Imperial fora

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Map of the imperial forums over the current ruins.

The Imperial Fora (Fori Imperiali in Italian) are a series of monumental fora (public squares), constructed in Rome over a period of one and a half centuries, between 46 BC and 113 AD. The forums were the center of the Roman Republic and of the Roman Empire.

The Imperial forums, while not part of the Roman Forum, are located relatively close to each other. Julius Caesar was the first to build in this section of Rome and rearranged both the Forum and the Comitium, another forum type space designated for politics, to do so. These forums were the centres of politics, religion and economy in the ancient Roman Empire.

During the early 20th century, Mussolini restored the Imperial Fora as part of his campaign to evoke and emulate the past glories of Ancient Rome. But he also built the Via dei Fori Imperiali across the middle of the site, supposedly in order that he could see the Colosseum from his office window. The modern street and its heavy traffic has proved a source of damage to the buildings because of vibration and pollution. There have been a number of proposals to remove the road, but none have taken effect.

Forum of Caesar[edit]

Main article: Forum of Caesar
The forum of Caesar and the temple of Venus Genetrix

Julius Caesar decided to construct a large forum bearing his name. This forum was inaugurated in 46 BC, although it was probably incomplete at this time and was finished later by Augustus.

The Forum of Caesar was constructed as an extension to the Roman Forum. The Forum was used as a replacement venue to the Roman Forum for public affairs as well as government; it was also designed as a celebration of Caesar's power. Caesar had placed, on the front of his forum, a temple devoted to Venus Genetrix, since Caesar's family (gens Julia) claimed to descend by Venus through Aeneas. A statue of Caesar himself riding Bucephalus, the celebrated horse of Alexander the Great, was placed in front of the temple, to symbolise absolute power.[citation needed] This centralised vision corresponded to the ideological function, following the propaganda of the Hellenistic sanctuaries; also the choice of the Forum site carried a meaning: the future dictator didn't want to be far from the central power, represented in the Curia, seat of the Senate. In fact, not long before Caesar's death, the Senate agreed to reconstruct the Curia on the site.

Forum of Augustus[edit]

Main article: Forum of Augustus
Forum of Augustus with the temple of Mars Ultor

In the battle of Philippi in 42 BC, in which Augustus and Mark Antony worked together and avenged Caesar's death, defeating the forces of Brutus and Cassius, Augustus vowed to build the Temple of Mars Ultor ("Mars the Avenger"). The incomplete forum was inaugurated, after 40 years of construction, in 2 BC, adding the second monumental square, the Forum of Augustus.

This new complex lies at right angles to the Forum of Caesar. The temple consists of a very tall wall, and this still distinguishes itself from the popular neighbourhood of Suburra. This high wall served as a firebreak, protecting the Forum area from the frequent conflagrations from which Rome suffered. The rectangular square has long deep porticos with a surface that widens into large semicircular exedras.

Recently one more slightly smaller exedra was found south on the wall bordering the forum of Trajan. meaning that in sake of symmetry there must have been other exedra demolished to make room for the forum of Nerva, rising the number to 4 and not 2 exedras. This completely changes the layout for the south part of the forum of Augustus, meaning that it is much more similar to the forum of Trajan and a new theory for this southern part of the forum suggests that in fact there was a basilica between the 2 new exedras (like in the forum of Trajan). This supports the numerous ancient authors that tell us the forum was used as a court of law.

The entire decoration of the Forum was tightly connected to the ideology of Augustus. According to myth, Rome herself was born from the god Mars through Romulus. This forum was occupied by many plebeians as well as senators.

Temple of Peace[edit]

Reconstruction of part of the Forma Urbis with cavea of theatrum Pompei shown.
The wall where the map was originally mounted
Depiction of the Menorah on the Arch of Titus in Rome.

In 75 AD, the Temple of Peace, also known as the Forum of Vespasian, was built under Emperor Vespasian. Separated from the Forum of Augustus, the Forum of Caesar and the via dell'Argileto (it) which connect the Roman Forum to the Subura, the temple faced the Velian Hill (in the direction of the Colosseum). The fact that this structure is not mentioned as having a civil function has prevented it from being classified as a true Forum. Therefore the structure was simply identified as the Temple of Peace (Templum Pacis) until the late Empire.

The shape of the square was also different: the temple was constructed as a large apsidal hall that opened up like an exedra at the bottom of the portico. A row of columns distinguished the portico from the temple. The central area was not paved like other fora and served as a garden, with pools and pedestals for statues, so that it was similar to an open-air museum.

