Some languages distinguish between the optative mood and an imprecative mood (abbreviated IMPREC). In these languages, the imprecative mood is used to wish misfortune upon others, whereas the optative mood is used for wishes in general. In such a language, "May he lose the race" is in imprecative mood, whereas "May I win the race" would be in optative mood. An example of such a language is Turkish (example: Görmiyesi! May he not see!).
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