two or more races. 72.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 65.7% spoke Spanish at home, while and 32.3% spoke only English.

There were 39,384 households out of which 46.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were married couples living together, 17.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 20.1% were non-families. 17.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.33 and the average family size was 3.77.

In the county the population was spread out with 31.4% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, and 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 109.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.4 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $31,870, and the median income for a family was $35,226. Males had a median income of $32,775 versus $23,974 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,239. About 19.4% of families and 22.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.7% of those under age 18 and 13.6% of those age 65 or over.

Imperial County has the lowest per capita income of any county in Southern California and among the bottom five counties in the state.

By 2006 the population had risen to 160,201, the population growth rate since the year 2000 was 30%, the highest in California and fifth highest in the United States in the time period. High levels of immigration, new residents search for affordable homes, and a search for retirement homes can explain the population increase.

Economy[edit]

Thousands of acres of prime farmland have transformed the desert into one of the most productive farming regions in California with an annual crop production of over $1 billion. Agriculture is the largest industry in Imperial County and accounts for 48% of all employment.[31] Although this region is a desert, with high temperatures and low average rainfall of three inches (75 mm) per year, the economy is heavily based on agriculture due to irrigation, which is supplied wholly from the Colorado River via the All-American Canal. A vast system of canals, check dams, and pipelines carry the water all over the valley, a system which forms the Imperial Irrigation District, or IID. The water distribution system includes over 1,400 miles (2,300 km) of canal and with 1,100 miles (1,800 km) of pipeline. The number of canal and pipeline branches number roughly over a hundred. Imported water and a long growing season allow two crop cycles each year, and the Imperial Valley is a major source of winter fruits and vegetables, cotton, and grain for U.S. and international markets. Alfalfa is another major crop produced in the Imperial Valley. The agricultural lands are served by a constructed agricultural drain system, which conveys surface runoff and subsurface drainage from fields to the Salton Sea, which is a designated repository for agricultural runoff.[32]

El Centro is the commercial center of Imperial County. Fifty percent of the jobs in El Centro come from the service and retail sector.[31]

A recent growth in the interest of Imperial County as a filming location, has spurred growth in servicing this industry.[31] Because of the county's desert environment and proximity to Los Angeles, California, movies are sometimes filmed in the sand dunes outside the agricultural portions of the county. These have included Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi, Stargate, The Scorpion King, and Into the Wild. Additionally, portions of the 2005 film Jarhead were filmed here because of its similarity to the desert terrain of Iraq.[citation needed]

Renewable energy source[edit]

Imperial Valley has become a hotbed of renewable energy projects, both solar and geothermal.[33] This is driven in part by California's mandate to generate 20% of its power from renewable sources by the end of 2010, the valley's excellent sun resources, the high unemployment, its proximity to large population centers on the coast, and large tracts of otherwise unusable desert land.[33] Much of the land suitable for green energy is owned by the federal government (Bureau of Land Management). As of April 2008, the BLM has received 163 applications to build renewable energy projects on 1,600,000 acres (6,500 km2) in California. Almost all of these are planned for the Imperial Valley and the desert region north of the valley.[33] Stirling Energy is currently building one of the world's largest solar thermal plants, 10 square miles (26 km2) with 38,000 "sun catchers," it will power up to 600,000 homes once it is fully operational by around 2015.[33] CalEnergy currently runs a geothermal plant that generates enough power for 300,000 homes and could tap into more for up to 2.5 million homes.[33]

Government[edit]

The county is governed by the Imperial County Board of Supervisors, a five-member board elected by districts.[34] Supervisors serve four-year terms. Other elected county officials include the Assessor, Auditor-Controller, District Attorney, County Clerk-Recorder, Public Administrator, Superintendent of Schools, Sheriff-Coroner, and Treasurer-Tax Collector.

Politics[edit]

Voter registration statistics[edit]

Cities by population and voter registration[edit]

Overview[edit]

Imperial County vote
by party in presidential elections
Year GOP DEM Others
2008 36.1% 14,008 62.3% 24,162 2.4% 4,208
2004 46.4% 15,890 52.4% 17,964 1.2% 420
2000 43.3% 12,524 53.5% 15,489 3.2% 924
1996 36.8% 9,705 55.3% 14,591 8.0% 2,104
1992 38.6% 9,759 43.9% 11,109 17.6% 4,450
1988 55.2% 12,889 43.8% 10,243 1.0% 233
1984 62.0% 13,829 36.9% 8,237 1.1% 235
1980 55.9% 12,068 36.9% 7,961 7.2% 1,550
1976 49.9% 10,618 48.2% 10,244 1.9% 400
1972 62.1% 14,178 34.9% 7,982 3.0% 689
1968 52.9% 10,818 36.6% 7,481 10.5% 2,147
1964 48.1% 10,330 51.9% 11,143 0.1% 19
1960 53.6% 10,606 46.0% 9,119 0.4% 81
1956 56.1% 10,526 43.7% 8,197 0.3% 58
1952 62.1% 11,044 37.2% 6,619 0.6% 112
1948 52.6% 6,217 44.9% 5,301 2.5% 292
1944 53.8% 5,979 45.8% 5,085 0.4% 48
1940 46.6% 6,854 52.5% 7,728 0.9% 130
1936 38.3% 4,771 60.8% 7,560 0.9% 113
1932 29.0% 3,783 67.3% 8,772 3.7% 484
1928 67.6% 5,417 31.0% 2,486 1.4% 109
1924 50.3% 3,455 11.0% 759 38.7% 2,658
1920 64.5% 4,699 27.8% 2,022 7.7% 563
Election results from statewide races
Year Office Results
2010 Governor Brown 59.7 – 33.9%
Lieutenant Governor Newsom 46.1 – 39.2%
Secretary of State Bowen 56.1 – 32.8%
Controller Chiang 57.5 – 30.5%
Treasurer Lockyer 57.6 – 33.0%
Attorney General Harris 48.9 – 41.4%
Insurance Commissioner Jones 52.0 – 33.2%