The monument was built to celebrate the conquest of Jerusalem. One of the chambers opened at the end of the porticos housed the Forma Urbis Romae, a marble map of ancient Rome, made in the Severan period (3rd century) by drawing on the marble slab that covered the wall. The wall is now part of the façade of the church of Santi Cosma e Damiano, where the holes used to mount the slabs of the map can still be seen. The Temple of Peace is also said to have housed the Menorah from Herod's Temple.[1]

Forum of Nerva, or the Transitional Forum[edit]

Main article: Forum of Nerva
Remains of the peristyle of the Temple of Minerva which defined the Forum of Nerva

Domitian decided to unify the previous complex and the free remaining irregular area, between the Temple of Peace and the Fora of Caesar and Augustus, and build another monumental forum which connected all of the other fora.

The limited space, partially occupied by one of the exedrae of the Forum of Augustus and by the via dell'Argileto, obliged Domitian to build the lateral porticos as simply decorations of the bounding walls of the forum. The temple, dedicated to Minerva as protector of the emperor, was built leaning on the exedra of the Forum of Augustus, so that the remaining space became a large monumental entrance (Porticus Absidatus) for all the fora.

Because of the death of Domitian, the forum was inaugurated by his successor, Nerva, who gave his own name to it. The Forum of Nerva is also known as Transitional Forum, because it worked as an access way, just like via dell'Argileto had done.

Forum of Trajan[edit]

Main article: Trajan's Forum
The forum of Trajan and the visible part of the Trajan's market

It is probable that Domitian's projects were more ambitious than the building of the small "Forum of Nerva", and probably under his reign they started to remove the small saddle that united the Capitoline Hill to the Quirinal Hill, thus blocking the Fora towards Campus Martius, near to modern Piazza Venezia.

The project was resumed by Trajan with the construction of Trajan's Forum between 112 and 113. The occasion was the conquest of Dacia, whose spoils paid for this celebration of the military conquests of Rome.

The preparation of the Forum required a lot of work. It was necessary to remove the hilly saddle, and to support the cut of Quirinal Hill through the building of Trajan's market. The Forum square was closed by the Basilica Ulpia, with Trajan's Column at its back. In front of the basilica, a monumental façade was the background of a large, equestrian sculpture of the Emperor. The last Forum was also the biggest and greatest.[2]

Restoration from Mussolini[edit]

Mussolini’s Rome - The ‘Via Dell’ Impero’ and the ‘Imperial Forums’ (1924-40): The New Studies of the Fascist Systemization of the Imperial Forums and the Unpublished Archaeological Findings (1995-2010). pp. 1-21. Martin G. Conde, Oct. 2010.

The purpose of this bibliographical reference paper is to provide university students, scholars with a supplementary updated bibliographical listing of the more recent scholarly publications and Italian news articles ([ca. 150 + listings] dating from 1995 to Oct. 2010) in reference to the Fascist period excavations in the Imperial Forums and simultaneous construction of the Via dell‟ Impero [now Via dei Fori Imperiali] between 1930-1936.

- Introduction, pp. 1-2.

- Part. 1. “Via dell’impero. Nascita di una strada, demolizioni e scavi: 1930-1936. Scavi archeologici, sterri e demolizioni per l’apertura di via dell’Impero.” by: Umberto Broccoli, Claudio Parisi Presicce, & Maria Elisa Tittoni. Rome, July 22, 2009, pp. 3-7.

- Part. 2. Bibliography, Further Reading and [with Electronic] References, pp. 8-21.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "News and Announcements | College of Agriculture and Life Sciences". Cals.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 
  2. ^ Tucci, Pier Luigi, ‘Nuove osservazioni sull’architettura del Templum Pacis’, in F. Coarelli (ed.), Divus Vespasianus. Il Bimillenario dei Flavi (Milan 2009), catalogue of the exhibition on the Flavian dynasty (Rome, March 2009 - January 2010) 158-167

External links[edit]

Rome, the Imperial Fora recent scholarly research and related studies (1994 - 2014).

