Imperium (Warhammer 40,000)
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (March 2013)|
(Seal of the Emperor and the Imperium of Man)
|Motto||The Emperor protects|
|Form of government||Theocratic Oligarchy|
|Head of state|
|Established||M30 (30th millennium)|
|Governing body||Council of the High Lords of Terra|
|Official language||High Gothic|
|Capital||Holy Terra (Earth)|
|Territory||All space within 50,000 light year radius from Terra|
|Population (groups)||Humans, mutant species of human descent|
|Population (size)||Unknown – many quadrillions|
The Imperium of Man or Imperium of Mankind is a galactic empire in the fictional universe of Warhammer 40,000. The Imperium rules over almost all of humanity and spans more than a million inhabited worlds.
The "Imperium" is one of the original factions in the fictional background of the Warhammer 40,000 tabletop miniatures wargame; the game was initially published in 1987 by Games Workshop, and continues to be actively developed. The game system's setting is a dystopian far future fictional universe that is extensively described in numerous rulebooks, tie-ins, and other official sources.
Notwithstanding backstory development by Games Workshop and affiliates (such as the publishing imprint Black Library) that spans several decades, the core depiction of the Imperium – as an authoritarian, strife-torn galactic empire on the brink of catastrophe – changed little; a major reason is the publisher's decision to "freeze" the narrative setting to the universe's late–41st millennium (or late–M41). As of 2013[update], this setting had been utilised by the majority of related material; however, for several years prior and continuing, the publisher has also been promoting a parallel narrative thread for the fictional universe, which is taking place during the founding and early times of the Imperium.
The fictional empire is variously called "Imperium", "Imperium of Man", or "Imperium of Mankind" in official publisher sources.
28,000 years in the future, the Imperium rises from the ruins of a more prosperous and enlightened human civilization. That civilization collapsed when warp storms cut off interstellar travel and left its worlds vulnerable to attacks by daemons and aliens. When the storms abate, the Emperor embarks on a "Great Crusade" to unite all human-settled worlds in the galaxy under his banner. Over the course of two centuries, his armies conquer more than a million worlds stretching across 50,000 light years from Earth, giving humanity a dominant position among the galaxy's species. According to Imperial propaganda, it is humanity's "Manifest Destiny" to rule the galaxy.
Early in the 31st millennium, the Great Crusade comes to a sudden stop when half of the Emperor's Space Marine Legions convert to the worship of the evil Chaos Gods. Though these rebels are ultimately defeated, the Emperor is critically wounded in battle and survives on life support in a persistent vegetative state. In the absence of his guidance, the Imperium becomes a very brutal authoritarian regime.
The "current" time period for most Warhammer 40,000 fiction is the 41st millennium (40,001 - 41,000 AD). The Imperium of Mankind is a loose empire ruling over a million inhabited worlds spanning all space within 50,000 light years of Earth.
The Imperium still claims lone dominion over the Milky Way and all humanity. It does not recognize other governments, whether human or alien, and maintains that all aliens must be exterminated and all humans brought into the Imperium. It remains united chiefly through religious fanaticism and threats of brutal disciplinary force. It teeters on the verge of collapse due to a combination of war, technological stagnation, and bureaucratic inefficiency.
Emperor of Mankind
The founder and nominal ruler of the Imperium is an enigmatic and mysterious persona known only as "the Emperor of Mankind". He is a human psyker of immeasurable power, an immortal who has guided humanity since the dawn of civilization on Earth.
The Emperor does not participate in affairs of state for medical reasons. 10,000 years prior he was critically injured in battle and never recovered. Since then he survives on life support in an unresponsive state. What little consciousness the Emperor does maintain is devoted to projecting a psychic beacon, the Astronomican, to help human starships navigate the parallel dimension of the Warp where faster than light travel is possible, so he still watches over his people in a limited fashion. It is believed that he sometimes communicates vague visions of the future that trained psykers may augur through special tarot cards, but otherwise he cannot explicitly communicate his will. The High Lords of Terra govern his empire according to a distorted memory of his words and deeds made ten millennia earlier. The Emperor wanted a secular and progressive society, but instead it has become a brutal theocracy. The Imperium's motto is "the Emperor protects".
Hierarchy and organization
The Emperor's seat, and the heart of Imperial Administration, is the Imperial Palace, a massive construct that covers most of what used to be the continent of Asia on Terra; the "Inner Palace" is built on top of, within, and under the Himalayan mountain range.
Though the Emperor is the nominal head of state, in practice the highest tier of government is the Council of the High Lords of Terra, based in the Inner Palace, that has ruled for over ten millennia in the Emperor's name. Under this top echelon is a multi-tiered hierarchy consisting of countless departments, agencies, and organisations, both military and civilian, charged with implementing the decisions of the High Lords, and with the day-to-day administration of the Imperium as a whole.