Previously strongly Republican, Imperial County is now a Democratic stronghold in presidential, congressional and local elections. The last Republican to win a majority in the county was George H. W. Bush in 1988.

On November 4, 2008, Imperial County voted 69.7% for Proposition 8, which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages, showing more support for the proposition than any other strongly Democratic county.[36][37] After Prop 8 was declared unconstitutional by a lower federal court, Imperial County continued to defend Proposition 8 in the federal judicial system.[38] However, on February 6, 2012, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit denied Imperial County legal standing in the case Hollingsworth v. Perry.[39]

Imperial County is in California's 51st congressional district, represented by Democrat Juan Vargas.[40] In the state legislature, the county is in the 56th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Eduardo Garcia,[41] and the 40th Senate District, represented by Democrat Ben Hueso.[42]

Communities[edit]

Cities[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Area codes[edit]

760 – Covers all of the El Centro metropolitan area as well as Palm Springs, Oceanside, Bishop, Ridgecrest, Barstow, and Needles; northern San Diego County; and southeastern California, including much of the Mojave Desert and the Owens Valley. It split from area code 619 on March 22, 1997, overlayed by area code 442 in 2009.

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Only larceny-theft cases involving property over $400 in value are reported as property crimes.
  2. ^ Other = Some other race + Two or more races
  3. ^ Native American = Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander + American Indian or Alaska Native
  4. ^ a b Percentage of registered voters with respect to total population. Percentages of party members with respect to registered voters follow.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 26, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ Source California.gov
  4. ^ "De Anza Trail". Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  5. ^ "Fort Yuma". Retrieved 2009-08-05. 
  6. ^ "Blue Angels Official Website". Retrieved 2009-08-05. 
  7. ^ "Imperial Valley Expo". Retrieved 2009-08-05. 
  8. ^ "Algodones Sand Dunes". Retrieved 2009-08-05. 
  9. ^ "Things to Do in Yuma". Retrieved 2009-08-05. [dead link]
  10. ^ a b "Fossil Canyon and Painted Gorge". Retrieved 2009-08-05. 
  11. ^ "Imperial NWR". Retrieved 2009-08-04. [dead link]
  12. ^ "Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge". Retrieved 2009-08-04. 
  13. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  14. ^ a b "Imperial County". Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B02001. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Office of the Attorney General, Department of Justice, State of California. Table 11: Crimes – 2009. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
  17. ^ a b c United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Crime in the United States, 2012, Table 8 (California). Retrieved 2013-11-14.
  18. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B03003. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
  19. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19301. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  20. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19013. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  21. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19113. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  22. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  23. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B01003. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  24. ^ Data unavailable
  25. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 26, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved May 26, 2014. 
  27. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 26, 2014. 
  28. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 26, 2014. 
  29. ^ "2010 Census P.L. 94-171 Summary File Data". United States Census Bureau. 
  30. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 
  31. ^ a b c "El Centro Chamber of Commerce". Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  32. ^ "IID". Retrieved 2009-08-03. [dead link]
  33. ^ a b c d e "Calif. Desert Becomes Home For Renewable Energy", Rob Schmitz, Morning Edition, April 3, 2009, NPR
  34. ^ "Board of Supervisors". County of Imperial. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q California Secretary of State. February 10, 2013 - Report of Registration. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
  36. ^ "Proposition 8 Map – November 4, 2008, General Election – California Secretary of State:". Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  37. ^ "Registration by County". Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  38. ^ Fagan, Kevin (2010-08-26). "Imperial County steps up to defend Prop. 8". The San Francisco Chronicle. 
  39. ^ Denniston, Lyle (February 6, 2012). "Prop. 8: Final ruling due". SCOTUSblog. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  40. ^ "California's 51st Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved April 7, 2013. 
  41. ^ "Members Assembly". State of California. Retrieved April 7, 2013. 
  42. ^ "Senators". State of California. Retrieved April 7, 2013. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 33°02′N 115°21′W / 33.04°N 115.35°W / 33.04; -115.35