  • [Rome, The Imperial Fora (2007 onwards) in: the "Fori Imperiali," of the: Sovrintendenza Capitolina ai Beni Culturali,' Roma (2007) [text only available in Italian].

http://www.sovraintendenzaroma.it/i_luoghi/roma_antica/aree_archeologiche/fori_imperiali]

1. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Museum of the Imperial Fora, 1995 onwards: Collection of 225 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historical Photographs, by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards) https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157620836021405/

1.1. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Museum of the Imperial Fora, 1999 onwards: Collection of 43 Plans and Photographs for the studies and recompostion of various marble architectural & sculptural elements located in the Museum of the Imperial Forums, as designed by Dr. Archit. Barbara Baldrati, et al., 1999-2000, by M. G. Conde, 2009 onwards.

https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157627683684467/

1.2. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the small Visitor Center of the Imperial Fora, 1999 onwards: Collection of 175 of General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historical Photographs, by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157594250936517/

1.3. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Museum of the Imperial Fora, and the Imperial Fora Project, 1995 onwards: Collection of 41 General News items & Scholars Reports [documents in PDF] and Contemporary & Historical Photographs, by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards) https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157627608005569/

1.4. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Imperial Fora Project, 1999-2000: 68 photographs | screenshots from the former webpage of: CAPITOLIUM.ORG (May 1999) showng the progress of the then archaeological excavations in the area of the Imperial Fora, by M. G. Conde (1999-2000). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157627349891137/

1.5. Rome, the Imperial Fora and Medieval Archaeology in Rome, 1995 onwards: Collection of 101 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary (& Historical Photographs) relating to The Crypta Balbi Museum of Rome and the Imperial Fora in the Middle Ages, by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157604925311013/

1.6. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Museum of the Imperial Fora, and the Imperial Fora Project, 2013 onwards: Collection of 173 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary (& Historical Photographs) relating to the Mayor of Rome, Ignazio Marino and the Imperial Fora Project, by M. G. Conde (2013 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157634086307804/

2. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Caesar, 1998-1999 onwards: Collection of 152 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Photographs relating to the studies and excavations in the Forum of Caesar, by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157594586673331/

2.1. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Caesar, 1998-1999 onwards: Collection of 189 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Photographs relating to the recent studies and excavation in the Forum of Caesar, 1998 onwards and 1928-1934, by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157600215735734/

2.3. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Caesar, 1998-1999 onwards: Collection of 41 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Photographs relating to the recent studies and excavation in the Forum of Caesar, and the construction of the tunnel between the Forum of Caesar and the Forum of Trajan, 1998, by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157643410440673/

2.4. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Caesar, 2002-04: Collection of 42 AutoCAD Designs and Photographs by DR. ARCH. BARBARA BALDRATI: "CAESAR'S FORUM - ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY / AutoCAD design, Rome, Italy (2003)," relating to Dr. Baldrati's recent studies 2002-04, by M. G. Conde (2009 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157619877459438/

2.5. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Caesar, 2002-04: Collection of 23 Photographs by DR. ARCH. BARBARA BALDRATI: "CAESAR'S FORUM - ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY / AutoCAD design, Rome, Italy (2003)," relating to Dr. Baldrati's recent studies 2002-04, & other related scholarly materials, etc., by M. G. Conde (2009 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157622556322066/

3. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Augustus, 1998-1999 onwards: Collection of 183 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historical Photographs relating to the studies and excavations in the Forum of Caesar, by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157594587579502/

3.1. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Augustus, 2002 onwards: Collection of 9 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary Historic Photographs relating to the studies of the “Digital Augustan Rome [Project 2009]” & Prof. Lothar Haselberger (ed.), Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplement (50), 2002. 277 pages + 2 folded maps, by M. G. Conde, 2002 onwards. https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157624750242733/

3.2. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Augustus, 2014 onwards: Collection of 40 General News items & Photographs relating to The Ara Pacis of Rome and the Illumination of the Monument in Color (August 2014), by M. G. Conde, 2014 onwards. https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157646664559462/

4. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Peace | Temple of Peace (Sector C), 1998-1999 onwards: Collection of 105 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to the studies and excavations in the Forum of Peace | Temple of Peace (Sector C), by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157594587301788/

4.1. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Peace | Temple of Peace (Sector B), 1998-1999 onwards: Collection of 55 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historical Photographs relating to the studies and excavations in the Forum of Peace | Temple of Peace (Sector B), by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157594587261451/

4.2. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Peace | Temple of Peace (Sector A), 1998-1999 onwards: Collection of 210 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historical Photographs relating to the studies and excavations in the Forum of Peace | Temple of Peace (Sector A), by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157594587104523/