Each world in the Imperium is ruled by a planetary governor. The cultures and governments of the Imperial worlds are very diverse. A few are even democratic and prosperous, though these are rare islands of happiness in a generally grim empire. Generally speaking, each governor is allowed to rule his world as he sees fit provided he keeps the faith and provides the requisite tithes of conscripts, exports, and captured psykers.
Outside and above the Imperial hierarchy is the Imperial Inquisition, the all-powerful and much feared secret police and main intelligence agency, which answers only to the High Lords of Terra and has the power to investigate and persecute anyone it pleases.
Five fundamental taboos, set by the Emperor at the Imperium's founding, underlie its governance by the High Lords; their flouting results in summary capital sanction, regardless of office or rank.
- Collaborating or in any way consorting with xenos (aliens)
- Developing or using artificial intelligence
- Engaging in sorcery
- Exhibiting excessive mutation
- Committing unsanctioned genocide, especially of humans
In late–41st millennium, the Imperium is still broadly governed by these principles. However, it is also ruled by expediency in the face of constant threats. It is not uncommon for Imperial servants to assume discretion in their enforcement when they deem it necessary, and some among their number do this as a matter of course; this is considered heretical or traitorous by more conservative Imperial officials.
The Imperium's methods for enforcing its rule are often exceedingly brutal. Source material calls it "the cruelest and most bloody regime imaginable"; in-universe, Imperial servants commonly state, "ruthlessness is the mercy of the wise." The Imperium's galactic law enforcement agency (the Adeptus Arbites), readily uses deadly force when faced with any possibility of resistance. The Inquisition makes liberal use of torture and cares more about crushing the guilty than protecting the innocent, routinely causing the suffering and death of the latter. Witches and heretics are publicly flogged or burned at the stake. The Imperium's mainstream military forces, such as the Imperial Guard Regiments, often have political officers (Imperial Commissars) attached. They have authority to execute out-of-hand any soldier, regardless of rank, who displays cowardice or disobedience. Occasionally, the Imperium resorts to destroying entire worlds with weapons of mass destruction in order to suppress heresy, rebellion, or alien encroachment.
Imperial citizens are almost exclusively human; a relatively small fraction of the population consists of members of stable mutant species of human descent, called abhuman in Imperial classification. Common citizens of the Imperium have very little say in how, and by whom, they are governed. They have zero influence in the selection process of the High Lords or any other Imperial official, and are not allowed to question Imperial decisions or participate in the decision-making. Even worlds with democratically elected Planetary Governors are under the absolute veto of Imperial Authority.
Imperial society galaxy-wide is characterized by religious intolerance, superstition, xenophobia, militarism, and antiscience. Critical thinking is considered a waste of time. Ignorance of anything beyond one's place in society is common and, for many, desirable. Unquestioning obedience to authority is the greatest virtue. The Age of the Imperium is not an age of reason and progress, but of mysticism and madness. Above all, "it is an epoch of war, a grinding, unceasing war where mere survival is justly hailed as victory."
Technology and science
Although humans have access to sophisticated technology, they do not understand the scientific principles behind it, for science has ceased in the Imperium and has been replaced by mysticism and superstition. Machines are built and maintained by the tech-priests of the Adeptus Mechanicus, who view machines as a higher form of life, possessed of animistic spirits. They believe that, long ago, a being they call "the Machine God" gifted humanity with all the technical knowledge there is to know, including the designs of every device humans use. The tech-priests see themselves as the midwives and caretakers of the Machine God's children. A machine's spirit must be appeased and directed through the proper rites of repair and operation, which are as likely to involve prayers and incense as screwdrivers and lubricants.
To attempt to invent, reverse-engineer or develop technology is seen as an affront to the Machine God, much the same way many people today see genetic engineering as an affront to God. The only occasion when Imperial technology may progress is when somebody discovers a lost blueprint that dates back to pre-Imperium civilization. Only such texts are assumed to be the pure gospel of the Machine God.
The tech-priests see alien technology as corrupt and refuse to reverse-engineer it, even when such technology surpasses the Imperium's (most of the major alien races are more advanced than the Imperium). It is treason for a common citizen to even possess alien technology.
Aside from their refusal to innovate, the tech-priests are also very inefficient at distributing their technology, as they will not allow anyone outside their faith to share and profane their secrets. A great many Imperial worlds are still mired in the Stone Age.
The Imperium promotes the Imperial Cult, the worship of the Emperor as humankind's only true god and rightful master. He is the savior, the only one who can protect humanity from the dangers of the cosmos. The irony of this is that the Emperor had wanted to build an enlightened and secular society, but cults devoted to him started mushrooming everywhere, and after he was incapacitated and interred in the Golden Throne this worship spread unimpeded until it became the state religion.
