Imphal

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Imphal City
ইম্ফল
Capital city of Manipur
Imphal City is located in Manipur
Imphal City
Imphal City
Coordinates: 24°49′N 93°57′E / 24.82°N 93.95°E / 24.82; 93.95Coordinates: 24°49′N 93°57′E / 24.82°N 93.95°E / 24.82; 93.95
Country India
State Manipur
District Imphal West, Imphal East
Elevation 786 m (2,579 ft)
Population (2011 census)
 • Total 264,986/414,288 (urban population)[1]
Languages
 • Official Meiteilon (Manipuri)
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 795xxx
Telephone code 3852
Website www.imphalwest.nic.in

The city of Imphal (/ˈɪmpəl/, About this sound Imphal.ogg ) is the capital of the Indian state of Manipur. The ruins of the Palace of Kangla are in the city centre, surrounded by a moat. Kangla Fort was home to the paramilitary Assam Rifles until November 2004, when it was transferred to the state of Manipur by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The city's Polo Ground is the world's oldest surviving polo ground in the world.[citation needed] Near the Polo Ground is the Manipur State Museum, with a collection of artifacts and pictures depicting the city's history. Ima Keithel (Mother Market) at Khwairamband Bazar is the only market in the world with all its stalls run by women.[citation needed]

In 1944, the battles of Imphal and Kohima were the turning points of the Burma Campaign. For the first time in the southeast Asian theatre, the Japanese lost the initiative to the Allies, (who retained it until the end of the war).[citation needed] On 18 June 1997, the Imphal District was divided into Imphal East and Imphal West.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Originally ruled by King Khaba, the throne of Imphal was later ceded by the Pakhangba leaders. It was here that the Ningthouja dynasty originated. The Ningthouja people expanded their influence in politics and warfare. The Kangla Palace, built by King Khagemba and his son Khunjaoba, was destroyed by the British during the Anglo-Manipuri War. During the reign of Maharaja Bhagyachandra, the region experienced several Burmese invasions; however, with the help of Gambhir Singh and the Manipur army, Kangla was liberated from the Burmese forces.

British rule[edit]

The region remained peaceful until British officials arrived in 1891. Taking advantage of internal differences among the royal family, the British sent J. W. Quinton to negotiate. The situation worsened; Senapati Tikendrajit was banished from the capital, which led to the first Anglo-Manipur war. Britain's undeclared rule over Manipur angered the local population. In 1892, the second Anglo-Manipur war broke out between the British and forces led by the Manipuri commander-in-chief. The British attacked the palace, and gunned down the walls of Kangal Fort. After its capture, Manipur remained a part of British India until independence in 1947.

Geography and climate[edit]

Imphal
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
12
 
25
1
 
 
31
 
27
3
 
 
92
 
31
6
 
 
133
 
32
12
 
 
159
 
33
15
 
 
225
 
33
19
 
 
223
 
32
20
 
 
195
 
32
20
 
 
147
 
32
18
 
 
112
 
31
12
 
 
46
 
29
6
 
 
15
 
25
2
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: IMD[2]

Imphal is located at 24°49′N 93°57′E / 24.82°N 93.95°E / 24.82; 93.95 in extreme eastern India,[3] with an average elevation of 786 metres (2,579 ft). It has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa)[4] with mild, dry winters and a hot monsoon season. July temperatures average about 32 °C (90 °F); January is the coldest month, with average lows near 4 °C (39 °F). The city receives about 1,320 mm (52 in) of rain, with June the wettest month. The highest recorded temperature was 34.5 °C (94.1 °F), most recently in 2012, and the lowest average temperature was 0.6 °C (33.1 °F) in February 1968.[2]

Climate data for Imphal
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 24.8
(76.6)
26
(79)
29.8
(85.6)
32.1
(89.8)
32.8
(91)
32.5
(90.5)
31.8
(89.2)
31.9
(89.4)
31.1
(88)
29.1
(84.4)
28.5
(83.3)
24.8
(76.6)
29.6
(85.28)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.5
(58.1)
16.3
(61.3)
20
(68)
22.7
(72.9)
24.1
(75.4)
24.6
(76.3)
24.5
(76.1)
24.6
(76.3)
24.4
(75.9)
22.8
(73)
19
(66)
15.6
(60.1)
21.09
(69.95)
Average low °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
4.8
(40.6)
6.4
(43.5)
11.7
(53.1)
14.6
(58.3)
18.5
(65.3)
19.8
(67.6)
19.5
(67.1)
17.7
(63.9)
11.7
(53.1)
6
(43)
3.8
(38.8)
11.43
(52.58)
Precipitation mm (inches) 11.7
(0.461)
30.8
(1.213)
91.6
(3.606)
132.7
(5.224)
158.6
(6.244)
224.9
(8.854)
222.8
(8.772)
194.8
(7.669)
147.3
(5.799)
111.5
(4.39)
46
(1.81)
15.1
(0.594)
1,387.8
(54.636)
Avg. rainy days 1.2 3.3 6.6 9.8 11.5 15.3 15.7 13 9.9 6.8 3.1 1 97.2
Source #1: IMD (period: 1971-2000)[2]
Source #2: Climate-Data.org for mean temperatures (altitude: 779m)[4]

Landmarks of Imphal[edit]

Old urban buildings, buses and cars
Panoramic view of Imphal

Kangla[edit]

Kangla Fort is on the banks of the Imphal River, and is also known as the Palace of Kangla. Kangla means "dry land" in the Meithei language. The fort was the palace of King Pakhangba, and also has religious significance. In the fort are a number of temples, and it is surrounded on three sides by a lake.