4.4. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Peace | Temple of Peace & the FORMA URBIS ROMAE, 1998-1999 onwards: Collection of 104 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historical Photographs relating to the studies and excavations of the FORMA URBIS ROMAE in the Forum of Peace | Temple of Peace, by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157600010774960/

5. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Nerva 1995 onwards: Collection of 248 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historical Photographs relating to the studies and excavations in the Forum of Nerva in 1998-2013, 1995-97, 1989, 1940, & 1928-31, etc., by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157594586797778/

6. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Trajan, 1995 onwards: Collection of 391 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to the studies and excavations in the Forum of Trajan, 1995 onwards, by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157600215755762/

6.1. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Trajan | The Temple of Divine Trajan | The Palazzo Valentini, 1995 onwards: Collection of 304 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to the studies and excavations in the Forum of Trajan | The Temple of Divine Trajan | The Palazzo Valentini, 1995 onwards, by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157594585658935/

6.2. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Trajan | The Basilica Ulpia | The Palazzo Roccagiovine | The Alda Fendi Foundation, 2002 onwards: Collection of 40 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to the studies and excavations in the Forum of Trajan | The Basilica Ulpia | The Palazzo Roccagiovine, etc., by M. G. Conde (2002 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157600215464691/

6.3. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Forum of Trajan: Collection of 40 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to The Architectural Marble Fragments and Sculptural Elements Dating from Antiquity Discovered During the Excavations, 1998 onwards, etc., by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157627730602973/

6.4. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Forum of Trajan and the Column of Trajan (1907 to 2014): Collection of 76 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to studies and excavations of the Column of Trajan, since 1907 onwards, etc., by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157624397594914/

6.5. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Forum of Trajan and The Basilica Ulpia (2007-08 onwards): Collection of 11 Contemporary Designs & Photographs for the Rome, La Sapienza University Project for the Museum Systemization of Collection of Artifacts Located in Museum Storage Collections located in the Basilica Ulpia, in: "ROMA, I FORI IMPERIALI | BASILICA ULPIA - Progetto di sistemazione e allestimento dei magazzini della Basilica Ulpia," by Caterina Bigatton (et. alli.), La Sapienza University Rome (2007-08), Tav. I-XXIV; by M. G. Conde (2012 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157629946838481/

6.6. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Forum of Trajan and The Markets of Trajan (2006, 2010 & 2011): Collection of 27 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary Photographs relating to studies the "Colonia di Granchi" & the "La caccia alla volpe nascosta nella cisterna del Mercato di Traiano," news of various animals living with the ruins of the Forum of Trajan and the Markets of Trajan (2006, 2010 & 2011), by M. G. Conde (2006 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157601655431861/

7. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Via dei Fori Imperiali (1944 onwards), the Via Dell' Impero (1932-44), and Via dei Monti (1912-1925): Collection of 144 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to construction and design of the Via Dell' Impero in the late 1920s and early 1930s, Part. 1 - “Via dell’impero. Nascita di una strada, demolizioni e scavi: 1930-1936. Scavi archeologici, sterri e demolizioni per l’apertura di via dell’Impero," July 2009, etc., by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157621698232901/

7.1. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Via dei Fori Imperiali (1944 onwards), the Via Dell' Impero (1932-44), and Via dei Monti (1912-1925): Collection of 154 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to construction and design of the Via Dell' Impero in the late 1920s and early 1930s, Part. 2 - "Roma - I Fori Imperiali: Mostra - "Roma - L' invenzione dei Fori Imperiali - Demolizioni e scavi: 1924-1940." (23 July- 23 November 2008), by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157606320119383/

7.2. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Via dei Fori Imperiali & the Via Dell' Impero (1928-1940): Collection of 86 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to studies of the documents and cataloguing of the 500 crates of artifiacts discovered in the area of Imperial Fora and elsewhere in the City of Rome between 1928 and 1940, part 3 - "Roma, Futuro Museo della Citta` - Dalle casse chiuse per 70 anni nuovi tesori della vecchia Roma," by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157622273394002/

7.3. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Via dei Fori Imperiali & the Via Dell' Impero (1928-1940): Collection of 102 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporay & Historic Photographs relating to studies and excavation of the area of the former Velia Hill located between Temple of Peace and the Colosseum Valley between 1928 and 1933, by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157627311164351/