Just as all human-inhabited worlds must be brought under the Imperium's control, all humans must be made to worship the Emperor and all other religions must be expunged. The state religion, which is the responsibility of the Ecclesiarchy or Adeptus Ministorum (the State Church), preaches that unquestioning obedience and self-sacrifice are the best ways to honor the Emperor. It teaches that mutants (with few exceptions) are vile perversions of the "holy" human form, and thus they are subject to the worst oppression. Rogue psykers ("witches") are harbingers of doom. Heresy is the worst crime of all despite the deliberate vagueness of the official definition, and those judged as heretics are stripped of all rights and punished in the most horrific fashion. To be excommunicated by the church or the Inquisition is to be stripped of your very rights as a human being; you are no longer considered part of humanity.
Religion is a central theme in all Warhammer 40,000 fiction. Most human protagonists, from warrior-monk Imperial Space Marines (the Imperium's shock troops, supersoldiers and special forces) to Witch Hunters of the Inquisition, are fanatical worshippers of the God-Emperor (Most of Space Marine Chapters do not see emperror as God, but "only" as the Greatest of All Man, Master of Humankind). A very common motif in Imperial iconography is a human skull, often surrounded by a halo. This is the face Emperor, whose broken, half-dead body resembles a corpse.
The Cult of the God-Emperor is the dominant faith, but the tech-priests of the Adeptus Mechanicus follow a parallel religion around their "Machine God", of whom they see the Emperor as an avatar. The Space Marines merely venerate the Emperor as a perfect man and not as a god, which causes some friction with the Inquisition.
Human starships traverse interstellar distances by shifting into the Warp, a parallel dimension of psychic energy where the conventional laws of physics don't apply. The Warp is a chaotic and maddening place where conventional navigation instruments are useless, so humans make use of a special breed of psyker called "Navigators". With the third eye in their foreheads, they can gaze upon the Warp and perceive the Astronomican. The Astronomican is a psychic beacon that is projected from Earth by the God-Emperor's spirit and extends across most of the galaxy. Like a lighthouse, it provides a fixed reference points for ships to navigate by. Beyond the range of the Astronomican, Warp travel is slower and more dangerous, and this sets the Imperium's effective border.
Interstellar communications are achieved through astropaths, who are telepaths trained to send and receive messages across interstellar distances. This method of communication is not especially reliable or efficient, but it is faster than sending a messenger ship. Astropaths form choirs to boost their collective transmission range, and they relay messages across vast distances. As part of their training, every astropath is brought before the Emperor for him to soul-bind, by which he boosts the astropath's power and girds his mind against daemonic influence.
Both these factors make the Emperor's spirit the linchpin of the Imperium's infrastructure. Should the Emperor finally die, the Imperium would immediately collapse. The Emperor's tenuous grip on life is sustained by the daily sacrifice of thousands of psykers so that his light may continue to shine.
The Imperium commands the largest military in the galaxy, honed in millennia of almost constant war: at any time, there are numerous conflicts engaging Imperial forces, across the Imperium and beyond. Because of the scale of the distances involved, and the number and severity of threats, Imperial military commanders have great autonomy into how and when they prosecute campaigns within their areas of responsibility.
The core military force of the Imperium is the Imperial Guard. It is made up of professional soldiers, who may be volunteers or conscripts drawn from almost all of the Imperium's planets. The basic Guard unit is a self-contained formation called the Regiment, a fighting force that is hundreds of thousands strong; there are millions of active Imperial Guard Regiments. Their specialisations and types cover every conceivable kind of warfare in the galaxy, regardless of theater or fighting conditions.
The Imperial Navy, the military arm of the Imperial Fleet, commands millions of spacecraft, deep-space weapons platforms, and military space stations. It is organised into several major Battlefleets, each of which is further divided into a multitude of Battlegroups. The Navy also operates a vast and constantly busy transport network of gigantic spaceships used to ferry troops, supplies, and equipment to and from the Imperiums's numerous warzones.
The Space Marines, genetically-modified transhuman supersoldiers, serve as the Imperium's elite shock troops. They are organised into approximately 1,000 Chapters that act as autonomous units; Chapters are usually about 1,000 Marines-strong. All Chapters have considerable resources at their disposal, including their own space and vehicle fleets, auxiliary personnel, and other support elements. Most Chapters operate in specific areas, near the Imperium's most troublesome spots, or at its borders.
The Adeptus Mechanicus, apart from being responsible for the production and maintenance of most Imperial weapons and military equipment, fields specialised military forces of its own. These include spacecraft and formations of advanced, heavily-weaponised war machines. Mechanicus forces may be under the strategic command of Imperial officers, or may be tactically seconded to Imperial Guard Regiments and Space Marine Chapters.
Each planet may also be defended by local militias or a more structured Planetary Defence Force. In most cases, the latter fill its ranks with short-term and part-time soldiers, who do not have the professional training and equipment of the Imperial Guard. Planetary defense forces of the more important systems may be complemented by a "System Fleet" of sublight-speed spacecraft.
Outside of the normal military command structure are other military-like organisations, several of which are classified or operate covertly; they usually deploy in much smaller units, and undertake highly specialised missions.
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