Hiyangthang Lairembi Temple Complex[edit]

A religious site and a tourist attraction, the temple complex is noted for its annual Durga Puja festival in September or October.

Jama Masjid[edit]

A holy place for Muslims in Imphal, it is the only mosque in the Imphal market (on the bank of the Nambul River). Other major mosques in Imphal are the Porompat Mosque, the Hatta Jama Masjid, the Golapati Masjid and the Babupura Masjid.

Shree Govindajee Temple[edit]

The temple was considered the apex of cultural activity during the reign of the maharajas. Near the palace, it has two domes and a raised congregation hall.

Imphal War Cemetery[edit]

Cemetery with trees and monuments at ground level
Imphal War Cemetery

This cemetery remembers British and Indian soldiers who fought and died in the Second World War.

Women's Market (Ima Keithel)[edit]

The market stalls are all run by women, and it is reportedly the only such market in the world.[5]

Market, seen from above, with colourful textiles
Women's Market (Ima Keithel)

ISKON Temple[edit]

The ISKON Temple is near the road from Imphal Airport to the city.

ANDRO[edit]

Andro village is located about 25 km east of Imphal. The drive is picturesque, the road winding through mountains, fields and pineapple orchards

Transport[edit]

Road[edit]

Imphal is connected by road to Silchar via National Highway 37, to Aizwal via National Highway 150 and to Dimapur and Tumu in Myanmar via National Highway AH-1. Other main roads in Impahl are the Uripok-Kangchup road, the RIMS road, the Nagamapal-Thangmeiband road, the Mayai-lambi road, Palace Compound road, Dingku Road and the JNIMS Hospital road. Private taxis and city buses are in regular service as urban transport.

Large sign in front of a building
ISBT Imphal

Air[edit]

Dark highway, with oncoming headlights
National Highway 150 in Imphal
Green buildings with pyramid-shaped roofs
Imphal Airport
Street, with older buildings on each side
Pouna Bazar Market, Imphal

Imphal International Airport is 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the city.[6] It is the second-largest airport in northeast India, with postal air-cargo service six days a week. A new terminal building with cold-storage facilities is planned.[7] Air India, Indigo, Jet Airways, Alliance Air, Jetlite and North East Shuttle offer service to major cities such as Delhi, Kolkata and Guwahati and regional airports such as Agartala, Silcher, Aizawl and Jorhat. Connections with Rangoon and Mandalay, Myanmar and Bangkok, Thailand are planned. The airport accesses the city centre via the Imphal Churachandpur State Highway (also known as Tiddim Road).

Rail[edit]

In October 2012, India's Cabinet Committee on Infrastructure approved an extension of the Jiribam-Silchar railway to Imphal. The extension is expected to reach the city by March 2016.[8] The Manipur government will provide security to the project during construction.

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 Indian census, Imphal's population was 264,986 (128,931 men and 136,055 women). The population of the metropolitan area was 414,288 (201,635 men and 212,653 women). The number of literate people in the city was 219,261 (110,809 men and 108,452 women). Imphal's literacy rate averaged 91.70 percent (95.87 for men and 87.80 for women). The city's sex ratio was 1,055 women for every 1,000 men. The sex ratio for children was 939 girls to 1,000 boys. There was a total of 25,877 children from birth to age six in Imphal (13,347 boys and 12,530 girls), 9.77 percent of the city's total population.

The Imphal metropolitan area is made up of Bijoigovinda, Chingangbam Leikai, Imphal, Khongman, Khurai Sajor Leikai, Kiyamgei, Kongkham Leikai (portion), Laipham Siphai, Lairikyengbam Leikai, Lamjaotongba, Lamshang (core town), Langjing, Langthabal Kunja, Langthabal Mantrikhong (portion), Lilong (Imphal West) (core town), Lilong (Thoubal), Naorem Leikai, Naoria Pakhanglakpa, Oinam Thingel, Porompat, Porompat Plan Area, Sagolband (portion), Takyel Mapal, Thongju and Torban (Kshetri Leikai).[9]

Education[edit]

Universities[edit]

Yellow-and-green buildings forming a narrow archway
Manipur University main gate

Colleges[edit]

  • D.M. College
  • G.P. Women's College
  • Imphal College

Technical colleges[edit]

Medical colleges[edit]

Conference halls[edit]

  • GM Hall
  • BOAT Imphal
  • City Convention Centre
  • MFDC Hall
Rectangular pink building with glass front
City Convention Centre

References[edit]

  1. ^ Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  2. ^ a b c "Imphal, India". IMD. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  3. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Imphal
  4. ^ a b "Climate: Imphal - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  5. ^ "Ima Keithel – A market by women". She. msn. Retrieved 25 November 2012. 
  6. ^ "Imphal". Airports Authority of India. Retrieved 25 November 2012. 
  7. ^ http://www.ibef.org/download/Manipur_271211.pdf
  8. ^ "Govt approves rail link to Imphal". The Indian Express. 26 October 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012. 
  9. ^ Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  10. ^ http://en.manipuruniv.ac.in/
  11. ^ http://www.nitmanipur.ac.in/
  12. ^ "Regional Institute of Medical Sciences". Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  13. ^ "JNIMS". Retrieved January 28, 2014. 

External links[edit]