7.4. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Via dei Fori Imperiali & the Via Dell' Impero (1928-1940): Collection of 11 page of the report on the Via Dell' Impero - AA.VV., ASPETTI DELLA ROMA MODERNA - "Le Via dell' Impero e la Via dell' Mare." RASSEGNA DI ARCHITETURA, N. 7-8 (1933), pp. 308-319. Rome: BiASA (2010), by M. G. Conde (2011 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157625316037136/

7.5. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Via dei Fori Imperiali & the Via Dell' Impero (1944-46 onwards): Collection of 69 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to studies Via Dei Fori Imperiali since 1944-46 onwards and the Modern Urban and Archaeological Planning relating to the Imperial Fora Project in the late 1970s and the early 1980s, by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157623744718425/

7.6. Rome, the Imperial Fora and the Via dei Fori Imperiali, the Exhibit of "Rome - Forma / La città moderna e il suo passato," (2004) (2004 onwards): Collection of 41 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to the Exhibit of "Rome - Forma / La città moderna e il suo passato," (2004) & Prof. Paulette Singley, "Fascism Under Erasure: Fuksas's Proposal for the Via dei Fori Imperiali," (2004), by M. G. Conde (2004-05 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157621005473969/

7.7. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Via dei Fori Imperiali, prof. Antonio Cederna & "ROMA - IL DEGRADO DELLA CITTA'- Via dei Fori Imperiali, Belvedere Cederna, che brutto spettacolo," (2007 onwards): Collection of 51 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to studies the Belvedere of Prof. Antonio Cederna in Rome (the palazzo Rivaldi) and the Abandonment and Neglect of the site of the Belvedere Cederna by the administration of the City of Rome (2007 onwards), by M. G. Conde (2007 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157626572205315/

8. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Via dei Fori Imperiali, and the Rome Metro C Subway Line (2006 onwards): Collection of 9 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to studies the Rome Metro C Subway Line and the "Roma - Carta Geologica del Comune di Roma / Geological Map of the Municipality of Roma (scala /scale 1:50000). Coordinamento scientifico: R. Funiciello, G. Giordano, M. Mattei. Stampa / Printed 2008," by M. G. Conde (2005 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157627426697872/

8.1. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Via dei Fori Imperiali, and the Rome Metro C Subway Line (2008 onwards): Collection of 35 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Photographs relating to the "Rome - Research Convention: Archaeology / Infrastructure (Archaeology & the Metropolitane C Line of Rome) - Economic Development & Cultural Patrimony, (21-22 October 2008)," by M. G. Conde (2008 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157622645987464/

8.2. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Via dei Fori Imperiali, and the Rome Metro C Subway Line (2006 onwards): Collection of 224 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to the general studies at the following Metro C Subway line sites of the "Chiesa Nuova, Largo Argentina, Pz. Venezia & Via di Cesare Battisti, Pz. Madonna di Loreto, Basilica Argentaria, & Via dei Fori Imperiali (Velia), (2006 onwards), by M. G. Conde (2008 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157604092982096/

8.3. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Via dei Fori Imperiali, and the Rome Metro C Subway Line | Piazza Venezia | Pz. Madonna Di Loreto (2006-07 onwards): Collection of 261 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporay & Historic Photographs relating to the Metro Metro C Subway line sites of the "Piazza Venezia | Piazza Madonna di Loreto. Area S14 / B1 (2007-2014) = Area of the former Palazzo Bolognetti Torlonia | Palazzo Parracciani Nepoli & the Via Macel dei Corvi," (2006-07 onwards), by M. G. Conde (2006 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157618784453605/

8.4. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Via dei Fori Imperiali, and the Rome Metro C Subway Line | Piazza Venezia | Pz. Madonna Di Loreto (2009-10): Collection of 22 of Design Plans, Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to the Metro Metro C Subway line sites of the "Piazza Venezia | Piazza Madonna di Loreto. Area S14 / B1 = Rome, the La Sapienza University of Rome Metro C Project - "Progetto di rifunzionalizzazione dell’area archeologica di piazza Madonna di Loreto a Roma di Franesco Ciresi, Donatella Mighela, Antonio Lopez Garcia. La Sapienza (2009-10), Tav. I-XVI," by M. G. Conde (2013 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157629582120490/

8.5. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Via dei Fori Imperiali, and the Rome Metro C Subway Line | Piazza Venezia | Pz. Madonna Di Loreto and the studies of the site by Dr. Antonio Lopez García [Spain, the La Sapienza University of Rome, the University of Florence, Italy] (2010-13) & Dr. Vasco La Salvia, The Studies of the Medieval Metal Workshops located in the Ruins of the Athenaeum of Hadrian, The University of Chieti | Siena, Italy (11 April 2014), by M. G. Conde (2013-14).

-- 8.5.1. Collection of 85 Photographs and other Research Materials based upon Dr. Antonio Lopez García's studies of the Excavation sites of the Piazza Madonna di Loreto | l’Athenaeum di Adriano between 2010 and 2013, in: Dott. A. L. García, 'En busca del Athenaeum de Adriano | In search of Hadrian's Athenaeum," ANALES DE ARQUEOLOGÍA C O R D O B E S A, núm. 23-24 (2012-2013), pp. 217-134 [= PDF pp. 1-24], by M. G. Conde (2013-14 onwards).

-- 8.5.2. Collection of 5 Photographs relating to Dr. Vasco La Salvia, "Impianti metallurgici altomedievali a Roma. Alcune riflessioni tecnologiche a partire dai recenti rinvenimenti," Universita di Chieti | Siena, Italy, Archeologia tardoantica e altomedievale a Siena, FACEBOOK (11|04|2014). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157642192385734/

8.6. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Via dei Fori Imperiali, and the Rome Metro C Subway Line | Piazza Venezia | the Palazzo delle Assicurazioni Generali Exhibit (2013-14): Collection of 56 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to the Palazzo delle Assicurazioni Generali Exhibit (2013-14) - "PALAZZO DELLE ASSICURAZIONI GENERALI. I reperti rinvenuti sotto il palazzo – scavi archeologici effettuati tra il 1902 e il 1904. Dr. Arch. Pietro Storti (ed.), Museo - Pal. Assicuruazioni Generali, Rome & Torino, Italy (2013-14)," by M. G. Conde (2013-14). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157632679660683/

8.7. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Via dei Fori Imperiali, and the Rome Metro C Subway Line | the Basilica Maximus, the Velia Hill, the Palazzo Rivaldi & the Colosseum Valley (2006-14 & 1930-33): Collection of 152 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to the Metro C studies and excavations of the Basilica Maximus, the Velia Hill, the pal. Rivaldi & the Colosseum Valley in 2006-14 & also earlier studies and excavations in 1930-33, by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157594585604471/

8.9. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Via dei Fori Imperiali, and the Rome Metro C Subway Line (2006-11): Collection of 74 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to the Planning of the Rome, Metro C Line Subway Project, and other ongoing Italian & International Subway projects conducted in the City of Athens, Naples, Istanbul & Rome (2006-11), by M. G. Conde (1999 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157605294859859/

8.10. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Via dei Fori Imperiali, and the Rome Metro C Subway Line (2008-13): Collection of 61 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to the urban transformation of the area of the Piazza Venezia between 1901-1905, in: "Roma - Palazzetto di San Marco & Piazza di Venezia - Casa Virginio Stampa ca. 1902, Archives of the City of Rome (2008), & Ermanno Ponti, Roma sparita tra la Pedacchia e Macel De' Corvi. CAPITOLIUM, 7 (1931), pp. 477-87, by M. G. Conde (2008 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157621749711785/

9. Rome, the Imperial Fora, the Via dei Fori Imperiali, the Rome Metro C Subway Line & the Commissario delegato per le Aree Archeologiche di Roma e Ostia Antica [MIBAC | SSBAR] (2008-13): Collection of 143 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to the former Urban and Archaeological Planning for the Completion of the Rome, the Imperial Fora Project and the Metro C Rome Metro C Subway Line by the Special Archaeological Commission of Rome [MIBAC|SSBAR] (2008-13), by M. G. Conde (2008 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157623116127791/

10. Rome, the Imperial Fora, and the Via dei Fori Imperiali and the neglect and mismanagement of the archaeological center of Rome by the former Political Administrations of the Italian Ministry of Culture and the administration of the City of Rome (2005-2013 and 2014): Collection of 489 General News items, Scholarly Reports and Contemporary & Historic Photographs relating to the neglect and mismanagement of the area of the Imperial Fora & the Via dei Fori Imperiali (2005-2014), M. G. Conde (2004 onwards). https://www.flickr.com/photos/imperial_fora_of_rome/sets/72157600507913498/